The thought of work

261 21 0
  • Loading ...
1/261 trang
Tải xuống

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 14/05/2018, 16:51

THE THOUGHT OF WORK THE THOUGHT OF WORK John W Budd ILR PRESS AN IMPRINT OF CORNELL UNIVERSITY PRESS Ithaca and London Copyright © 2011 by John W Budd All rights reserved Except for brief quotations in a review, this book, or parts thereof, must not be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher For information, address Cornell University Press, Sage House, 512 East State Street, Ithaca, New York 14850 First published 2011 by Cornell University Press First printing, Cornell Paperbacks, 2011 Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Budd, John W The thought of work / John W Budd p cm Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 978-0-8014-4983-3 (cloth : alk paper) ISBN 978-0-8014-7761-4 (pbk : alk paper) Work—Philosophy Labor—Philosophy I Title HD4904.B78 2011 331.01—dc22 2011000855 Cornell University Press strives to use environmentally responsible suppliers and materials to the fullest extent possible in the publishing of its books Such materials include vegetable-based, low-VOC inks and acid-free papers that are recycled, totally chlorine-free, or partly composed of nonwood fibers For further information, visit our website at www.cornellpress.cornell.edu Cloth printing Paperback printing 10 10 Ah, why Should life all labour be? —Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809–92) Contents Preface ix Introduction 1 Work as a Curse 19 Work as Freedom 27 Work as a Commodity 43 Work as Occupational Citizenship 59 Work as Disutility 77 Work as Personal Fulfillment 89 Work as a Social Relation 107 Work as Caring for Others 126 Work as Identity 143 10 Work as Service 162 Conclusion: Work Matters Notes 187 Index 239 178 P reface Despite being such an important aspect of our daily lives, work is frequently taken for granted rather than questioned or thought about very deeply It is just something that we have to At the same time, scholars from an impressive breadth of disciplines in the social sciences, behavioral sciences, philosophy, and theology study work But their provocative ideas and knowledge about the world of work are often segmented by discipline and separated by disciplinary-specific concepts, jargon, methodologies, conferences, and journals The idea for this book arose from the excitement of discovering such a breadth of research revealing work’s complexities and its deep importance from so many perspectives, paired with the twin frustrations of a personal sense that the importance of work is overlooked in public discourse and that scholars fail to appreciate the richness of the research on work that is located outside their own disciplines Scholars across the social and behavioral sciences frequently have differing perspectives on the empirical realities of work, such as wages and working conditions, technological change and “de-skilling,” contingent work, the nature of occupations and careers, job satisfaction and other attitudes, workfamily conflict, leadership or motivation of employees, and labor unions and other work-related institutions Such differences are ultimately rooted in alternative ways of thinking about what work is This book therefore seeks to bring together diverse perspectives on work to promote a multidisciplinary understanding of this essential part of the human experience by focusing fundamentally on how work is conceptualized—how we think about the role of work in our everyday lives, and in society more generally But the result is more than just a framework for an improved understanding of work—it is a statement on the deep importance of work, a window into what societies value, and a demonstration that how we think about work matters for how work is experienced in our daily lives There are many ways in which this book could have been written Herbert Applebaum’s The Concept of Work: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern (1992) is a comprehensive chronology of conceptualizations of work David Spencer’s ix x P R E FA CE The Political Economy of Work (2009) is a focused critique of how work is conceptualized in a single discipline, while edited volumes such as Marek Korczynski, Randy Hodson, and Paul Edwards’s Social Theory at Work (2006) take more of a discipline-by-discipline or paradigm-by-paradigm approach In The Thought of Work, I seek to build on and complement these approaches by integrating concepts of work across time and discipline to reveal the key, fundamental conceptualizations of work The objective is not a historical narrative on concepts of work or a review of how specific disciplines view work, though the book facilitates an understanding of both of these important issues Rather, the primary goal is to understand the key conceptualizations of work and their implications, and this book is therefore structured around concepts rather than time or disciplines With what has grown into ten conceptualizations of work, mathematically there are over three million options for ordering the ten chapters At times it felt as if I tried out nearly all these combinations as I confronted new ideas, received feedback, and reconsidered my logic The rationale for the order of the chapters is described in the introduction; I hope this sequencing is illuminating, but I not have any pretensions that it is the only approach possible Some might prefer to order the chapters based on some judgment of importance or universality, but such judgments would undoubtedly vary across disciplines, if not individuals, and also yield a multiplicity of approaches The breadth of work on work is underscored by the fact that over 800 sources are cited in the chapters that follow To keep the number of notes manageable, references are cited by paragraph rather than by sentence Wherever necessary, the notes contain brief annotations linking one or more sources to the relevant sentence(s) or idea(s) in the text Please note that the annotations not necessarily capture a source’s content; rather, they point to a subject or a phrase in the text in order to connect the text and the sources The order of the citations in each note follows the order of the cited ideas in each paragraph Like many other forms of work, writing this book has been a cooperative endeavor For invaluable comments on one or more chapters and/or helpful conversations, I extend my sincere thanks to Patty Anderson, Avner Ben-Ner, Devasheesh Bhave, Joyce Bono, Bob Bruno, Dan Forbes, Theresa Glomb, Lonnie Golden, Lisa Leslie, Jim Scoville, David Spencer, Andrew Timming, Connie Wanberg, Stefan Zagelmeyer, two