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MAY 2015 22 Idea Watch Is Tesla Really a Disruptive Innovation? 40 Technology The 3-D Printing Revolution Richard D’Aveni 96 Customer Data Balancing Privacy and Profits Timothy Morey, Theodore “Theo” Forbath, and Allison Schoop MAKE BETTER DECISIONS How to outsmart your biases and broaden your thinking PAGE 51 FLÂNEUR FOREVER 1-800-441-4488 Hermes.com Circular perfection • Focusing on essentials • Harmonious proportions 3DWULPRQ\ HSLWRPL]HV VW\OLVWLF SXULW\ 5HƄHFWLQJ D GHOLEHUDWHO\ PLQLPDOLVW DHVWKHWLFVWULNLQJDƃQHEDODQFHEHWZHHQWDXWOLQHVDQGVRIWFXUYHVLWDVVHUWVLWV SHUVRQDOLW\WKURXJKVOHQGHUFDVHVUDGLDWLQJDQHOHJDQFHLQVSLUHGE\WKHV %HQHDWKWKHDSSDUHQWVLPSOLFLW\OLHVDZHDOWKRIVRSKLVWLFDWLRQ b 7KH ƃQH FUDIWVPDQVKLS HPERGLHG LQ 3DWULPRQ\ EHDUV WKH VLJQDWXUH RI WKH SUHVWLJLRXV+DOOPDUNRI*HQHYD Patrimony Perpetual Calendar 18K 5N pink gold šbPP Hallmark of Geneva &DOLEHU43DXWRPDWLFXOWUDWKLQ PPWKLFN Perpetual calendar Moon phase 5b www.vacheron-constantin.com New York Atlanta Bal Harbour Houston Las Vegas Honolulu 800.348.3332 tourneau.com THERE’S A LAUGH, AND YOU REALIZE YOU’RE SPEAKING THE SAME LANGUAGE Creating a global workforce that maintains a local touch isn’t easy ADP utilizes data-driven insights that help prepare you for the future of work, no matter where it’s being done That allows you to focus on what really matters and better connect with your employees regardless of the language Visit adp.com and see how we can provide a more human resource for your business A more human resource SM ADP and the ADP logo are registered trademarks of ADP, LLC ADP – A more human resource is a service mark of ADP, LLC Copyright © 2015 ADP, LLC Talent Management | Benefits Administration | Workforce Optimization May 2015 Contents 51 ALICE MASSANO SPOTLIGHT ON DECISION MAKING 52 BEHAVIORAL 64 MANAGING 72 DECISION MAKING 78 RESEARCH ECONOMICS YOURSELF Leaders as Decision Architects Outsmart Your Own Biases Fooled by Experience From “Economic Man” to Behavioral Economics It’s impossible to rewire the human brain to eliminate cognitive biases So restructure your organization’s work instead John Beshears and Francesca Gino How to broaden your thinking and make better decisions Jack B Soll, Katherine L Milkman, and John W Payne Techniques for figuring out the real lessons of what we’ve seen and heard Emre Soyer and Robin M Hogarth A short intellectual history Justin Fox ABOVE Millo, 2013 Visioni Periferiche, Mosciano Sant’Angelo, Italy May 2015 Harvard Business Review 5 HBR.ORG Features May 2015 THE BIG IDEA 86 96 The 3-D Printing Revolution Two Keys to Sustainable Social Enterprise Additive manufacturing will transform how products are designed, made, bought, and delivered What should your strategy be? Richard D’Aveni Successful social entrepreneurs focus on changing both the economic actors and the enabling technology involved in an existing system Roger L Martin and Sally R Osberg Customer Data: Designing for Transparency and Trust 6 Harvard Business Review May 2015 ENTREPRENEURSHIP CUSTOMERS Consumers are anxious about how businesses are using their personal data Companies that can allay their fears will seize the advantage Timothy Morey, Theodore “Theo” Forbath, and Allison Schoop ANGUS GRIEG 40 TM Business-wise, Future-driven EXPERIENCE Focus on entertaining Many information in the signature area of their e-mails Don’t create hurdles speech coaches will disagree with to connection this, but they probably don’t speak 50 Do favors I believe there’s a times a year, as I My theory is that karmic scoreboard that tracks the goal of a speech is to entertain If what you for people If you want people are entertained, you can slip to be a world-class schmoozer, in a few nuggets of information But ensure that your number on that if your speech is dull, no amount of scoreboard is high information will make it great Public Speaking when giving a speech is to tell stories— Tell stories The best way to relax When I started working at Apple, about your youth, your kids, your in 1983, I was afraid of public speak- customers, things you’ve read When ing Who would want to follow Steve you tell a story, you lose yourself in Jobs? But if you mean to succeed the storytelling You’re not “making a as an evangelist, you need to master speech” anymore Good speakers are this skill Speech making is an important part of evangelism because it pushes you to develop a coherent message and to spread it to large crowds It took me 20 years to get comfortable onstage Here’s how I learned to not only survive but get standing ovations: Deliver quality content It’s much easier to give a great speech if you have something to communicate If you don’t have anything to say, decline the opportunity If you don’t want to decline, some research and find something interesting to say That is 80% of the battle Omit the sales pitch Don’t spend your time promoting yourself and your organization or denigrating the competition The worst speech you can give is one that people can interpret as a sales pitch Customize Tailor the first three to five minutes of every speech you make to the audience you’re addressing that day This will demonstrate that you’ve done your homework and have made an effort to provide a valuable and special experience Try to find a personal link to the audience For example, when I spoke for SC Johnson to its employees, I showed them pictures of its household cleaners in my cabinets 110 Harvard Business Review May 2015 Rock a Panel Panels may look easy: They don’t last long, and you have several other people up there with you But they’re harder than speeches, because you can’t control them and you get much less airtime Still, there are ways to excel: Know the subject Give the moderator a three-sentence bio and ask her to read it Speak up The optimal distance between your lips and the microphone is one inch Tell the truth When hit with a tough question, use the opportunity to be a straight shooter Answer the question that’s posed, but then take the conversation where you want it to go Be plain, simple, and short Reduce complex issues to something laymen can comprehend Fake interest in the other panelists— even if they are long-winded jargon purveyors Address the audience, not the panel Never stop at “I agree.” Come up with something different to say good storytellers; great speakers tell stories that support their message Circulate in the audience beforehand Heighten interest in your success by meeting your listeners before the speech Talk to them Let them make contact with you—especially people in the first few rows Then, when you’re onstage, you’ll see their friendly faces and your confidence will soar Control what you can If you have a choice, speak at the beginning of an event and ask for a small room A just-seated audience is more apt to listen to you, laugh at your jokes, and follow along with your stories, and a packed room is a more emotional one It is better to have 200 people in a 200-seat room than 500 people in a 1,000-seat room Practice and speak all the time You need to give a speech at least 20 times in order to get good at it Social Media When I was evangelizing for Macintosh, the most powerful marketing tools were phones, faxes, and airplanes Leverage was gathering a few hundred people in a hotel ballroom Today Google+, Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, Pinterest, and Twitter make evangelism fast, free, 120k HBR.ORG Workplace stress contributes to 120,000 U.S deaths— and increases U.S health care costs by 5% to 8%—annually “THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKPLACE STRESSORS AND MORTALITY AND HEALTH COSTS IN THE UNITED STATES,” BY JOEL