Researching values with qualitative methods empathy, moral boundaries and the politics of research

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Researching Values with Qualitative Methods For Debra Researching Values with Qualitative Methods Empathy, Moral Boundaries and the Politics of Research Antje Bednarek-Gilland The Social Sciences Institute of the Evangelical Church in Germany © Antje Bednarek-Gilland 2015 All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher Antje Bednarek-Gilland has asserted her right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as the author of this work Published by Ashgate Publishing Limited Ashgate Publishing Company Wey Court East 110 Cherry Street Union Road Suite 3-1 Farnham Burlington, VT 05401-3818 Surrey, GU9 7PT USA England www.ashgate.com British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library The Library of Congress has cataloged the printed edition as follows: Bednarek-Gilland, Antje Researching values with qualitative methods : empathy, moral boundaries and the politics of research / by Antje Bednarek-Gilland pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 978-1-4724-1929-3 (hardback) – ISBN 978-1-4724-1930-9 (ebook) – ISBN 978-1-4724-1931-6 (epub) Values Social sciences – Research Qualitative research I Title BD232.B383 2015 303.3’72072 dc23 2014037670 ISBN 9781472419293 (hbk) ISBN 9781472419309 (ebk – PDF) ISBN 9781472419316 (ebk – ePUB) Printed in the United Kingdom by Henry Ling Limited, at the Dorset Press, Dorchester, DT1 1HD Contents Acknowledgementsvii Introduction1 Values in the Social Sciences 2Empathy, Verstehen and Values 31 Moral Values and Qualitative Research 53 The Political Values of the Research Community 75 Conclusion: How to Value-Sensitive Fieldwork 97 Bibliography109 Index121 This page has been left blank intentionally Acknowledgements I am indebted to a number of people who assisted me during the research for and the writing of this book The initial inspiration to write it grew out of my doctoral research at the University of Aberdeen I want to thank Andrea Anderson, Abdallah Baguma, James Camilleri and Jenny Grieve-Laing at Aberdeen in particular for their good friendship and for sharing their experiences of growing up and living in Scotland with me Over many years, this sharing in particular has helped me to become more aware of my own values and opinions and how they relate to my experience Lesley Hunt at Lincoln University (NZ) who is a wonderful and passionate qualitative methods teacher opened my eyes to the countless possible topics which can be researched using qualitative methods The impetus coming from her was later reinforced by Chris Wright at Aberdeen – thank you both Specific support for this book project came from Markus Mühling, whose keen and critical interest has motivated me to sharpen some of my arguments, and from Hans Joas, whose blanket espousal of qualitative research on values gave me a great boost of confidence I also want to thank Neil Jordan at Ashgate whose support of this project was instrumental in me seeing it through I could not have written this book without the steady and loving support of my friends and family Jacqui, Roxi, Jasmin and Verena – your belief in me and my work means more to me than I can say My husband David Andrew Gilland has read the entire manuscript and engaged me in critical discussions of many of the finer points in the argument, for which I am infinitely grateful, all the more so since my working on this book really cut into our time together Lastly I want to thank my PhD supervisor and friend Debra Gimlin who has nurtured me over many years with her intelligent and kind presence Debra laid the seed of trust in my abilities and this gave me the courage to tackle interesting and challenging topics such as how we might be able to study values using qualitative methods I dedicate the book to her The shortcomings of and mistakes in the manuscript are of course mine and mine alone This page has been left blank intentionally Introduction Values are ‘back on the sociological menu’ The editors of a special issue of Current Sociology (March 2011) on the topic of values and culture claim that ‘interest in values and moral concern is growing’ (Bachika and Schulz, 2011, p 107) A range of publications in the Sociology of Morality (Honneth, 2007; Hitlin and Vaisey, 2010b; Sayer, 2005; Lamont, 1992; Lamont, 2010; Sayer, 2011) give further evidence to this development Partly responsible for the resurgence of interest in the sociological study of values is that values are ‘part of the common-sense culture in which everyone lives’ (Wuthnow, 2008, p 339) and that this ‘common-sense culture’ is increasingly assuming centre stage in British and American Sociology of Culture (Inglis, 2005; Alexander, 2003) Another reason could lie in the fact that since the 1960s, western capitalist societies have undergone dramatic cultural shifts entailing changed value-based outlooks of large swathes of the population which have attracted scholarly curiosity (Klages, 1988; Inglehart, 1977) A loss of values or the ‘weakening of their binding force’ (Joas, 2000, p 4) has been noted and piqued interest as to their causes (e.g Bellah et al., 1996; Putnam, 2000) At the same time, scholars in the sociology and philosophy of emotions have begun to inquire into the seemingly rather close ties between values and emotions (Flam, 2002; Landweer, 2009; Nussbaum, 2013) Speaking of values in sociology, then, puts one in pretty good company But it is not so simple to speak of values as a qualitative sociologist To the contrary; qualitative sociologists usually have very little to say on the topic A few years ago, after I had just finished giving a paper on my all-but completed PhD thesis which looked at the role of values in Conservative politics and which was based on ethnographic fieldwork, I was told by the professor who chaired the session: ‘If I were you, I would get rid of the term ‘values’ altogether This is such an outdated topic Could you not speak about attitudes or preferences instead?’ A few months later I passed my final oral examination and was allowed to submit my thesis to the university library and archives without any further corrections Who was right: the professor who told me to get rid of values or the examiners who had read my entire work on values and approved of it? I wanted to believe in the second team but was quite shaken by the strong rejection of my work at face value (no pun intended), i.e simply because it focused on values I could not understand what it was with this concept which repulsed not only this one scholar, but others too (as I discovered by and by) Values are part of the staple diet of social scientists, after all They are one third This page has been left blank intentionally Bibliography ABRAMSON, P R and INGLEHART, R 1995 Value Change in Global Perspective, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press ALCOFF, L 1991 The problem of speaking for others Cultural Critique, 20, 5–32 ALEXANDER, J C 2003 The Meanings of Social Life: A Cultural Sociology, New York: Oxford University Press ALLEN, L 2010 Queer(y)ing the straight researcher: The relationship(?) between research identity and anti-normative knowledge Feminism & Psychology, 20, 147–65 ALVESSON, M and SKÖLDBERG, K 2009 Reflexive Methodology: New Vistas for Qualitative Research, Second Edition, Los Angeles: Sage ANDERSON, E 2012 Feminist epistemology and philosophy of science In: ZALTA, E N (ed.) 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appreciation 28, 49, 62, 92 and the good 6, 9, 85 research 79–80, 100 ethnography 6n., 37 critical 48–50 experience 13–15, 19–21, 24–5 and subjective point of view 13 fact–value distinction 2, 8–9n feminism 79–81, 82n., 94 feminist ethics 75–7, 80 flourishing 15, 23, 106 Frankfurt, Harry 17–19 Gimlin, Debra 19, 41–2, 57, 59, 93 good, the 7–9, 15–16, 17–18, 23, 66 and qualitative research 85 indigenous research 81–4 Inglehart paradigm 2, 10 insider research 40–41, 87 internal orientalism 60, 66–8 James, William 14, 17, 77 Jansson, David 66–8, 70–71, 72–3, 84 Joas, Hans 1, 8, 9, 9n., 11, 13, 14, 17, 18–19 Ku Klux Klan 63–6 Louch, Alfred 23, 23n., 25–6, 55 Researching Values with Qualitative Methods moral boundaries boundary work 58–60 definition of 57–8 in the fieldwork 60–62, 64, 66 and memory cultures 69 overcoming 62–73 and unloved groups 72 morality 54 and culture 55 dimensions of 58 and fieldwork 56–7, 60–62 sociology of 53 researcher identity 38–40, 87 congruence with research participants 88–9 in the final research report 93–4, 105 Sayer, Andrew 4, 7n., 13–16, 18, 23, 27, 30, 50, 53–5, 57, 59n., 60, 78n self-transcendence 14, 18 situated knowledge 77–8 social justice 58, 68, 76, 82–5 standpoint epistemology 76–80 suffering 14–16, 34, 50, 56, 85–6, 102 sympathy 34, 39–41, 43, 50, 65, 83 non-empathic research 47–51 norms 12, 12n Othering 58–9 outsider research 48–9 Thatcher, Margaret 69–70 the transcendentals transsituative 4, 19, 24, 48, 53 politicisation (of research) 95 and human rights 83–5 and institutional politics 85–6, 91 and underdogs 85, 91 value congruence 37–8, 50–51, 83, 88 freedom 8, 21–4 values and class 10, 53–4 and emotions 16–17, 54 function of 10–11 genesis of 9–14 and market economy 7–8 and primary socialisation 11 Verstehen/understanding 21, 47 direct/empathic 25–6, 98 and interpretation 24–6 virtues 5, 80 vulnerability 14–16, 55, 77–8, 93–4 qualitative research definition of 19–21 research design 103n and researcher–researched relationship 31, 36–7, 63–72, 87–8 as work 73, 92–3 racism 59n., 62–8 rapport 31, 35, 37–8, 41, 62, 64–5, 68, 70 reflexivity 24, 40–41, 76, 91–3, 105–6 and critical ethnography 49–50 Weber, Max 8, 21–6, 35 well-being 13–14, 16–17, 50, 55 122 .. .Researching Values with Qualitative Methods For Debra Researching Values with Qualitative Methods Empathy, Moral Boundaries and the Politics of Research Antje Bednarek-Gilland The Social... those Researching Values with Qualitative Methods the first part of the chapter I proceed with a brief overview of the history of the concept of values which will summarise how values can be and. .. Bednarek-Gilland, Antje Researching values with qualitative methods : empathy, moral boundaries and the politics of research / by Antje Bednarek-Gilland pages cm Includes bibliographical references and
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