anonymous reviewers, and conference and workshop participants at the European Congress of the International Industrial Relations Association (Copenhagen), the Labor and Employment Relations Association annual meeting (Atlanta), the London N OT ES TO PA G E S 6 – 233 from “placed a thorn” through “God on earth”: Adriano Tilgher, Work: What It Has Meant to Men through the Ages, trans Dorothy Canfield Fisher (London: George Harrap, 1931), 48–50 Third quote: Henry Eyster Jacobs, ed., Works of Martin Luther: With Introductions and Notes,Volume (Philadelphia: A J Holman, 1915), 191 Fourth quote: Sherman and Hendricks, Your Work Matters to God, 87 First quote: Miroslav Volf, Work in the Spirit: Toward a Theology of Work (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), 98 Second quote: Pope John Paul II, Laborem Exercens (1981), § 25 Work in Judaism: David J Schnall, By the Sweat of Your Brow: Reflections on Work and the Workplace in Classic Jewish Thought (New York: Yeshiva University Press, 2001) Third quote: Franỗois Garaù, Work in the Jewish Tradition, in Dominique Peccoud, ed., Philosophical and Spiritual Perspectives on Decent Work (Geneva: International Labour Office, 2004): 111–17 at 111–12 First quote: Michael J Naughton, “Participation in the Organization: An Ethical Analysis from the Papal Social Tradition,” Journal of Business Ethics 14 (November 1995): 923–35 at 928 Also: Sherman and Hendricks, Your Work Matters to God; Larive, After Sunday Care deeply about the conditions: Volf, Work in the Spirit; Dominique Peccoud, ed., Philosophical and Spiritual Perspectives on Decent Work (Geneva: International Labour Office, 2004); Robert Anthony Bruno, Justified by Work: Identity and the Meaning of Faith in Chicago’s Working-Class Churches (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2008) Free will: Samuel Gregg, Challenging the Modern World: Karol Wojtyla / John Paul II and the Development of Catholic Social Teaching (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2002); Larive, After Sunday Second quote: Edith H Raidt, “Towards a Christian Spirituality of Work,” Paper presented at the Work as Key to the Social Question Conference ( John A Ryan Center for Catholic Studies, University of St Thomas, Rome / Vatican City, 2001), Third quote: Matthew Fox, The Reinvention of Work: A New Vision of Livelihood for Our Time (New York: HarperCollins, 1994), 108 Not without its critics: Karl Barth, Church Dogmatics,Volume 3, Part 4: The Doctrine of Creation (London: T & T Clark International, 2004); Stanley Hauerwas, “Work as Co-Creation: A Critique of a Remarkably Bad Idea,” in John W Houck and Oliver F Williams, eds., Co-Creation and Capitalism: John Paul II’s “Laborem Exercens” (Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1983): 42–58 Opinions differ: compare Khalil-ur-Rehman, The Concept of Labour in Islam, trans K Naziri (Karachi: Arif Publications, 1995); Darwish A Yousef, “The Islamic Work Ethic as a Mediator of the Relationship between Locus of Control, Role Conflict, and Role Ambiguity—A Study in an Islamic Country Setting,” Journal of Managerial Psychology 15 (2000): 283–98; Asef Bayat, “The Work Ethic in Islam: A Comparison with Protestantism,” The Islamic Quarterly 36 (1992): 5–27 Quote: Khalil-ur-Rehman, The Concept of Labour in Islam, 15 Hindu theologians: Swami Agnivesh, “Decent Work: Perspectives of the Arya Samaj, a Hindu Reformist Movement,” in Dominique Peccoud, ed., Philosophical and Spiritual Perspectives on Decent Work (Geneva: International Labour Office, 2004): 89–95; Gayatri Naraine, “Dignity, Self-Realization and the Spirit of Service: Principles and Practices of Decent Work,” in Dominique Peccoud, ed., Philosophical and Spiritual Perspectives on Decent Work (Geneva: International Labour Office, 2004): 96–103 Bruno, Justified by Work, 222, 230, and 171, emphasis omitted 10 Medieval Christian thought, and second quote: Placher, Callings, Biblical verse: Corinthians 7:20 German word for occupation, and first quote: Max Weber, 234 N OT ES TO PA G ES – Protestant Work Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904), trans Talcott Parsons (London: Allen & Unwin, 1976), 81 Retained traditional beliefs: Herbert Applebaum, The Concept of Work: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992); Larive, After Sunday 11 First quote: Placher, Callings, 237 Reveal one’s destination, and second quote: Robert S Michaelsen, “Changes in the Puritan Concept of Calling or Vocation,” New England Quarterly 26 (September 1953): 315–36 at 334–35 12 Weber, Protestant Work Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, 17677 Extensively debated: Jacques Delacroix and Franỗois Nielsen, “The Beloved Myth: Protestantism and the Rise of Industrial Capitalism in Nineteenth-Century Europe,” Social Forces 80 (December 2001): 509–53; Jere Cohen, Protestantism and Capitalism: The Mechanisms of Influence (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 2002) Importance of work ethics and values: Paul Bernstein, American Work Values: Their Origin and Development (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997); Geert Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations across Nations, 2nd ed (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001); Michael J Miller, David J Woehr, and Natasha Hudspeth, “The Meaning and Measurement of Work Ethic: Construction and Initial Validation of a Multidimensional Inventory,” Journal of Vocational Behavior 60 ( June 2002): 451–89 13 Sherman and Hendricks, Your Work Matters to God Larive, After Sunday 14 First quote: Gary L Chamberlain, “The Evolution of Business as a Christian Calling,” Review of Business 25 (Winter 2004): 27–36 at 31 Second quote: Second Vatican Council, Lumen Gentium (1964), § 41 Third quote: Volf, Work in the Spirit, 124 15 First quote: Larive, After Sunday, 150 Second quote: Coleman Barks, trans., The Soul of Rumi: A New Collection of Ecstatic Poems (New York: HarperCollins, 2001), 103 Try to guard against: Barbara Brown Zikmund, “Christian Vocation—In Context,” Theology Today 36 (October 1979): 328–37; Volf, Work in the Spirit Third quote: Jacques Ellul, “Work and Calling,” trans James S Albritton, in James Y Holloway and Will D Campbell, eds., Callings! (New York: Paulist Press, 1974): 18–44 at 19 Diversity of perspectives: Placher, Callings 16 Wei-Ming Tu, “Confucius and Confucianism,” in Walter H Slote and Gregory A DeVos, eds., Confucianism and the Family (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998): 3–36 Xinzhong Yao, An Introduction to Confucianism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000) 17 Emphasizes social