GOH, JEFFREY PFEFFER, AND STEFANOS A ZENIOS and ubiquitous, and anyone inter- would be boring, which doesn’t work to use a bulleted or numbered list ested in practicing it should take ad- on social media You should think I tune out when I see paragraph after vantage While schmoozing may give more broadly you access to several hundred people Take chances Social media favor paragraph of text If I want to read a novel, I’ll buy an e-book Tempt with headlines I find a year, and speaking engagements the bold, so don’t hesitate to express may put you in front of the same your feelings and agenda Take strong posts titled “How to…,” “Top 10 …,” number at a few events, social media stands on issues that affect you, or “The Ultimate…” irresistible These can extend your reach by thousands your organization, and your cus- words say to me, This is going to be of people in a matter of weeks Here’s tomers For example, if you think practical and useful how to achieve this goal: that more women should be chief Use hashtags Hashtags connect Offer value The basic rule for executives, share an article that sup- posts from people all over the world social media success is simple: Share ports your perspective An American and add structure to an otherwise good stuff, whether you are creat- technology executive might be bold unstructured ecosystem When you ing the content or curating it “Good about issues such as work visas for add a hashtag to a post, you are telling stuff” comes in four forms: foreign citizens people the post is relevant to a shared topic For example, #socialmediatips The goal of a speech is to entertain If people are entertained, you can slip in a few nuggets of information But if your speech is dull, no amount of information will make it great on Google+ connects posts about social media Stay active By “active” I mean three to 20 different (that is, not repeated) posts a day That’s a guideline As long as your posts are good, you can share more than that But if you share one or two crappy posts a day, that’s too many Automation tools, • Information What happened? Keep it brief People make snap such as Buffer, Do Share, Friends+Me, Example: The U.S Department judgments and move along if you Hootsuite, Post Planner, Sprout Social, of Defense says that it’s open to don’t capture their interest quickly Tailwind, and TweetDeck, can help reviewing the role of transgender My experience is that the sweet spot you schedule and distribute, allowing people in the military for posts of curated content is two you to plan a day’s worth of posts in or three sentences on Google+ and 30 minutes • Analysis What does it mean? Example: Mother Jones explains Facebook and 100 characters on why the Uruguayan soccer star Luis Twitter The sweet spot for created EVANGELISM IS not self-promotion Suárez’s biting incident during the content is 500 to 1,000 words It’s about sharing the best of what you, World Cup was a big hygienic deal Be a mensch A mensch is a kind your team, and your organization • Assistance How can I that? and honorable person who does the produce with others who can benefit Example: CNET outlines how right thing the right way Share other That’s a responsibility—and an op- texting to 911 works people’s posts, make positive and portunity—that falls to everyone, • Entertainment What the hell? intelligent comments, and suggest from HR to IT, finance to operations, Example: Every year two churches resources and solutions Especially the C-suite to the shop floor So build in Vrontados, Greece, stage a mock when you’re curating, every post these skills little by little Start with rocket war to celebrate Easter should contain a link, which sends one act of evangelism a week and Be interesting Many people traffic to the source as an act of grati- work your way up to several a day mistakenly assume that their fol- tude, enables readers to learn more, Remember that this an art—and keep lowers want to read about a narrow and increases your visibility and practicing band of subjects Should I share only popularity with bloggers and websites stories about entrepreneurship, in- Add drama Every post should novation, and technology? Should contain “eye candy” in the form of a Motorola executive share only a photo, a graphic, or a video If you stories about Motorola? To so have more than four paragraphs, try HBR Reprint R1505J Guy Kawasaki is the chief evangelist of Canva, an executive fellow at UC Berkeley’s Haas School of Business, and the author of The Art of the Start 2.0 (Portfolio, 2015) May 2015 Harvard Business Review 111 From the best-selling coauthor of Nudge comes a new book on “wiser” decision making In this provocative new book, Cass Sunstein and leading decisionmaking authority Reid Hastie shed light on why group decisions often go wrong, and offer tactics and lessons to help you avoid the pitfalls and reach better outcomes With examples from a range of organizations—from Google to the CIA—Wiser will not only enlighten you, but it will also help your team and your organization make better decisions that lead to greater success AVAILABLE AT BOOKSELLERS EVERYWHERE IN HARDCOVER AND EBOOK FORMAT hbr.org/books EXPERIENCE HBR.ORG A Bold Idea Unamano had been a pretty big idea for a shy, studious girl whose Colombian family still Case Study Stretch the Mission? A nonprofit that supports emerging-market entrepreneurs considers expanding to the U.S. by William A Sahlman and Ramana Nanda lived within sight of Miami International Airport After graduating first in her high school class, Helena had gone north to college, where she studied, among other things, new-business funding in Latin America She was disturbed by what she learned: It was easy enough for an aspiring entrepreneur to get a $100 microloan, but borrowing sizable amounts was impossible—as was obtaining any kind of venture capital—unless you were rich and from a prominent family Helena had dreamed of starting a nonprofit that would seek out, mentor, and support high-potential MAJA MODÉN William A Sahlman is the Dimitri V D’Arbeloff– MBA Class of 1955 Professor of Business Administration, and Ramana Nanda is an associate professor of business administration, at Harvard Business School T o Helena Valencia, Miami did, he had argued at a board meeting was home She had grown up a few days ago there It was the place that had Thinking of her own cousin entrepreneurs in Latin America But it wasn’t until her first year of law school that she’d found someone shaped her understanding of people Guillermo Pombo, an engineer to help her: her classmate Conrad and launched her into the wider who had recently graduated from They’d bonded over their Miami world In fact, her love of the city’s the University of Miami and was roots and their desire to make a mingled cultures and vibrant local struggling to start his own business, difference in the world, and soon they began developing Helena’s businesses was one of the things that Helena could see where Conrad was had inspired her to cofound Unamano, coming from And yet her instinct idea into a full-fledged organization now a world-renowned nonprofit was to oppose the idea Unamano’s Unamano’s purpose wouldn’t be supporting entrepreneurship in mission was to help entrepreneurs in to raise cash and spread it around emerging markets emerging markets—not in the United Instead, it would serve as a connec- But Miami was not, in Helena’s States An American city, no matter tor, recruiting local business leaders mind, a logical place for Unamano how disadvantaged, could fend for to commit to helping entrepreneurs to expand next—a move that Conrad itself, right? Because the defining vision had Abbey, her cofounder and close Conrad’s proposal