International interviewing and counseling 9th ivey chapter 08

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Intentional Interviewing and Counseling: Facilitating Client Development in a Multicultural Society 9th Edition Allen E Ivey Mary Bradford Ivey Carlos P Zalaquett Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Chapter How to Conduct a Five-Stage Counseling Session Using Only Listening Skills Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Chapter Goals and Competency Objectives (slide of 2) Awareness and Knowledge ▲ Understand and become competent in the five stages of the well-formed session: empathic relationship—story and strengths—goals—restory—action ▲ Learn the basics of decision counseling and how it relates to other theories of helping ▲ Have a good start on Rogerian person-centered counseling, as well as the empathic relationship basics of most other theories of counseling and therapy, through your awareness, knowledge, and skills with the basic listening sequence and the five stages Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Chapter Goals and Competency Objectives (slide of 2) Skills and Action ▲ Develop further competence with the basic listening sequence—the foundation of effective interviewing, counseling, and psychotherapy ▲ Conduct a complete decision counseling session using only listening skills and the five stages ▲ Evaluate your interviewing style and competence ▲ Become skilled in completing a full five-stage interview using only the listening skills and be able to take these skills to other theories of helping, such as client-centered therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and crisis counseling Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Introduction: The Basic Listening Sequence: Foundation for Empathic Listening in Many Settings (slide of 5) ▲ Empathic understanding and careful listening are valuable in all areas of human communication ▲ Teaching the social skills of listening has become a standard and common part of individual counseling and psychotherapy ▲ When you use the BLS, you can anticipate how others are likely to respond ▲ The BLS rests on a foundation of ethics, multicultural competence, positive psychology/wellness, therapeutic lifestyle changes, and neuroscience Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Introduction: The Basic Listening Sequence: Foundation for Empathic Listening in Many Settings (slide of 5) Basic Listening Sequence: The Anticipated Client Response: BLS, based on attending and Clients will discuss their stories, observing, consists of these issues, or concerns, including microskills: using open and key facts, thoughts, feelings, and closed questions, behaviors Clients will feel that encouraging, paraphrasing, their stories have been heard In reflecting feelings, and addition, these same skills will summarizing help friends, family members, and others to be clearer with you and facilitate better interpersonal relationships Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Introduction: The Basic Listening Sequence: Foundation for Empathic Listening in Many Settings (slide of 5) ▲ BLS skills would not be effective or meaningful without skilled attending and observation skills  Questioning—open questions followed by closed questions bring out client stories and concerns  Encouraging—used throughout the session to support clients and help them provide specifics around their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors  Paraphrasing—captures the cognitive essence of stories and facilitates executive functioning  Reflection of feelings—provides a foundation for emotional regulation, enabling examination of the complexity of emotions  Summarizing—brings order and makes sense of client conversation, facilitating executive functioning and emotional regulation Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Introduction: The Basic Listening Sequence: Foundation for Empathic Listening in Many Settings (slide of 5) Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Introduction: The Basic Listening Sequence: Foundation for Empathic Listening in Many Settings (slide of 5) ▲ BLS skills need not be used in a specific order ▲ Ensure that all BLS skills are used in listening to client stories ▲ Adapt the skills to meet client needs ▲ Observe and be flexible in use of skills to support the client ▲ Use client observation skills to note client reactions and effectively support the client ▲ Include skills of questioning, encouraging, paraphrasing, reflection of feeling, and summarizing ▲ BLS skills are used in many settings to define problems and outcomes (see Table 8.1) Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills: The Five-Stage Model for Structuring the Session (slide of 3) ▲ The five stages of the well-formed session (empathic relationship—story and strengths—goals—restory— action) provide an organizing framework for using the microskills with multiple theories of counseling and psychotherapy ▲ The structure will also serve as a way to organize your work with theories as varied as client-centered therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, and more ▲ Following the stages in a specific order is not essential Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills: The Five-Stage Model for Structuring the Session (slide of 3) The Five-Stage Interview Structure: Empathic Relationship—Story and Strengths—Goals— Restory—Action Anticipated Client Response: The client will establish a positive relationship with the interviewer, tell his or her story, set realistic goals, develop a new story or way of viewing issues, and transfer new learning to daily life Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills: The Five-Stage Model for Structuring the Session (slide of 3) Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Decision Counseling and the Five Stages (slide of 2) ▲The five stages also serve as a structure for decision making ▲Many see Benjamin Franklin as the creator of the systematic decision-making model  Three stages: Identify the problem clearly (draw out the story and strengths, along with goal setting) Generate alternative answers (restory) Decide what action to take (action) Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Decision Counseling and the Five Stages (slide of 2) ▲ Virtually all interviewing, counseling, and psychotherapy sessions involve deciding what actions to take in cases of intrapersonal or interpersonal conflict ▲ Neuroscience foundations of decisions are under study ▲ Problem-solving therapy (PST) builds on the Franklin framework  However, PST focuses on the problematic word “problem” and thus may ignore a more positive wellness approach and multicultural issues Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Observe: Using the Five Stages of Interviewing in Decision Counseling Example of Five-Stage Decision Counseling Session I Can’t Get Along with My Boss has been edited to show portions that demonstrate skill use and levels of empathy Reflection Questions  Was the use of questions effective?  How would you increase the rating of some of the empathic responses observed in this interview? Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Multiple Applications: Integrating Microskills with Stress Management and Social Justice (slide of 3) ▲ A fully aware ethical base suggests the need for awareness of social justice and stress management ▲ Toxic and long-term stress is damaging and can shrink the brain, enlarge the amygdala, and shrink the hippocampus (Hanson et al., 2015) ▲ Environmental issues, ranging from poverty to toxic environments to a dangerous community, all work against neurogenesis and the development of full potential Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Multiple Applications: Integrating Microskills with Stress Management and Social Justice (slide of 3) ▲Think of the various positive and negative environments from which clients come ▲Clients need to be informed about how social systems affect personal growth and individual development ▲A social justice approach includes helping clients find outlets to prevent oppression and working with schools, community action groups, and others for change Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Multiple Applications: Integrating Microskills with Stress Management and Social Justice (slide of 3) ▲ Neuroscience research provides a biological foundation for understanding the impact of our work ▲ Brain research helps us pinpoint types of interventions that are most helpful to each client ▲ We advocate the integration of counseling, psychotherapy, neuroscience, molecular biology, and neuroimaging and the infusion of knowledge from such integrated fields of study to practice, training, and research Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Taking Notes in the Session ▲ If you are relaxed about note taking, it will seldom become an issue in the interview ▲ Obtain permission from a new client ▲ The same guidelines should be followed for audio or video recording of the session ▲ Too much attention to note taking detracts from rapport building and active listening ▲ Write session summaries shortly after the session ends ▲ Performance accountability and HIPAA are important Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Action: Key Points and Practice ▲ The Basic Listening Sequence ▲ The Five Stages Model ▲ Decision Counseling ▲ Social Justice and Stress Management ▲ Note Taking Copyright © 2018 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved ... effective interviewing, counseling, and psychotherapy ▲ Conduct a complete decision counseling session using only listening skills and the five stages ▲ Evaluate your interviewing style and competence... understanding and careful listening are valuable in all areas of human communication ▲ Teaching the social skills of listening has become a standard and common part of individual counseling and. .. Awareness and Knowledge ▲ Understand and become competent in the five stages of the well-formed session: empathic relationship—story and strengths—goals—restory—action ▲ Learn the basics of decision counseling
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