harmony: Wei-Bin Zhang, Confucianism and Modernization: Industrialization and Democratization of the Confucian Regions (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1999) First quote, also model of good government: Jennifer Oldstone-Moore, Confucianism: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Holy Texts, Sacred Places (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 55 Second quote: Michael Harris Bond and Kwang-Kuo Hwang, “The Social Psychology of Chinese People,” in Michael Harris Bond, ed., The Psychology of the Chinese People (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986): 213–66 at 215 Third quote: David K Jordan, “Filial Piety in Taiwanese Popular Thought,” in Walter H Slote and Gregory A DeVos, eds., Confucianism and the Family (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998): 267–83 at 268 18 Household-based for centuries: Susan Mann, “Work and Household in Chinese Culture: Historical Perspectives,” in Barbara Entwisle and Gail E Henderson, eds., Re-Drawing Boundaries: Work, Households, and Gender in China (Berkeley: Uni- N OT ES TO PA G E S – 235 versity of California Press, 2000): 15–32; Stevan Harrell, “The Changing Meanings of Work in China,” in Barbara Entwisle and Gail E Henderson, eds., Re-Drawing Boundaries: Work, Households, and Gender in China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000): 67–76 Failure of collective agriculture: Mann, “Work and Household in Chinese Culture.” First quote: Stevan Harrell, “Why Do the Chinese Work So Hard? Reflections on an Entrepreneurial Ethic,” Modern China 11 (April 1985): 203–26 at 217 Second quote: Dorinne K Kondo, Crafting Selves: Power, Gender, and Discourses of Identity in a Japanese Workplace (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990), 131 19 First quote: Min Chen, Asian Management Systems: Chinese, Japanese and Korean Styles of Business, 2nd ed (London: Thomson Learning, 2004), 158 Second quote: Andrew Eungi Kim and Gil-sung Park, “Nationalism, Confucianism, Work Ethic and Industrialization in South Korea,” Journal of Contemporary Asia 33 (2003): 37–49 at 44 20 Underlie economic success: Peter L Berger, “An East Asian Development Model?” in Peter L Berger and Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao, eds., In Search of an East Asian Developmental Model (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1988): 3–11; Zhang, Confucianism and Modernization Hindered economic development: Max Weber, Confucianism and Taoism: The Religion of China (1915), trans Hans H Gerth (New York: Free Press, 1951) Manipulatively serve own agendas: Keedon Kwan, “Economic Development in East Asia and a Critique of the Post-Confucian Thesis,” Theory and Society 36 (March 2007): 55–83 21 John H Moore, The Cheyenne (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1996), 159 and 262 22 Shared within the band: Peter Bogucki, The Origins of Human Society (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1999) First quote: Robert J Steinfeld, The Invention of Free Labor: The Employment Relation in English and American Law and Culture, 1350–1870 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991), 60 Second quote: quoted in Andrew Delbanco, ed., Writing New England: An Anthology from the Puritans to the Present (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001), 10 It takes work: Jane Parry, “Care in the Community? Gender and the Reconfiguration of Community Work in a Post-Mining Neighborhood,” in Lynne Pettinger et al., eds., A New Sociology of Work? (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005): 149–66 23 Be seen as work: Rebecca F Taylor, “Rethinking Voluntary Work,” in Lynne Pettinger et al., eds., A New Sociology of Work? (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005): 119–35; Mark Snyder and Allen M Omoto, “Volunteerism: Social Issues Perspectives and Social Policy Implications,” Social Issues and Policy Review (December 2008): 1–36 Quote: Michael Sherraden, “Service and the Human Enterprise,” unpublished paper, Center for Social Development, Washington University (2001), Mandatory civic service: Justin Davis Smith, “Civic Service in Western Europe,” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 33 (December 2004 supplement): 64S–78S Other forms of community building: Parry, “Care in the Community?”; Taylor, “Rethinking Voluntary Work.” 24 First quote: James A Morone, The Democratic Wish: Popular Participation and the Limits of American Government, 2nd ed (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998), 16 Second quote: James L Perry and Ann Marie Thomson, Civic Service: What Difference Does It Make? (Armonk, NY: M E Sharpe, 2004), Local participation: 236 N OT ES TO PA G ES – Parry, “Care in the Community?” Repaying one’s debt to society: William F Buckley Jr., Gratitude: Reflections on What We Owe to Our Country (New York: Random House, 1990) Third quote: Tim Ingold, The Appropriation of Nature: Essays on Human Ecology and Social Relations (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1987), 227 Rewards provided to the volunteer: John Wilson and Marc Musick, “The Effects of Volunteering on the Volunteer,” Law and Contemporary Problems 62 (Autumn 1999): 141–68; Stephan Meier and Alois Stutzer, “Is Volunteering Rewarding in Itself?” Economica 75 (February 2008): 39–59 25 First quote: Edgar S Furniss, The Position of the Laborer in a System of Nationalism: A Study in the Labor Theories of the Later English Mercantilists (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1920), 200 Also: David A Spencer, The Political Economy of Work (London: Routledge, 2009) Second quote: Arthur P McEvoy, “Freedom of Contract, Labor, and the Administrative State,” in Harry N Schneiber, ed., The State and Freedom of Contract (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998): 198–235 at 202 Third quote: Kim and Park, “Nationalism, Confucianism, Work Ethic and Industrialization in South Korea,” 41 26 Second quote: V I Lenin, Collected Works,Vol 30: September 1919–April 1920, trans George Hanna (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1965), 517 Also: Anna Feldman Leibovich, The Russian Concept of Work: Suffering, Drama, and Tradition in Pre- and Post-Revolutionary Russia (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995) Third quote: Michael Thad Allen, The Business of Genocide: The SS, Slave Labor, and the Concentration Camps (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), 221 Also: Joan Campbell, Joy in Work, German Work: The National Debate, 1800–1945 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989) 27 Roy F Baumeister, Identity: Cultural Change and the Struggle for Self (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986) 28 First and second quotes: Stephen A Marglin, The Dismal Science: How Thinking Like an Economist Undermines Community (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008), 96 and 17–18 Third quote: Volf, Work in the Spirit, 129 29 Naraine, “Dignity, Self-Realization and the Spirit of Service,” 100 Conclusion: Work Matters Ferdinand Protzman, Work: The World in Photographs (Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 2006) Occupational devotion: Robert A Stebbins, Between Work and Leisure: The Common Ground of Two Separate Worlds (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2004) Psychological well-being: Hans De Witte, “Job Insecurity and Psychological Well-Being: Review of the Literature and Exploration of Some Unresolved Issues,” European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology ( June 1999): 155–77; Melvin W Kohn, “Unresolved Issues in the Relationship between Work and Personality,” in Kai Erikson and Steven Peter Vallas, eds., The Nature of Work: Sociological Perspectives (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990): 36–68 Quote, also right to decent work: Kenneth L Karst, “The Coming Crisis of Work in Constitutional Perspective,” Cornell Law Review 82 (March 1997): 523–70 at 534 Unemployment and mental health: Marie Jahoda, Employment and Unemployment: A Social-Psychological Analysis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Peter Warr, Work, Unem- N OT ES TO PA G E S – 237 ployment, and Mental Health (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987); but compare: Arthur P Brief et al., “Inferring the Meaning of Work from the Effect of Unemployment,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 25 (April 1995): 693–711 Right to decent work: William P Quigley, “The Right to Work and Earn a Living Wage: A Proposed Constitutional Amendment,” New York City Law Review (Summer 1998): 139–82 New values for employment law: Marion Crain, “Work Matters,” Kansas Journal of Law and Public Policy 19 (Spring 2010): 365–82 Layoffs as last resort: Frank Koller, Spark: How Old-Fashioned Values Drive a Twenty-First-Century Corporation (New York: PublicAffairs, 2010) Quote: Stevan Harrell, “The Changing Meanings of Work in China,” in Barbara Entwisle and Gail E Henderson, eds., Re-Drawing Boundaries: Work, Households, and Gender in China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000): 67–76 at 67 Quote: Russell Muirhead, Just Work (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004), 58 Strive for a balance: Stephen F Befort and John W Budd, Invisible Hands, Invisible Objectives: Bringing Workplace Law and Public Policy into Focus (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009); John W Budd, Employment with a Human Face: Balancing Efficiency, Equity, and Voice (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004) Ellen Dannin, Taking Back the Workers’ Law: How to Fight the Assault on Labor Rights (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006) Beliefs about wage reductions: Truman F Bewley, “Why Not Cut Pay?” European Economic Review 42 (May 1998): 459–90 Crowd out intrinsic motivators: Edward L Deci, Richard Koestner, and Richard M Ryan, “A Meta-Analytic Review of Experiments Examining the Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation,” Psychological Bulletin 125 (November 1999): 627–68; Ernst Fehr and Armin Falk, “Psychological Foundations of Incentives,” European Economic Review 46 (May 2002): 687–724 Create the behavior it was intended to counteract: Sumantra Ghoshal, “Bad Management Theories Are Destroying Good Management Practices,” Academy of Management Learning and Education (March 2005): 75–91 Guy Standing, Work after Globalization: Building Occupational Citizenship (Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, UK: Edward Elgar, 2009) Technological progress: Joel Mokyr, The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990) Tolerant of diverse lifestyles: Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2002) Volunteers excluded: Tara Kpere-Daibo, “Unpaid and Unprotected: Protecting Our Nation’s Volunteers through Title VII,” University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review 32 (Fall 2009): 135–54 Peter Ackers, “Reframing Employment Relations: The Case for NeoPluralism,” Industrial Relations Journal 33 (March 2002): 2–19 at 15 10 Vinay Gidwani, “The Cultural Logic of Work: Explaining Labour Deployment and Piece Rate Contracts in Matar Taluka, Gujarat—Parts and 2,” Journal of Development Studies 38 (December 2001): 57–108 at 60 Index Adams, J Stacy, 94 Africa: concepts of work in, 55; European colonization of, 8, 30, 37; women and work in, 127, 137 African Americans, 136, 138, 139, 158 agency, worker, 121, 122, 124 – 25 agricultural households, 86, 96 alienation, 29, 53 – 55, 73, 155, 158 – 60 America, colonial, 7, 175 See also United States anthropology, 5, 12, 108, 128 apprenticeship, 6, 33, 39 Aquinas, Thomas, 25, 164 Arendt, Hannah, 29, 158 Argentina, 125 Aristotle, 22 – 23, 24, 123, 133 artisans, – 6, 23, 96 Asian cultures: collective identity in, 160; Confucian values in, 170 – 72 See also specific countries Attraction-Selection-Attrition model, 94 Australia, 19, 138 autonomy: in concepts of work, 87 – 88; human need for, 67, 145, 150; Industrial Revolution and loss of, 8, 38, 97; and job satisfaction, 92 bargaining: collective, 68 – 70, 72; power inequalities in, 65 – 66, 140 Bellamy, Edward, 10 Benedict, Saint, 20, 24, 164 Berger, Peter, 158 – 59 Bible, passages from, 20 – 21, 163 – 64, 167 body work, 134 – 36 Boserup, Ester, 127 Braverman, Harry, 119, 156 Britain: caring work in, 129; craft production in, 6; enclosure movement in, 55; labor unions in, 36; master-servant legal regime in, 33, 36; occupational stratification in, 138; penal colonies of, 19; putting-out system in, 7; relative importance of life activities in, 144; utilityof-poverty doctrine in, 25; work as nationalistic duty in, 175 Buddhism, 21, 60 bureaucracy, 109, 151, 158 calling, work as, 164, 167 – 70 Calvin, John, 21, 24, 25, 162, 164, 167 – 68 Canada, 30, 129, 138 capitalism: alienation under, 29, 53 – 54, 73, 155, 158, 159; classes under, 118, 152; commodification of work under, 43 – 45, 46 – 47, 52 – 53; exchange value vs use value under, 52; free/unfree work under, 37; industrial, – 9, 43; interdependence under, 46; Locke’s theories and, 32; Marx’s critique of, 11 – 12, 52, 99, 116 – 17, 155; merchant, – 7; and patriarchy, 116, 131 – 32; and Protestant work ethic, 168; as social relation, 116 – 18; and structure