had divided been Helena’s, she became the CEO friend, had just proposed He the board down the middle, with Conrad was juggling too many other was adamant that the city—his half the members favoring it pursuits to take an executive position hometown too—met their and the other half crying foul at the time, but he agreed to help her main criteria for a target Out of respect for her friend, and serve on the board, and his ideas, market: high and rising un- Helena had held her tongue energy, and fearlessness contrib- employment, widening income at the meeting But she’d inequality, and an inhospitable been thinking about it ever since in attracting dedicated people and environment for would-be entrepre- Was he way off base on this one? Or money He’d been the one to suggest neurs Miami needed Unamano’s help could Unamano’s geographic scope that Unamano aim to quadruple the just as much as Medellín or Amman be expanded? revenues of the small businesses it uted to the organization’s success May 2015 Harvard Business Review 113 EXPERIENCE Case Study Teaching Notes targeted, an audacious goal given adolescent; she and her sisters had the long odds facing any emerging- called him el cachorro, the puppy market start-up Helena realized that to meet that But he was now a postdoc working on a desalination project that he goal, Unamano had to carefully select believed could solve South Florida’s the most promising entrepreneurs water problems He’d found a recep- to assist, putting candidates through tive chemical-company owner who a gantlet of pitch sessions, refer- was providing lab space and even William A Sahlman teaches the case on which this story is based in his Entrepreneurial Finance course WHAT DREW YOU TO THIS STORY? Endeavor Global, the subject of the original teaching case, developed a set of ideas about the ingredients for successful entrepreneurial action The case focuses attention on whether its model could be applied anywhere in the world ence checks, and interviews Once some financial support But it was anointed as Unamano Entrepreneurs, clear that Guillermo was much more HOW DO YOUR STUDENTS RESPOND TO IT? or UEs, they would receive abundant of an engineer than a businessman, free advice from experienced local and despite his outgoing nature, he Most think Endeavor should stick to emerging economies and not muddy its mission by going into a U.S city A few see the potential benefits to the organization and its mission advisers, be introduced to local and hadn’t been able to find new mentors global mentors and service provid- or investors Helena could see that ers, and attend conferences and his aspirations were being choked WHAT LESSONS DOES THE CASE OFFER? meet-ups Successful UEs would by lack of access to experienced be expected to become the next businesspeople One lesson has to with getting local buy-in Endeavor is successful only if leaders in each community embrace entrepreneurship, and that can’t be accomplished from a distance generation of local angel investors “Is there anything Unamano can and venture capitalists Put simply, for me?” he asked plaintively as he Unamano aimed to build entrepre- was leaving the holiday dinner at her neurial ecosystems where none had parents’ place existed before Within a decade the organization Helena told him she was sorry, but few and far between R&D invest- it was out of the question For now, ment had been growing, but slowly, stretched well beyond Latin America at least, Unamano was focused on and the region didn’t generate much to the Middle East and Asia It had 12 emerging markets, like Latin America early-funding activity In the past year country offices in places as distant It didn’t have U.S operations only 16 firms in greater Miami had as Jakarta and Dubai and, while “But that makes no sense,” he pro- about 30 people worked in the New tested “The capital of Latin America York headquarters, another 250 staff is Miami!” members were scattered around the received venture capital People with entrepreneurial ambitions learned early on that to seek their fortunes, they needed to Guillermo had a point Miami- world Businesses run by UEs gener- Dade County, 66% Hispanic, was move to New York, Boston, or the ated $6 billion in annual revenue and home to more than a million Latin West Coast Amazon’s Jeff Bezos, the employed 225,000 people Helena Americans, some displaced by dys- valedictorian of his class at Miami had been profiled in Forbes, the Wall functional regimes at home, others Palmetto Senior High School, had Street Journal, and the Economist as a champion of entrepre- have been a prime area for neurship Although she entrepreneurial activity: was based in Manhattan, It had a solid technology she traveled constantly infrastructure and a lot of and was a frequent people aged 25 to 44—many keynote speaker of whom were engineer- Still, she hadn’t forgotten her roots She spent most holidays back in Miami And it was over Easter, a week after ing or computer-science graduates—as well as a large local consumer market But Guillermo’s struggles weren’t Conrad’s board presentation, that unique The local economy hadn’t she finally had time to catch up with diversified beyond its base in tourism Guillermo and real estate into fast-growing areas Helena still remembered her cousin as a friendly, energetic 114 Harvard Business Review May 2015 been part of that exodus As a result, seeking opportunity It should such as health care or bioscience, and entrepreneurial success stories were HBR’s fictionalized case studies present dilemmas faced by leaders in real companies and offer solutions from experts This one is based on the HBS Case Study “Endeavor: Miami Heats Up” (product no 814043-PDF-ENG), by William A Sahlman, Ramana Nanda, David Lane, and Lisa Mazzanti, which is available on HBR.org Miami was a prime example of widening economic inequality While millionaires abounded, most people in the region were losing ground economically Helena’s and Conrad’s families represented those two poles Helena’s father had run a coffee-andsandwiches cart in downtown Miami Conrad’s was a real estate investor in Coconut Grove Conrad still lived in that neighborhood and now ran multiple companies, including an oil-exploration firm and a venture capital partnership HBR.ORG “transforming “OK, but Miami is in the U.S How emerging countries can any U.S city be in the same sort of From that perch, he saw only potential in Miami If Unamano was to meet the strategic goal it had set out last year— to open affiliates in 25 coun- by supporting highimpact entrepreneurship.” That was the vision that had attracted Lawrence position as Beirut?” Tell us what you’d Go to HBR.org “We had the same kind of discussion when we were considering opening affiliates in Europe at the tries by 2020—why wouldn’t it Melchior, a veteran social entrepre- height of the recession,” he said “But consider the city? neur, onto Unamano’s board as chair- we all agree now that it was the right man Lawrence had told Conrad at thing to do.” An Acute Need the recent board meeting: “‘Twenty- On her flight back to New York, five by 2020’ means 25 emerging “Yes, but it was Greece and southern Italy, which were getting killed Helena ran through Unamano’s countries I joined Unamano to take by high unemployment, currency guidelines for regions in which it it from being ‘charming’ to being problems, and falling demand The would expand They had to have very globally important And that means need there was acute.” limited access to key resources for being in as much of the developing scaling up young companies, such as world as possible.” “It’s acute in Miami too,” Conrad said capital, talent, and mentors But they Although they’d