The modes of human rights literature

144 27 0
  • Loading ...
1/144 trang
Tải xuống

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 14/05/2018, 15:48

THE MODES OF HUMAN RIGHTS LITERATURE Towards a Culture without Borders Michael Galchinsky The Modes of Human Rights Literature Michael Galchinsky The Modes of Human Rights Literature Towards a Culture without Borders Michael Galchinsky Georgia State University Atlanta, Georgia, USA ISBN 978-3-319-31850-9 ISBN 978-3-319-31851-6 DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-31851-6 (eBook) Library of Congress Control Number: 2016943524 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Cover illustration: © Melisa Hasan Printed on acid-free paper This Palgrave Macmillan imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland For Gideon and Rafi PREFACE In September 2004, I traveled to Russia with a delegation of academics to build connections with the emerging Jewish studies departments there, and also to interview human rights activists We could get a pretty clear sense of the state of human rights at the time just by looking at the public monuments As a marker of one Russian impulse, Tsereteli’s massive and hideous new monument of Peter the Great, sitting in the middle of the Moscow River, seemed like a portent of Putin’s imperial ambitions But the imperial impulse was countered by what we found in a sculpture park outside the Tretyakov Gallery in central Moscow This was where, after 1989, city officials brought the marble and bronze Lenins and Stalins and Dzerzhinskys, which had stood in front of government buildings and bestrewn public squares, but which now no longer had a state purpose At first, the officials brought the sculptures to the park and left them as they were, leaning on their sides The area came to be called (colloquially, not officially) the Park of Fallen Idols Eventually the collection contained over 700 Soviet-era monuments In the heady days of the new Russia, the City of Moscow commissioned artist Evgeny Chubarov to surround some of the examples of triumphant socialist realism with more contemporary sculptures When we entered the park we came upon Stalin, twenty feet high, striding purposefully into history Chubarov had surrounded the dictator with sculptures of his victims, including a massive cement cage with iron bars, filled with over 300 individualized ceramic heads In this way the Park of Fallen Idols offered a layered reading of Russian history vii viii PREFACE Not many states preserve the monuments of their discredited pasts Writing a decade after the Soviet tanks crushed the Prague Spring, in The Book of Laughter and Forgetting, Milan Kundera described the more typical fate of monuments: “Wandering the streets that not know their names are the ghosts of monuments torn down Torn down by the Czech Reformation, torn down by the Austrian Counter-Reformation, torn down by the Czechoslovak Republic, torn down by the Communists; even the statues of Stalin have been torn down” (Kundera, Laughter and Forgetting 1994, 217) It is just because successive governments undertake strenuous programs of public forgetting that citizens in every country should demand their own parks of fallen idols Every government should be required to maintain its own standing rebuke Its citizens should have access to symbols that assert, “However things are today, they were otherwise yesterday, and might be otherwise tomorrow.” Human rights symbols, like the fallen idols, arouse strong public feelings, which not always find a channel in the official exchanges of actors in the international human rights system The various monitoring bodies at the United Nations (UN) tend to marginalize affect, in an effort to make human rights justiciable Non-governmental organization (NGO) reports also relegate the strong emotions of victims of rights violations to sidebars, focusing their attention on testimony that has evidentiary value In the academic realm, too, there has been too little discussion of the emotional aspects of human rights discourse This is in part because the study of human rights has usually been undertaken by legal scholars and political scientists, whose interests lie elsewhere Trauma studies have explored the consequences of human rights abuse for individual victims’ psyches, but how societies, collectively, deal with their traumas is a question only beginning to be investigated in the scholarly literature on transitional justice There is still much work to be done Compared to human rights law, human rights culture is generally not as concerned about the juncture between facts and norms (Habermas 1998) as it is about the juncture between feelings and forms It is less about establishing an agreed code, and more about sharing individual experiences Emotionally resonant human rights art typically doesn’t change laws or regimes; rather, it seeks to change the prevailing ethos, by depicting what human rights mean for the individuals who are deprived of them, who witness the abuse, who perpetrate it, who mourn the victims, who intervene, who provide aid, or who transmit the stories By relating such experiences, human rights culture tries to shape a durable recollection for the wounded community PREFACE ix In the past decade, there has been a surge in the number of humanities scholars studying human rights literature and art Cultural sociologists have begun to look at the symbolic, meaning-making processes