of work, 180; varieties of, 74 career: boundaryless, 151; idea of, 111; and status/identity, 150 caring for others, work as, 14t, 17, 126 – 42, 181; conceptual dualities associated with, 141 – 42; corporeal element of, 134; ethics of care and, 133; feminist perspectives on, 130, 131 – 33; importance of concept of, 141, 142; as labor of love, 130 – 32; marginalization of, 56 – 57, 75, 127, 139, 142, 152; and personal fulfillment, 92; as women’s work, 17, 127, 129, 130 – 31, 141; work as service compared to, 163 Carlyle, Thomas, 106, 178 caste system, 23, 25 Catholicism: on laziness, 21; on work, 11, 91, 155 – 56, 169 See also specific theologians Chekhov, Anton, 22 240 INDEX China: Confucianism in, 170 – 72; ethnic discrimination in, 139; government regulation of work in, 122 – 23; guanxi relationships in, 110, 139; household-based work in, 2, 57, 127, 171; laogai system in, 19; pay discrimination in, 137 – 38; Qhawqhat Lahu of, 131; sexual division of labor in, 128, 131, 135; Tang dynasty in, work under, Christianity: on human dignity, 60; on value of human work, 61; on work as calling, 167 – 69; on work as curse, 20 – 22, 25, 28, 41 – 42; on work as personal fulfillment, 91; on work as service, 163 – 65 Cicero, 23 citizenship, work and, 38 – 41, 174 See also occupational citizenship class, Marxist perspective on, 118, 152 class consciousness, 73, 152 – 53 co-creation with God, work as, 165 – 66 coercion, work as freedom from, 27, 31 – 32 Columella, 96 commodity, work as, 14t, 15, 32, 43 – 58; alienation and subordination associated with, 52 – 56; alternatives to, 59, 60 – 62; and devaluation of noncommodified work, 56 – 57; fictitious, 55; historical perspective on, 43 – 44; and human resource management, 104; impact of conceptualization of, 184; labor effort vs materialized labor and, 50 – 52; limits on, 58; Marx on, 44 – 45, 46 – 47, 52 – 53; neoclassical economic theory on, 47 – 49, 57 – 58; Smith (Adam) on, 44; and value, 45 – 47 Commons, John R., 61, 62 communism: structure of work and, 11, 180; unitarist perspective and, 101 – 2; work as service under, 175 – 76 community: vs commodification, 177; work as service to, 173 – 76 compensation, 103, 104; workers’, 72 See also motivation; paid employment competition: destructive, 66; imperfect, 65, 80 – 81; perfect, 49 – 50, 57, 64 conceptualizations of work, 4, 14 – 18, 14t; consumerism and, 13, 18, 86 – 87; culture and, 2, 51; diversity and, 140; human resource management and, 105; importance of, 181 – 85; labor unions and, 63; limitations of individual, 179; multidisciplinary approach to, 4, 186 See also specific concepts conflict: employer-employee, 50, 70, 73, 99 – 102, 108 – 9, 117 – 19, 157; intergroup, 147 Confucianism, 170 – 72 Conrad, Joseph, 143 consumerism, and concepts of work, 13, 18, 86 – 87 contractual relationship, work as, 28, 33 – 37, 45 control: bureaucratic, 120 – 21; concertive, 121; employer strategies for, 119 – 21; normative, 114 – 15, 121; technical, 120, 121; worker resistance against, 121 – 22 corporate culture, 112 – 13; diversity programs in, 140; employment relationship in, 109; gendered body in, 135 – 36; normative control aspects of, 114 – 15 corporate identity, 148 craftsmanship, 92, 134 craft specialization, – 6, 12 creative work, 28 – 29, 54, 87, 92, 118, 159, 166 critical scholarship, 52, 55, 70, 73, 74, 108 – 9, 116, 118 – 22, 140 – 41, 157, 162 cross-cultural work behaviors, 111 – 12 cult of domesticity, 128 – 30; and pay discrimination, 137 – 38 culture: national, dimensions of, 111 – 12; work and, 2, 51, 180 See also corporate culture curse, work as, 14 – 15, 14t, 19 – 26, 55; acceptance of, 24 – 26; Greco-Roman tradition on, 19, 20, 22 – 23, 25; impact of concept of, 184; Judeo-Christian tradition on, 20 – 22, 25 democracy: vs commodification of labor, 62; vs economic dependency, 40 – 41; industrial, 68 – 69, 71 Dewey, John, 89 Dickens, Charles, 61 dignity, work and, 21 – 22, 23, 59, 60, 61 – 63, 73, 74, 101, 133, 156 dirty work, 23 discourse, in workplace, 114 – 15, 136, 138, 141, 151, 156 – 57 discrimination, employment, 136 – 39; gender and, 39, 132, 137 – 38; identity perspective on, 147, 158; race/ethnicity and, 138 – 39; remedying, 139 – 41 disutility, work as, 14t, 16, 77 – 88; and consumption, 86 – 87; human capital theory on, 80 – 81; impact of conceptualiza- INDEX tion of, 86 – 88, 181, 182, 183; and labor unions, 73; marginal analysis on, 78 – 79, 85, 87; and principal-agent problem, 82 – 84; universal vs marginal, 84 – 85, 87; and unpaid housework, 85 – 86 diversity programs, 140 division of labor: and human evolution, 12; manufacturing, 9, 44, 120; revolutions and, 180; social, – 9, 120; spatial, 122 See also sexual division of labor domestic work See cult of domesticity; household production; housework Durkheim, Émile, 111, 158 economics: behavioral, 88; early, 25, 44, 78, 175; feminist, 62, 88, 142; institutionalist, 62, 64, 66, 76, 88; Iroquois, 30; labor, 48, 62, 80; mainstream (neoclassical), 34, 46, 47 – 50, 57 – 58, 62 – 63, 66, 70, 77 – 88, 103, 113, 116, 119 – 20, 183; Marxist, 47, 88, 108; personnel and organizational, 81 – 84, 87 education: economic returns on, 80, 81; institutionalist perspective on, 66; neoclassical perspective on, 26, 81 emotional labor, 159 – 60 employment: as societal creation, 26; work distinguished from, 1, See also paid employment employment-at-will doctrine, 35 employment law See government regulation of work employment relationship: balancing of, 70 – 74; bargaining-power inequalities in, 65 – 66; as contractual arrangement, 28, 33 – 35, 45; control in, 119 – 22; corporate, 109; critical perspectives on, 99, 108 – 9, 118 – 19; under incomplete contracting, 82; neoliberal market perspective on, 115; norms and, 113 – 14; pluralist perspective on, 70 – 73, 74; postmodernist perspective on, 157; power and conflict in, 50, 108 – 9; social exchange in, 109; unitarist perspective on, 70, 99, 101, 114, 118 Engels, Friedrich, 61 environment, concepts of work and, 18, 186 See also nature equalizing differences, theory of, 81 equity, worker, 59, 60, 71 – 72, 156, 181 equity theory, 94 – 95 ethgender (term), 132 ethics, 13, 58, 61, 133, 170, 174 ethnicity See race/ethnicity 241 Europe: colonial policies of, 8, 24, 30, 37; industrial relations systems in, 74; lingering status influences in, 36; medieval society in, 6, 25; quality-of-life comparisons with U.S., 12; work councils in, 69 – 70 See also specific countries factory system, transition to, – 8, 38, 97 Faulkner, William, 11 feminism: on caring for others, 130, 131 – 33; on devaluation of housework, 127; on employment discrimination, 140–41; on ethics of care, 133; on genderneutral