all agreed to also needed to show promise, with a table the discussion that day, Helena Bridgeport, and New Haven If we healthy per capita GDP There had to knew the fight would continue at the open in Miami, where we stop? be respect for property rights and the next meeting rule of law; a cohesive culture; a ro- From the taxi line at La Guardia, “Sure, and in Newark, and Our whole mission will be watered down.” bust middle class; solid educational she called Conrad “Some board institutions; a sizable population of members think this will derail the anywhere else in the United States,” he said “Only in Miami.” university-educated citizens; a core entire organization,” she said “They group of influential local business think you’re just favoring your leaders who had demonstrated a hometown.” commitment to boosting local en- “Our hometown,” trepreneurship; a modest level of VC Conrad said in a activity; and “pull” from the region teasing tone in the form of a desire for Unamano’s “I just don’t “I don’t want to open in Newark or “But what about the existing affiliates?” she asked, with exasperation “The managing directors in Lebanon and Saudi Arabia and Brazil and Argentina and all the others They would never agree to diverting presence and a commitment of op- think it can fly,” our resources to the United States erational funding A region also had she said “I don’t And you’ll never get approval from to have some local business leaders think it should fly the board Half of them are totally willing to contribute funds or their How can we hit 25 against this idea.” time for a three-year period developing countries “I know one person who could by 2020 if we get distracted change their minds,” Conrad said, A local media mogul had already by operations in the United again in that teasing tone “C’mon, offered $3 million to get an Unamano States? What will this mean for the Helena, trust me on this one.” affiliate going Unamano brand?” Miami certainly qualified But how could the organization “We’re focusing too much on coun- justify opening an affiliate in such a tries,” he said “One thing we’ve all comparatively wealthy city? Miami’s learned over the years is that it’s not median income was 10 times that of about countries, it’s about cities City most of the cities where Unamano demographics City economics City- operated And whatever problems based entrepreneurial ecosystems entrepreneurs faced there, the truth Look at Lebanon: If we had focused was that America led the world in on the country as a whole, we never support for start-ups would have opened an affiliate there Besides, Helena kept going back to her mission statement: Should Helena support the idea of opening an affiliate in Miami? See the commentaries on the next page It’s Beirut that matters We shouldn’t be misled by national borders.” May 2015 Harvard Business Review 115 EXPERIENCE The Experts Respond Linda Rottenberg is the CEO of Endeavor Global, a nonprofit supporting entrepreneurial scale-ups SEVERAL YEARS ago I found myself in Helena’s position when Miami business leaders approached my organization, Endeavor, about bringing our model for identifying and supporting high-impact entrepreneurs to their city We’d been operating for 15 years in emerging and growth markets—in places clearly lacking entrepreneurial support networks, mentoring platforms, and venture capital My first reaction was, “Why on earth would Miami need our help?” This case is loosely based on our experiences, and like the leaders of Unamano, our board and management team debated the decision intensely Initially, our chairman, Edgar Bronfman Jr.; several board members; and I had the same questions as Helena: (1) Were local My first reaction: Why on earth would Miami need help? 116 Harvard Business Review May 2015 U.S entrepreneurial ecosystems so undeveloped that we could have a real impact? (2) Could we find the diamond-in-the-rough talent in Miami that we’d found in Buenos Aires, Rio, Istanbul, and Jakarta, or would the best entrepreneurs already have gravitated to Silicon Valley? (3) Would a Miami office drain attention and resources from our international entrepreneurs? Despite this skepticism, we continued to study the idea, had Bain & Company analyze the pros and cons, and then devoted an entire board meeting to making a decision Two vocal proponents were my cofounder, Peter Kellner; and Fernando Fabre, the former managing director of Endeavor Mexico, whom I’d recruited as Endeavor’s global president Fernando suggested that our international affiliates would welcome the chance to assist a U.S city He also argued that our mission already had broadened beyond an “emerging markets” focus—our friends in those countries felt they had emerged! Most important, our investigation showed that while they may offer support to start-ups, cities like Miami still lack the scale-up support that enables entrepreneurs to build world-class companies The board unanimously agreed to back the move into Miami We expected resistance from our international affiliates But it never materialized In fact, opening a Miami office increased Endeavor’s brand recognition in the United States, enhancing our cachet and attracting more mentors and partners for our entrepreneurs abroad Our fears about entrepreneurial talent also proved unfounded Within a year, we’d discovered innovators in Miami with massive potential, who were leading companies in everything from facial recognition software to mobile payments solutions to ceviche restaurants And the local business community, along with the Knight Foundation, embraced our model, adding passion and urgency to our cause Based on the early success of our Miami experiment, this year we opened two new U.S offices: in Detroit and Louisville Eventually, we plan to establish a presence in 10 American cities while moving toward our goal of 25 countries by 2015 I would counsel Helena to continue weighing the risks and rewards and to gather views from all stakeholders She may find that the arguments against U.S expansion hold up Or she may discover that the obstacles and opportunities confronting entrepreneurs in U.S cities are not that different from those in the places where Unamano currently operates Finally, if she decides in favor of entering Miami, I’d urge Helena to anticipate an outpouring of inquiries from other U.S cities and prepare Unamano itself for a scale-up Gururaj “Desh” Deshpande is a cofounder of the Deshpande Foundation and of several tech companies, including Sycamore Networks and Cascade Communications IF AN INITIATIVE works in one country, why not apply it in another? My wife, Jaishree, and I founded the Sandbox program in India to support local entrepreneurs developing high-impact social innovations in an economically depressed market HBR.ORG It grew into a successful initiative Three years later we brought the concept to Lowell and Lawrence, Massachusetts, two cities struggling with the decline of their industrial economies In the United States, the program is called EforAll I’ll admit that we were hesitant about expanding to the United States at first, but our concerns were mostly tactical For example, we wondered whether our model was ready to be replicated outside India and whether it could work in a country that already was the best environment in the world for innovation and entrepreneurship But we had no doubt that the basic concept was as appropriate for parts of the United States as it was for an emerging market Unamano isn’t needed in Cambridge, Massachusetts, but the poor neighborhoods of Miami are a different story I agree with Conrad that the nonprofit’s mission of supporting entrepreneurs shouldn’t be constrained by national borders Although Unamano aims to nurture world-changing start-ups, and we focus on small-scale ones, the two organizations are similar in one key sense: They are bottomup, driven by entrepreneurs rather than by the grand schemes of a government or a corporate socialresponsibility program EforAll focuses on empowering people who want to build businesses in depressed communities We don’t care whether the firms are techbased or scalable We’re not looking for the next Mark Zuckerberg We embrace everyone with a good idea—from automobile detailers to yoga instructors We want to inspire a culture of problem solving through entrepreneurship and of using local funding to support local talent It’s a strategy that works Unamano isn’t needed in Cambridge, Massachusetts, but the poor neighborhoods of Miami are a different story Comments from the HBR.org community Missions Shouldn’t Be Static A mission statement should be reviewed regularly to determine whether the organization will be able to continue to serve the cause for which it was created If the mission has become an obstacle to achieving the organization’s goals, it must be changed Mohammed R Ahmed, DBA, Huizenga School of Business and Entrepreneurship just as well in America as it does in India Although I understand why Unamano’s stakeholders might be worried that a U.S affiliate would siphon away precious resources, they must also consider the potential benefits of such an expansion: more fundraising opportunities and a more prominent profile for the organization Through our work in India and now Massachusetts, we’ve realized that emerging and developed countries need the same things Yes, they require high-flying tech innovation But they also need grassroots social innovation aimed at generating local commercial activity in deprived areas We’ve had great success in Lowell and Lawrence And, although our Indian initiatives are still going strong, our new goal is to expand to most of the 250 poorest communities in the United States by 2025 Need Is Local, Not National The investment activity that’s happening in Silicon Valley, New York, and Boston does not help local entrepreneurs in Miami or Tucson Arjan Tupan, founder, Impactioneers The Move Will Undermine the Brand Outside the U.S The international market’s reaction to any rebranding activity would in all likelihood damage the trust the Unamano brand has established Foreign markets might, over time, come to believe that any agenda or activity of Unamano’s is myopically driven by U.S interests only Blair Lawrence, business systems administrator, Sherritt International HBR Reprint R1505K Reprint Case only R1505X Reprint Commentary only R1505Z May 2015 Harvard Business Review 117 EXPERIENCE I s there really anything left to say about the dearth of female leaders in business? Doesn’t everyone agree that we need more of them— more diversity all the way around? And yet the numbers remain alarming Among S&P 500 companies, according to Catalyst, women currently hold just one-quarter of executive and senior leadership positions, not quite one-fifth of board seats, and only 23 corner offices (4.6%) So, yes, there’s plenty left to say Scholars tell us we can’t easily explain away these numbers For example, although some women may “opt out” to take care of their families, not enough of them are doing so to account for their modest representation in positions of power Even the most progressive companies may experience deep cultural conflict over whether, how, and when women should exercise authority Studies have shown that women in power exhibit more symptoms of depression, while men in power exhibit fewer Why? Because, say the researchers, female leaders are seen as abnormal and therefore face resistance Assertive women are punished for being unfeminine; women who conform to stereotypes are deemed too meek for top jobs As both the New York Times and Fortune have noted, at least a quarter of those 23 female S&P 500 CEOs have been the targets of activist investors (By contrast, 15% of all companies in the index have since the end of 2009 dealt with activist by Amy Bernstein 118 Harvard Business Review May 2015 the Economist.) The unique challenges facing this group are made amply clear in a couple of recent books about two of them: Marissa Mayer, of Yahoo, and Mary Barra, of GM Both ascended within decidedly male-dominated industries, and both took the controls of companies in crisis, reinforcing the JAMES GRAHAM Synthesis Why Are We So Hard on Female CEOs? campaigns, according to FactSet and HBR.ORG IAN BREMMER: WHAT I’M READING Castlereagh: A Life, by John Bew “The cynics love Machiavelli That’s because they’ve never heard of Castlereagh A realists’ realist, the architect of British statescraft, made whole and tragic in one of the best biographies I’ve read.” Ian Bremmer is the president and founder of Eurasia Group and the author of Superpower: Three Choices for America’s Role in the World (Portfolio, 2015) belief that woman leaders often face she wore a $10,000 dress to meet her Mary Barra, by contrast, gets a a “glass cliff”—they get to run the senior staff, or if her wedding was in much more respectful—if less enter- place only when it’s about to fail The Vogue? What does her weird laugh taining—treatment in Laura Colby’s books take very different approaches have to with her ability to lead Road to Power: How GM’s Mary Barra to their subjects, and the contrast Yahoo to success? Shattered the Glass Ceiling This book illuminates at least some of the As several people, including has a different purpose: to offer resistance women face on their way Farhad Manjoo in the New York inspiration to others, “whether they up the ladder Times, have noted recently, Mayer are aspiring engineers or accoun- When Mayer took over as the head of Yahoo, in July 2012, she inherited a may deserve a lot more respect than tants, parents of girls, teachers or HR she’s been given She’s brought executives at companies that want business that seemed beyond rescue to stop shortchanging half of the As Nicholas Carlson documents in population—and half their potential “Google was a mostly male environment, and by standing out in her Oscar de la Renta, Mayer made herself a target.” Marissa Mayer and the Fight to Save Yahoo!, the company had been in decline since at least 2000, brought low by years of epic arrogance and indiscipline Yahoo’s problems are by now familiar: a lack of strategic focus, an overblown bureaucracy, an insane organizational structure, an Nicholas Carlson, Marissa Mayer and the Fight to Save Yahoo! utter absence of accountability, over- customers.” Another difference: Barra appears to have cooperated with the author Without a single reference to attire (that I could spot), Colby takes us through Barra’s climb up the ranks: She started at Pontiac as an 18-year-old student and worked her way through a series of increas- reliance on ad revenue from doomed ingly responsible positions that dot-coms The intervening years— honed her skills, gave her invaluable and CEOs—had done little to improve unprecedented transparency to the situation Yahoo And a lot of people think If there’s one thing Mayer had in she was right to cut back on telecom- exposure, and ultimately led to her promotion to CEO, in January 2014 Although her early performance common with her predecessors, it’s muting; after all, an organization go- before a congressional committee to that she was selected without the ing through a dramatic but necessary address the controversy over GM’s faulty ignition switches was at best kind of due diligence you’d expect reset requires much more face time for a role of that stature; whether from its employees The businesses