portrayal of jobs, 135; on occupational citizenship, 75; on patriarchy, 131 – 32 See also critical scholarship fetishism of commodities, 52 – 53 feudalism, 6, 41, 180 Follett, Mary Parker, 100 forced labor, 19 See also slavery Ford, Henry, 9, 106 Foucault, Michel, 105, 114, 122, 156 – 57 Fourier, Charles, 92, 106 freedom, work as, 14t, 15, 27 – 42; and citizenship, 38 – 41; from coercion, 27, 31 – 32; constraints on, 37 – 38; contractual relationship and, 28, 33 – 35; impact of concept of, 181; lingering status influences and, 35 – 37; from nature, 18, 27, 28 – 31 free labor markets, shift to, 33 – 34 Frehley, Ace, 89 French language, 19, 29 Freud, Sigmund, 19, 154 gender: and race/ethnicity, 132, 136; as social construct, 131, 141 See also sexual division of labor; women Germany: Arbietsfreude (joy in work) in, 92; ethnic stratification in, 138; evolution of labor market in, 36, 51 – 52; Nazi, work in, 19, 176 Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, 130 glass ceiling, women and, 137, 138 Goffman, Erving, 160 Goldin, Claudia, 80 “Gospel of Mammonism,” 88 government regulation of work: as control device, 122 – 23; debates over, 13; evolution of, 32 – 36, 69; perspectives on, 49, 71 – 73, 182 – 83 See also labor law Greco-Roman thought, 19, 20, 22 – 23, 25, 41, 43, 153 242 INDEX Hawthorne experiments, 99, 112 Hegel, Georg, 154 Heidegger, Martin, 154 Herzberg, Frederick, 95 Hesiod, 20, 107 Hicks, Clarence, 100 Hicks, George Elgar, 126 hierarchies: organizational, as control devices, 120 – 21; social, work and, – 6, 32, 33 Hinduism: on human dignity, 60; on work as personal fulfillment, 91; on work as service, 162, 166, 177 Hines, Lewis, 61 Hirschman, Albert, 67 Hochschild, Arlie, 159 Hofstede, Geert, 111 household production: in China, 2, 57, 127, 171; in early capitalism, – 7, 96; in family-centered societies, 170 – 73 housework: commodification and devaluation of, 56 – 57, 184; conceptual dualities of, 141 – 42; as disutility, 85 – 86; economic value of, 130; invisibility of, 2, 8, 126; U.S legal system on, 130 See also caring for others Hughes, Everett, 149 human capital, 80 – 81 human dignity See dignity human evolution, work in, 12 humankind identity, work and, 153 – 56, 179 human resource, work as, 73, 103 human resource management, 16, 102; alternative perspectives on, 104 – 5; ancient precursors to, 96; on autonomy, 67; on compensation, 103, 104; as control device, 120 – 21; critical perspective on, 155; on discrimination, 139; on diversity, 140; on employer-employee conflict, 70; groundwork for, 90, 97 – 99; key elements of, 99; vs labor unions, 101, 104; and personal fulfillment, 92, 93, 96, 102 – 3; postmodernism and, 156 – 57; strategic, 102, 121; unitarist emphasis in, 100 human rights: labor market inequalities and, 66; and workers’ rights, 60, 63 – 64, 76 hunter-gatherer societies, 10 – 11, 12, 30, 173 identity: class, 152 – 53; collective, 160; creation of, 145; humankind, 153 – 56, 179; multidimensional, 146; organizational / corporate, 148; social, 145 – 46, 147, 148 – 50; in twenty-first century, 151 identity, work as, 14t, 17, 143 – 61; vs authentic self, 159 – 60; impact of conceptualization of, 183 – 84; interactionist perspective on, 148 – 50; and personal fulfillment, 92, 95; postmodern perspective on, 156 – 57; problematic aspects of, 157 – 60 Inca Empire, incentive mechanisms See motivation India: call centers in, 160; caste system in, 23, 25; Nayaka in, 30 indigenous societies, work in, 8, 30, 55, 57, 131, 172 – 73 individualism: and concepts of work, 14t, 15; vs Confucianism, 171; vs work as service, 176 – 77 Indonesia, women workers in, 138 Indus civilization, industrial citizenship, 59, 63 See also occupational citizenship industrial democracy, 68 – 69, 71 industrial-organization ( I- O) psychology, 93, 96, 98 – 99, 101 industrial relations (discipline): decline of, 75, 178; emergence of, 62; pluralist, 66, 68, 70 – 75, 88, 104 See also critical scholarship Industrial Revolution, – 8, 180; and commodification of labor/land, 55; criticism of, 106; and free/unfree work, 37 – 38; and Protestant work ethic, 168; and sexual division of labor, 128 – 29; and shift to industrial workforce, 96 – 97 inequalities, work and, 180; bargainingpower, 65 – 66; gender/race/ethnicity, 140; occupational citizenship, 71 interactionist perspective, 148 – 50 internal labor market theory, 66 International Labour Organization ( ILO), 63, 137 Islam: on human dignity, 60; on work, 21, 162, 166, 170 Jamestown colony, 107 Japan, 107, 115, 144, 171 – 72 Jevons, W Stanley, 78 – 79 job (concept), 8, 182 job attitudes, 90, 92, 94, 99 job characteristics model, 92, 95 job crafters, 124 – 25 job satisfaction, 54, 55, 75, 92, 94, 95, 99, 103, 155 INDEX job-training programs, 80 – 81, 118, 139 John Paul II, Pope, 20, 61, 165 joy, in work, 90, 91 – 93, 106 Judaism: on human dignity, 60; on work as co-creation with God, 165 – 66; on work as curse, 20 – 22, 25, 28 justice: organizational, 94 – 95; Rawlsian, 133; social, 21, 61, 73, 140 Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, 135 Kennedy, John F., 162 Kirkland, Lane, 107 Korea: Confucian values in, 172; ethnic discrimination in, 138; work culture in, 107, 175 labor: vs labor power, 44 – 45; use of term, 2; vs work, 29 labor effort, vs materialized labor, 50 – 52 labor law: conceptualizations of work and, 182 – 83; evolution of, 32 – 35; lingering status influences in, 35 – 37; specific examples of, 69, 74, 75, 132 labor markets, 57; destructively competitive, 66; disutility conceptualization of work and, 78 – 80; free, shift to, 33 – 34; and human resource management, 104; imperfectly competitive, 65, 80 – 81; institutionalist thought on, 65, 66; internal, theory of, 66; perfectly competitive, 49 – 50, 57, 64; segmentation of, 66 labor power, 32, 43, 44 – 45, 47, 53, 81, 117 labor process: Marx on, 117; state intervention in, 122 – 23; theory of, 119, 121 – 22 labor theory of value, 46 – 47 labor unions: in Britain, 36; and concepts of work, 63; critical perspective on, 73; decline of, 75; and employment relationship, 71 – 72; vs human resource management, 101, 104; industrial democracy and, 68 – 69; neoliberal economic thought on, 49, 50, 73; occupational citizenship perspective on, 72 – 73; worker agency and, 125 leisure, work and, 3, 78, 79, 84 Lenin, Vladimir, 175 – 76 Leonardo da Vinci, 30 Leo XIII, Pope, 20, 59, 61 liberalism: economic, 32, 34 – 35, 41, 44; political, 31, 32 See also neoliberal market ideology libertarianism, 58, 133 243 Lincoln, Abraham, 39 Locke, John, 27, 31 – 32, 41, 42, 45, 177 Luther, Martin, 11, 24, 164 – 65, 167, 169 Maine, Sir Henry Sumner, 35 Man, Henri de, 92 