inadequate, Barra seems to have she really had the chops to take it on she’s built or acquired are making righted herself A year into her tenure, money, and the company appears to she has confronted the safety issues be back on track for growth this year squarely, and GM has performed is a fair question She did stumble policy even as she built an in-office Marissa Mayer and the Fight to Save Yahoo! Nicholas Carlson nursery for her own newborn Twelve, 2015 right out of the gate, ending the company’s liberal work-at-home That’s pretty remarkable Would a man have been subjected to the snarkiness that Carlson doles Carlson ticks off Mayer’s failings: out? Certainly the fact that Mayer is pretty well Indeed, Barra comes across as smart, gutsy, magnetic, and down-to-earth Her goal for GM? To “stop making crappy cars.” Hard to argue with that bad hiring decisions, habitual tardi- a young, pretty, stylish Silicon Valley ness, a tendency to micromanage, rock star, with a Stanford and Google tone-deaf communications, and pedigree, invited scrutiny That she devotion to the universally despised assumed her role at Yahoo while trying to turn around enormous practice of stack ranking The author pregnant definitely underscored her companies staggered by years of poor does occasionally allow that it’s way youth and femaleness But I can’t get management They’re both taking too early to judge Mayer’s perfor- past a suspicion that the tone of this on entrenched corporate cultures, It’s clear that Mayer and Barra have a lot in common They’re both mance as CEO, but his account can book is just another inadvertent ex- breaking down bureaucracies, and seem awfully petty, especially given pression of discomfort with women introducing transparency and the monumental challenges his subject is facing So what if the newly arrived Mayer mistook the general counsel for an IT guy? Who cares if Road to Power: How GM’s Mary Barra Shattered the Glass Ceiling Laura Colby Wiley, 2015 in positions of power Where’s the accountability They both deserve book about a male CEO barely two support, not sniping years into pulling his company out of a long-running death spiral? Amy Bernstein is the editor of Harvard Business Review May 2015 Harvard Business Review 119 November 12-13, 2015 Lincoln Center New York City STORY am IIam MAKER KEVIN SPACEY SIR RICHARD BRANSON JIM COLLINS WALTER ISAACSON HERMINIA IBARRA ADAM GRANT TINA BROWN DISCOVER TIPS & INSIGHTS FROM THE 2014 WORLD BUSINESS FORUM Visit wbfny.com/2014summaries for a complimentary download of summaries from last year’s keynote presentations, featuring: Sir Ken Robinson, Rita McGrath, Malcolm Gladwell, & more! WANT TO LEARN MORE? /wobi_en /wobi.en /wobi Visit wobi.com/wbf-nyc Call 212 317 8454 E-mail info.us@wobi.com Main Sponsors For sponsorship opportunities, contact sponsor.us@wobi.com Supporting Sponsors Media Partners HBR.ORG EXECUTIVE SUMMARIES MAY 2015 SPOTLIGHT ON DECISION MAKING HBR.ORG SPOTLIGHT 52 Leaders as Decision Architects by John Beshears and Francesca Gino 64 Outsmart Your Own Biases by Jack B Soll, Katherine L Milkman, and John W Payne 72 Fooled by Experience by Emre Soyer and Robin M Hogarth 78 From “Economic Man” to Behavioral Economics by Justin Fox ALICE MASSANO Decision Making The study of decision making spans highly analytic fields (think Bayesian statistics) to deeply psychological ones (think cognitive biases) This package, which includes a review of those perspectives, looks at how leaders can “nudge” employees into better choices and at how people can work around their own biases ARTWORK Millo, 2014 B.ART–Arte in Barriera Turin, Italy May 2015 Harvard Business Review 51 BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS MANAGING YOURSELF DECISION MAKING RESEARCH Leaders as Decision Architects Outsmart Your Own Biases Fooled by Experience From “Economic Man” to Behavioral Economics John Beshears and Francesca Gino page 52 Jack B Soll, Katherine L Milkman, and John W Payne | page 64 Everyone from CEOs to frontline workers commits preventable mistakes—for example, underestimating how long it will take to finish a project or focusing too much on information that supports their current view It is extraordinarily difficult to rewire the human brain to undo the patterns that lead to such mistakes But there is another approach: Alter the environment in ways that encourage people to make decisions that lead to good outcomes Leaders can this by restructuring how work is performed, say Harvard Business School’s John Beshears and Francesca Gino In this article, they offer a five-step process for mitigating the effects of cognitive biases and low motivation on decision making: Understand the kinds of systematic errors people make and the factors that affect motivation Define the problem to determine whether behavioral issues are at play Diagnose the specific underlying causes Design a way to tweak the environment to reduce or mitigate the negative impact of cognitive biases and insufficient motivation on decisions Rigorously test the proposed solution HBR Reprint R1505C When making decisions, we all rely too heavily on intuition and use flawed reasoning sometimes But it’s possible to fight these pernicious sources of bias by learning to spot them and using the techniques presented in this article, gleaned from the latest research They’ll open up your thinking about possible outcomes, objectives, and options and lead to better choices To broaden your perspective on the future, the authors suggest, you can use proven tactics for improving the accuracy of estimates and preparing for contingencies You’ll think more expansively about your objectives if you come up with many possibilities before deciding what’s most important, get input from others, and then carefully examine one goal at a time And you’ll generate better options if you identify several and evaluate them side by side Don’t settle for the first one that’s acceptable; imagine that you can’t pursue it, and you might find an even stronger alternative Strong emotional attachments or investments make cognitive biases even harder to overcome When that’s the case, use checklists and algorithms to stay focused on the right things, and set “trip wires” to trigger planned responses at key points in the decision-making HBR Reprint R1505D process Emre Soyer and Robin M Hogarth page 72 We interpret the past—what we’ve experienced and what we’ve been told—to chart a course for the future It seems like a reasonable approach, but it could be a mistake The problem is that we view the past through filters that distort reality One filter is the business environment, which focuses on outcomes rather than the processes that lead to them and celebrates successes while ignoring failures, thus making it hard for us to learn from mistakes Another is our circle of advisers, who may censor the information they share with us A third filter is our own limited reasoning abilities We tend to focus on evidence that confirms our beliefs and gloss over information that contradicts them, and we read too much into our personal experience, which inevitably involves a small sample of incidents We can base our decisions on a clearer view of the world if we study failures and near misses— especially the processes behind them; encourage all employees to pursue preventive measures instead of just solving problems; surround ourselves with people who will speak frankly; search for evidence that our hunches are wrong, and encourage employees, data scientists, and consultants to the same; and broaden our perspective in order to give new meaning to our varied experiences HBR Reprint R1505E Justin Fox | page 78 When we make decisions, we make mistakes We all know this from personal experience, of course But in case we didn’t, a stream of experimental evidence in recent years has documented the human penchant for error This line of research is probably best known for its offshoot, behavioral economics Its practitioners have played a major role in business, government, and financial markets But that isn’t the only useful way to think about making decisions The academic arena alone contains two other distinct schools of thought, one of which has a formal name—decision analysis—and the other of which can be characterized as demonstrating that we humans aren’t as dumb as we look Each school of thought brings vital insights to bear Managers need to understand when to make decisions formally, when to make them by the seat of their pants, and when to blend those approaches This article briefly tells the story of where the three schools arose and how they have interacted, beginning with the explosion of interest in the field during and after World War II and continuing to the present day, when companies such as Chevron have hundreds of decision analysts on staff Its aim is to make readers more-informed consumers of decision advice— which in turn should make them better decision makers HBR Reprint R1505F May 2015 Harvard Business Review 121 EXECUTIVE SUMMARIES The Big Idea THE BIG IDEA IT’S HAPPENING, AND IT WILL TRANSFORM YOUR OPERATIONS AND STRATEGY by Richard D’Aveni Industrial 3-D printing is at a tipping point, about to go mainstream in a big way Most executives and many engineers don’t realize it, but this technology has moved well beyond prototyping, rapid tooling, trinkets, and toys “Additive manufacturing” is creating durable and safe products for sale to real customers in moderate to large quantities STRATEGY The 3-D Printing Revolution Richard D’Aveni | page 40 The use of 3-D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, has moved well beyond prototyping, rapid tooling, trinkets, and toys Companies such as GE, Lockheed Martin, and BMW are switching to it for industrial production at scale More companies will follow as the range of printable materials continues to expand Already available are basic plastics, photosensitive resins, ceramics, cement, glass, numerous metals, thermoplastic composites (some infused with carbon nanotubes and fibers), and even stem cells In this article the author makes the case that additive manufacturing will gain ground quickly, given advantages such as greater flexibility, fewer assembly steps and other cost savings, and enhanced productdesign possibilities Managers, D’Aveni writes, should now be engaging with strategic questions on three levels: Sellers of tangible products should ask how their offerings could be improved, whether by themselves or by competitors Industrial enterprises should revisit their operations to determine what network of supply chain assets and what mix of old and new processes will be optimal And leaders must consider the strategic implications as whole commercial ecosystems begin to form around the new realities of 3-D printing Many of the biggest players already in the business of additive manufacturing are vying to develop the platforms on which other companies will build and connect Platform owners will be powerful because production itself is likely to become commoditized over time Those facilitating connections in the digital ecosystem will sit in the middle of a tremendous volume of industrial transactions, collecting and selling valuable information HBR Reprint R1505B 122 Harvard Business Review May 2015 Features ENTREPRENEURSHIP CUSTOMERS Two Keys to Sustainable Social Enterprise Customer Data: Designing for Transparency and Trust Roger L Martin and Sally R Osberg page 86 Timothy Morey, Theodore “Theo” Forbath, and Allison Schoop | page 96 TWO KEYS TO SUSTAINABLE SOCIAL ENTERPRISE BY ROGER L MARTIN AND SALLY R OSBERG Imazon repurposed public satellite infrastructure to track real-time changes in the Amazon basin Social entrepreneurship has emerged over the past several decades as a way to identify and bring about potentially transformative societal improvements Ventures in this realm are usually intended to benefit economically marginalized segments of society that can’t transform their prospects without help But the endeavors should be financially sustainable, because there’s no guarantee that subsidies from taxpayers or charitable givers will continue indefinitely Grameen Bank is a famous example of a social venture that met both goals In studying the winners of the Skoll Award for Social Entrepreneurship, the authors found that they all focus on changing two features of an existing system: the economic actors involved and the enabling technology applied For example, the children’s rights activist Kailash Satyarthi realized that reaching ethically concerned consumers through Rugmark (now GoodWeave International) could help foil exploitative labor brokers in India’s carpetweaving industry And through the Kiva platform, Matt Flannery and Jessica Jackley enabled small-scale lenders in wealthy countries to lend to small-scale borrowers in poor countries Today GoodWeave operates globally, and Kiva is on track to facilitate more than $1 billion in microloans within the next couple of years HBR Reprint R1505G CUSTOMER DATA: DESIGNING FOR TRANSPARENCY AND TRUST BY TIMOTHY MOREY THEODORE “THEO” FORBATH ALLISON SCHOOP With the help of technology, companies today sweep up huge amounts of customer data But they tend to be opaque about the information they collect and often resell, which leaves their customers feeling uneasy Though that practice may give firms an edge in the short term, in the long run it undermines consumers’ trust, which in turn hurts competitiveness, say authors Morey, Forbath, and Schoop In this article, the three share the results of a survey of 900 people across five countries, which looked at attitudes about data privacy and security It examined what people knew about the information trails they leave online, which organizations they did—and did not—trust with their data, and which data they valued the most The results show that the value consumers place on different data depends a lot on what it is and how it is used In general, the perceived value rises as the data’s breadth and sensitivity increases from basic, voluntarily shared information to detailed, predictive profiles that firms create through analytics, and as its uses shift from benefiting the consumer to benefiting the company If data is used to improve a product, consumers generally feel the enhancement itself is a fair trade, but they expect more in return for data used to target marketing, and the most in return for data sold to third parties To build trust, companies must be transparent about the data they gather and offer consumers appropriate value in exchange for it Simple legal disclosures aren’t enough, however; companies must actively educate their customers and incorporate fairness into their products and models from the start Companies that get this will win consumers’ goodwill and business and continued access to their data Companies that don’t will find themselves at a serious disadvantage, and maybe even shut out HBR Reprint R1505H HBR.ORG How We Did It Managing Yourself LEADERSHIP The Art of Evangelism Cisco’s CEO on Staying Ahead of Technology Shifts Guy Kawasaki | page 108 John Chambers | page 35 In his youth Chambers had no interest in technology—until an IBM recruiter suggested that he think of it as a tool for helping customers transform their businesses Then stints at IBM and Wang taught him that even great companies are imperiled if they miss a market