Mao Zedong, 57, 102, 171 marginal analysis, 46, 78; and disutility of work, 78 – 79, 85, 87 Marshall, Alfred, 78 Marshall, T H., 59 – 60 Marx, Karl, 11 – 12, 42, 55, 61, 106; on alienation of workers, 29, 53 – 54, 73, 155, 158, 159; on class conflict, 118, 152; on commodification of work, 44 – 45, 46 – 47, 52 – 53; critique of capitalism, 11 – 12, 52, 99, 116 – 17, 155; on employer-employee conflict, 99, 118 – 19; exaltation of work, 92, 154 – 55, 179; on labor power, 32, 43, 44 – 45, 47, 53, 81, 117; labor theory of value, 46 – 47; on man’s mastery over nature, 28; on self-interest, 119; on structure vs agency, 125 See also critical scholarship Maslow, Abraham, 95 master-servant legal regime, 33; vs contractual relation, 33 – 35; lingering influence of, 36, 105 Mayhew, Henry, 61 Mbuty Pygmies, 30 McGregor, Douglas, 100 mentoring programs, 105 Mesopotamia, – Middle Ages: classes in, 6, 25; concept of nature in, 28; work in, 6, 25, 43 military service, 175 Milton, John, minimum wage laws: neoliberal thought on, 49, 50; pluralist thought on, 72 motivation, work, 82, 105; intrinsic, 67, 73, 87, 89, 95, 102 – 3, 106, 113, 175, 183; monetary incentives and, 82 – 83, 84, 95, 183 multinational corporations, 115 Münsterberg, Hugo, 98 Native Americans, 8, 30; concepts of work among, 30, 172 – 73; devaluation of work of, 57; dispossession of, 55; and sexual division of labor, 131 nature: work as mastery over, 18, 27, 29 – 30, 186; working with, 29 – 31 Nelson, Horatio, 162 244 INDEX neoliberal market ideology: on competitive labor market, 49 – 50, 57 – 58, 64; dominance of, 75, 115, 181; vs pluralist perspective, 70, 72, 74; and unpaid work, 56, 58; and voice, 67; on work as commodity, 47 – 50, 57 – 58 Neolithic Revolution, 7, 180 Netherlands, 7, 138 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 123 norms: cultural, 111 – 12; gendered, 129; and occupational segregation, 136 – 37; organizational, 112 – 15, 123 – 24 occupation: as calling, 167; devotion to, 179; evolution of, – 10, 44, 120; and identity, 54, 141, 143, 145, 149, 152; and norms, 110, 123, 129, 137; and status, 23, 24, 123, 144 occupational citizenship, work as, 14t, 15, 59 – 76; and employee voice, 60, 67 – 70, 75; feminists on, 75; and human resource management, 104; human rights perspective on, 60, 63 – 64; importance of concept, 74, 76, 184; inequalities within, 71; institutionalist perspective on, 61 – 62; labor market inequalities and, 64 – 66; and labor unions, 72 – 73; pluralist perspective on, 4, 70 – 73; threats to, 75; and view of discrimination, 140 occupational segregation: gender/racial, 138, 141; norms and, 136 – 37 organizational behavior, 93, 96, 100 organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), 110 organizational hierarchies, as control devices, 120 – 21 organizational identity, 148 organizational justice, 94 – 95 organizational norms, 112 – 15, 123 – 24 See also corporate culture paternalistic work culture, 115 patriarchy: capitalism and, 116, 131 – 32; feminists on, 131 – 32; relationship with nature and, 30 Paul, Saint, 21, 24, 164 Paycheck, Johnny, 24 performance appraisals, 103, 105, 156 personal fulfillment, work as, 14t, 16, 89 – 106; difficulty of achieving, 105 – 6; human resource management and, 92, 93, 96, 102 – 3; impact of concept of, 181, 182, 183; mental processes and, 92, 93 – 96, 98 – 99; religious thought on, 91, 93; secular philosophy on, 92 Pietism movement, 91 Plato, 5, 22 pluralist employment relationship See industrial relations Polanyi, Karl, 55 Polgar, Alfred, 77 postmodernism, 105, 156 – 57 See also Foucault poverty, utility doctrine of, 25 power relations: critical perspective on, 53, 108, 116 – 18; discourse and, 157; in employment, 50, 108 – 9; mainstream economic perspective on, 50, 64; pluralist perspective on, 65 – 66, 71; unitarist perspective on, 101 principal-agent problem, 82 – 84 private property, work as source of, 27 – 28, 31 – 32, 42 Protestantism: and individualism, 176; religious practices vs work in, 169; and work ethic, 21, 168 See also specific theologians psychological aspects of work, 90, 92, 93 – 96, 98 – 99, 143, 147, 179 – 80 psychological contracts, 109, 114 Puritan work ethic, 21, 168 putting-out system, – 7, 43, 96 paid employment: in ancient civilizations, 43; constraints associated with, 37; dependence associated with, 38 – 41; and disutility of work, 85; gender discrimination in, 132, 137 – 38; under industrial capitalism, 43; racial/ethnic discrimination in, 138 – 39; salaried vs hourly, 51 – 52; types of, 3t; work equated with, pain, work and, 78, 79, 84 See also curse parental leave policies, 49, 50 Pateman, Carole, 40 race/ethnicity: and bargaining power inequality, 140; and employment discrimination, 138 – 39; and gender, 132, 136 religion: on human dignity, 60; on value of human work, 61; and work, relation of, 11, 181; on work as curse, 20 – 22, 25, 28, 41 – 42; on work as personal fulfillment, 91, 93; on work as service, 162 – 70 See also specific religions reproductive work, 18, 56, 75, 128, 141, 142 republicanism, 38 – 39, 62, 67, 174, 175 INDEX Ricardo, David, 10, 46 Rifkin, Jeremy, 10 rights, workers’, 59 – 60; in democratic states, 62; as human rights, 60, 63 – 64, 76; labor market inequalities and, 66 Riis, Jacob, 61 Rumi (Muslim philosopher), 170 Russian peasants, 22 Schiller, Friedrich von, 53 – 54 scientific management, 9, 97 – 98, 99 – 100, 105, 119 – 20 Scott, Walter Dill, 98 “second shift,” 129 secularization of work, 42, 163, 168 – 69, 176 self-categorization theory, 145 – 46, 147 – 48 Sennett, Richard, 92 serfdom, 7, 37, 144 service, work as, 14t, 17, 162 – 77; to community, 173 – 76; critical perspective on, 162 – 63; to family/household, 170 – 73; vs individualism, 176 – 77; as reflection on human nature, 181; religious perspectives on, 162 – 70, 177 See also volunteering service workers, 120, 159 – 60 Setswana language, 55 sexual division of labor, 7, 9, 109, 126, 127, 128 – 30; gendered discourse and, 141; variations in, 130 – 31; visual representations of, 126, 134 – 35 See also women’s work sharecropping, 86 shirking, 82, 87, 88, 183 Simmel, Georg, 158 Sinclair, Upton, 61 Singapore, guanxi relationships in, 139 Sisyphus, 19 slavery, 3t, 7; conceptualizations of work and, 109; justifications for, 24, 163; modern forms of, 10; techniques for managing, 96; “wage,” 38, 40, 60 Smith, Adam, 32, 42, 44, 56, 57, 65, 177 social constructions, 2, 109, 111, 115, 116, 129, 131, 136, 137 social exchange, 108, 109 – 10 social identity, 145 – 46, 147; interactionist perspective on, 148 – 50 social relation, work as, 14t, 16 – 17, 73, 107 – 25; commodification and, 52 – 53; critical perspective on, 108 – 9; and discrimination, 136 – 38, 140; human 245 resource management perspective on, 105; importance of concept of, 123 – 24, 181, 182, 184; Marxist perspective on, 116 – 18; norms and, 111 – 15, 123 – 24; social exchange and, 109 – 10; social network and, 110 – 11, 139; structural control and, 118 – 23 social structures, work and, 12 – 13, 180 – 81 sociological perspectives: vs economics, 88; emotional labor, 159 – 60; on identity, 146 – 48, 158; on work motivation, 82, 95 See also social constructions; social relation; social structures Soviet Union, gulag system in, 19 spiritual work, 11, 22, 42, 88, 91, 163 – 70, 181 state See government regulation of work statistical discrimination, 139 status relation, work as, 32, 33, 35 – 37 Steinbeck, John, 89 strategic human resource management, 102, 121 supply and demand framework, work in, 48 – 49, 50, 65 surplus value, 47, 117 systematic management movement, 97 Target Corporation, 100, 102 Taylor, Frederick Winslow, 9, 85, 97 – 100, 112, 119, 120, 185 theological aspects of work, 20 – 22, 41, 60, 61, 88, 91, 163 – 70 See also religion Tolstoy, Lev, 22 total social organization of labor, 142 tournament theory, 83 – 84 Turkey, 2, 128 Twain, Mark, 24 Uighur ethnic group, 139 undocumented workers, 137 unemployment, problems of, 66, 180 unemployment benefits, 72, 79 unfree labor: forms of, 37, 42 See also slavery unions See labor unions unitarist perspective, 99 – 102, 104; communism and, 101 – 2; on employment discrimination, 140; on employment relationship, 70, 99, 101, 114, 118; vs pluralist perspective, 74; and work as human resource, 73 United Nations, 63, 76 246 INDEX United States: caring work in, 129; Christianity in, 163; contract relationship in, shift to, 33 – 35; gender and racial occupational segregation in, 138; housework in legal system of, 130, 184; labor law in, 33 – 36, 69, 74, 182 – 83; lingering status influences in, 35 – 36; quality-of-life comparisons with Europe, 12; relative importance of life activities in, 144; slavery in, justifications for, 24; welfare capitalism of 1920s, 69, 98; women and work in, 39; work as nationalistic duty in, 175 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 63 unpaid work: devaluation of, 56 – 57, 75, 127, 142; as disutility, 85 – 86; invisibility of, 8; social relation perspective on, 109; types of, 3, 3t See also housework; volunteering utilitarianism, 58, 133 utility-of-poverty doctrine, 25 value: exchange, 45, 52, 57; labor theory of, 46 – 47; use, 45, 52 Virgil, 20 visual representations of work, 126, 134 – 35 voice, employee, 59, 60, 67 – 70, 76, 98, 156, 181; collective, 68 – 70, 72; individual, 67 – 68 volunteering, 3, 3t, 173 – 75; commodity perspective on, 184; and personal fulfillment, 92; and social relations, 109 wage determination: human capital theory of, 80 – 81 See also minimum wage laws wage labor See paid employment Webb, Sidney and Beatrice, 61, 62, 68 Weber, Max, 111, 152, 158, 168 welfare capitalism, 69, 98 welfare programs, 25, 36, 79 Whyte, William, 150 Winthrop, John, 173 women: bargaining power inequality of, 140; and body work, 134 – 36; in early capitalist society, 7; emotional labor demands and, 160; employment discrimination of, 39, 132, 137 – 38; independence of, work and, 41; and nature, 29, 30 women’s work: caring for others as, 17, 127, 129, 130 – 31, 141; commodification of work and devaluation of, 56 – 57, 184; invisibility of, 8, 126; marginalization of, 17, 24; occupational citizenship perspective and, 75; origins of concept of, 128 – 29; social relation perspective and, 109; U.S legal system on, 130 Wood, Grant, 126 work: absence of, problems accompanying, 179 – 80; definition of, 2; dual nature of, 21 – 22; evolution of, – 10; exchange value of, 45, 52, 57; forms of, 1, – 3, 2t; future of, 10; importance of, 10 – 14, 26, 179 – 81, 186; intensification of, 75; invisibility of, 178; vs labor, 29; and leisure, 3, 78, 79, 84; modern, 9, 75; as source of value, 45 – 47; study of, – 4, 178 – 79; use value of, 45, 57; visual representations of, 126, 134 – 35; words for, 19, 23, 29, 30, 55 See also conceptualizations of work; specific aspects of work workbook system, 33 workers: agency of, 121, 122, 124 – 25; alienation of, 29, 53 – 55, 73, 155, 158 – 60; as creators, 28 – 29; equity for, 59, 60, 71 – 72, 156, 181; resistance by, 121 – 22; rights as citizens, 59 – 60, 63 – 64, 76; voice of, 60, 67 – 70 workers’ compensation, 72 worker well-being: and identity, 158; material, 63, 180; perspectives on, 74, 183 – 84; psychological, 90, 106, 179 – 80; spiritual, 22, 63, 89, 91, 164, 181 See also alienation; job satisfaction; working conditions work ethic: Confucian, 172; Protestant, 21, 168 workfare, 13, 25 working conditions: concern with, 13, 63, 118, 124, 156, 170; determination of, 8, 64, 66, 69, 71, 155; evaluation of, 183 – 84; exposés, 61 working women (term), 129 workplace safety, 36, 72, 90, 98, 134 works councils, 69 – 70 work teams, 121, 148 World Trade Organization, 63, 178 Zola, Émile, 61, 92 About the Author John W Budd is a professor at the University of Minnesota’s Carlson School of Management, where he holds the Industrial Relations Land Grant Chair and is the director of the Center for Human Resources and Labor Studies He is a graduate of Colgate University and earned a Ph.D degree in economics from Princeton University Professor Budd is the author of Employment with a Human Face: Balancing Efficiency, Equity, and Voice (Cornell University Press), Labor Relations: Striking a Balance (McGraw-Hill/Irwin), Invisible Hands, Invisible Objectives: Bringing Workplace Law and Public Policy into Focus (with Stephen Befort; Stanford University Press), and numerous journal articles He has also been Director of Graduate Studies for the University of Minnesota’s graduate programs in human resources and industrial relations 247 ... conceptualizations of work (see Table 2) Each chapter of The Thought of Work presents one of the ten conceptualizations Chapter starts with one of the oldest and most enduring visions of work that is,... Moreover, the thought of work shapes the nature of work in practice If work is seen as a commodity, it will be left in the hands of the marketplace If work is seen as an important source of personal... serve or care for others—and these visions of work form the foundation for this book The diversity of these personal reasons for why we work partially reveals the deep importance of work It is easy
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: The thought of work, The thought of work

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn

Nhận lời giải ngay chưa đến 10 phút Đăng bài tập ngay