transition, such as the shift from mainframe computers to minicomputers or from minicomputers to PCs In the 20 years since he became Cisco’s CEO, a whole series of transitions have occurred in the kinds of technology companies rely on and in how organizations consume solutions Anticipating those transitions and getting ahead of them has driven Cisco’s evolution from routers and switches to mobile and video technology to application-centric infrastructure and cloud computing The company has three ways to adapt (1) If it sees a shift early enough, it develops the new technology in-house, as part of the traditional R&D process In addition, its Entrepreneurs in Residence program financially supports and mentors earlystage entrepreneurs working in areas where Cisco sees huge potential, such as big data analytics and enterprise security (2) It may make an acquisition—as it has done 174 times (3) It may use a “spin-in,” assembling some engineers and developers to work on a specific project outside the company, as if they were at a start-up “You have to be bold,” Chambers writes And you need “a resilient culture with an appetite for change.” HBR Reprint R1505A HOW WE DID IT… CISCO’S CEO ON STAYING AHEAD OF TECHNOLOGY SHIFTS by John Chambers The Idea At Cisco market disruptions are seen as an opportunity rather than a threat, and the company has three broad strategies for seizing it Managing Yourself The Art of Evangelism In the social age, it’s every executive’s job by Guy Kawasaki “E The author was Apple’s second software “evangelist” and is now the chief evangelist for Canva, an online design firm He believes that all managers can adopt the practice, with great benefit to their organizations and their careers No matter what your company, it probably offers something valuable and differentiated and therefore worth evangelizing about: if not goods or services, then corporate values, cutting-edge accounting practices, or flexible work-at-home policies Kawasaki outlines three ways to effectively evangelize: (1) Schmoozing This requires you to get out of your office, ask questions, unveil your passions, follow up with people, e-mail effectively, make it easy to get in touch with you, and favors (2) Public speaking You need to deliver quality content, omit the sales pitch, customize the speech for your audience, focus on entertaining your listeners, tell stories, circulate in the audience beforehand, control scheduling and venue when you can, and practice and speak all the time (3) Social media When posting you should offer value, be interesting, take chances, keep it brief, be a mensch, add drama, tempt with headlines, use hashtags, and stay active HBR Reprint R1505J Coach to Win Take your team’s performance and your career to the next level with a playbook from the world’s largest library of business book summaries POSTMASTER Send domestic address changes, orders, and inquiries to: Harvard Business Review, Subscription Service, P.O Box 62270, Tampa, FL 33662 GST Registration No 1247384345 Periodical postage paid at Boston, Massachusetts, and additional mailing offices Printed in the U.S.A Harvard Business Review (ISSN 0017-8012; USPS 0236-520), published monthly with combined issues in January–February and July–August for professional managers, is an education program of Harvard Business School, Harvard University; Nitin Nohria, dean Published by Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation, 60 Harvard Way, Boston, MA 02163 Download this summary for FREE: www.getabstract.com/hbr page abstracts that can be read in 10 minutes or less EXPERIENCE HBR.ORG Life’s Work HBR: You say curiosity helped you in your career How so? Grazer: In the business of story- office as a bridge to meet telling, you’re looking for origi- absolutely not want a job every expert in the business My disclaimer always was “I nality in the subject and point of But could we please meet?” view Being interested in other And it was genuine I just people and meeting experts out- wanted to know how they did side entertainment—whether their jobs or what differentiated it’s a conversation with John their journey After about a year, Nash that turns into A Beautiful I could walk into any commis- Mind, or talking to CIA directors sary and these big shots were or Nobel laureates—has enabled like, “Hey, Brian!” But I still had me to have a better sense of to what Lew Wasserman told which ideas feel authentic and me: Start manufacturing ideas new If you engage like this, you also become a more interesting person When everyone wants to work with Tom Hanks or Eddie Murphy, I think I get the tip on the ball because they see I care about more than just Hollywood When an idea or a project is stalled, how you know whether to keep at it or quit?  I test it with smart friends If the central nerve of it is attractive and the idea is building, I keep going My career really began with a mermaid movie A thou- Can curiosity be taught?  sand people told me, “That’s Some people have more than the stupidest idea.” But then it others, but to use it as a tool became a successful film, and takes work You have to assault I got nominated for an Oscar a topic kind of like a scientist So I know that no one knows and ask endless questions When I know the message has As a leader, when you stop asking questions and start setting a direction? Once I have an endless amount of energy universality and nobility, I have Read the complete interview online at HBR.org a lot of intel, I’m ready to lead Sometimes, though, you lead by giving power to someone else is to communicate and ignite I did that with Tom Cruise emotions in people But every during the filming of Far and story can be told at any price Away I said, “Look, this is an expensive movie and we want it to be great, but we also want it to go on time Can you lead?” He rose to the occasion, and the production went perfectly Your partnership with Ron Howard is legendary How you sustain it? There is total respect If we disagree, we think through our reactions I don’t say, “I hate this.” I say, “I’m not So you’re a delegator? Yes, but feeling it Why don’t we bring because I started at the bottom, some other people in to see I know all the little things that what they think?” have to get done and can sense when I’m being bullshitted You have to know the weeds—to have lived in them—to delegate How did you work your way up? I used that Warner Brothers 124 Harvard Business Review May 2015 How you balance your creative instincts with financial realities? My primary focus Can you explain the hair?  I realized that it made people stare at me, and when people look at you, you have a chance to be a leader HBR Reprint R1505L DAVE LAURIDSEN Brian Grazer worked his way up in Hollywood—from Warner Brothers law clerk to Oscar-winning producer His first hit was Splash; many others, from Apollo 13 to TV’s Empire, followed The key to his success? Asking good questions—of employees, collaborators, and brilliant people in other fields His new book is titled A Curious Mind Interviewed by Alison Beard ... the authors’ and not necessarily those of Harvard Business Review, Harvard Business School, or Harvard University Authors may have consulting or other business relationships with the companies... ABOVE Millo, 2013 Visioni Periferiche, Mosciano Sant’Angelo, Italy May 2015 Harvard Business Review 5 HBR.ORG Features May 2015 THE BIG IDEA 86 96 The 3-D Printing Revolution Two Keys to Sustainable... 26 Harvard Business Review May 2015 TOMASZ WALENTA This means accepting—or perhaps even encouraging—the business trips, the long hours at the office, and the household moves dictated by his business
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