associated with human rights practices (e.g., Alexander 2007) Communications theorists have considered the effect on viewers of the framing of human rights issues in the media (e.g., Borer 2012) This book contributes to the humanistic study of human rights by offering an account of two of the major modes of human rights literature—lament, the literature of mourning, and laughter, the literature of resilience These literary modes exemplify art that reflects, and reflects on, a developing culture of universal civility Thanks to everyone at the Yale Center for Cultural Sociology, who helped me develop my ideas on global civil culture by inviting me to present a workshop in 2008 The Center’s journal and conferences have been a source of continuing inspiration and learning for me Thanks to Tristan Borer for encouraging me to develop my ideas and including an early version of Chap 1 in her collection as “Framing a Rights Ethos: Artistic Media and the Dream of a Culture without Borders,” in Borer, ed., Media, Mobilization, and Human Rights: Mediating Suffering (New York: Zed, 2012), 67–95 Thanks, too, to the editors of Human Rights Review, for publishing an early version of Chap 2—originally as “Lament as Transitional Justice,” Human Rights Review 15.3 (2014): 259–281—and permitting me to revise and reprint it here Colleagues at meetings of the Modern Language Association, the American Comparative Literature Association, and the International Studies Association have offered wonderful support and advice—in particular Alexandra Schultheis Moore, Elizabeth Swanson Goldberg, Greg Mullins, and Zoe Norridge I am also grateful to the colleagues in my international law track, whose work has often overlapped in interesting and unforeseeable ways with my culture track: Kurt Mills, Melissa Labonte, and David Jason Karp I am grateful to Georgia State University for the Provost’s Faculty Fellowship and professional leave that enabled me to complete this work Many of my colleagues have offered their good counsel and encouragement on various aspects of the project, especially Randy Malamud, LeeAnne Richardson, Sarah Higinbotham, and my fellow affiliates of GSU’s Center for Human Rights and Democracy My editor at Palgrave, Brigitte Shull, and the anonymous reviewers offered useful counsel My boys, Gideon and Rafael, are dedicated to soccer and to tikkun olam (the Jewish concept of repair of the world) They’re wise enough to know they don’t have to choose As Emma Goldman once put it, “If I can’t dance, it’s not my revolution.” WORKS CITED 117 Arendt, H 1978 The Jew as Pariah: Jewish Identity and Politics in the Modern Age Grove Press Bakhtin, M.  M 1984 Rabelais and His World Translated by Helene Iswolsky Bloomington: Indiana University Press Print —— 1981 “Forms of Time and of the Chronotope in the Novel.” In: Holquist M (ed.) The Dialogic Imagination University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, 84-258 —— 1986 “From Notes Made in 1970-71.” In Emerson, C and Holquist, M., eds Speech Genres and Other Late Essays Austin: UT Press —— 1986 “The Problem of Speech Genres.” In Emerson, C and Holquist, M eds., Speech Genres and Other Late Essays Austin: UT Press Banita, G 2014 “Cosmopolitan Suspicion: Comics Journalism and Graphic Silence.” In D. Stein, S. Denson, and C. Meyer, eds Transnational Perspectives on Graphic Narratives: Comics at the Crossroads New  York: Bloomsbury Academic, 49-66 Barthes, R 1972 Mythologies Hill and Wang Berlatsky, E 2003 “Memory as Forgetting: The Problem of the Postmodern in Kundera’s The Book of Laughter and Forgetting and Spiegelman’s Maus.” Cultural Critique 55: 101-151 Bernestein, C 2004 “Celan’s Folds and Veils.” Textual Practice 18.2: 199-205 Best, M., Long, W. J., Etherton, J., and Smyth, T 2011 “Rich Digital Media as a Tool in Post-Conflict Truth and Reconciliation.” Media, War & Conflict 4.3: 231-249 Best, S and Marcus, S 2009 “Surface Reading: An Introduction.” Representations 108.1: 1-21 Bettelheim, B 1979 The Informed Heart: Autonomy in a Mass Age Avon Books, New York Borer T., ed 2012 Media, Mobilization, and Human Rights Zed Books, New York Buber, M 1970 I and Thou Trans Kaufman W.  Charles’s Scribner’s Sons, New York Buiza, N 2013 “Trauma and the Poetics of Affect in Horacio Castellanos Moya’s Insensatez.” Revista de Estudios Hispánicos 47.1: 151-172 Burke E 1992 “A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful.” In: Adams H (ed.) Critical Theory Since Plato Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, 298-306 Butler J 2004 Precarious Life: the Powers of Mourning and Violence Verso, New York Bystrom K 2012 Literature and Human Rights In: Cushman T (ed.) Handbook of Human Rights Routledge, New York, 637-646 Canales, G.  S 2015 ‘The Benevolent Self was a Disgrace Beyond Measure for Every Argentine Jew’: Between the Need to Remember and the Desire to 118 WORKS CITED Forget in Nathan Englander’s The Ministry of Special Cases.” Partial Answers: Journal of Literature and the History of Ideas 13.1: 57-71 Caney, S 2006 Justice without Borders: A Global Political Theory Oxford Caraveli A 1986 “The Bitter Wounding: The Lament as Social Protest in Rural Greece.” In: Dubisch J (ed.), Gender and Power in Rural Greece Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 169-194 Carter, A 2001 Political Theory of Global Citizenship New York: Routledge Caruth C 1996 Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore Chappell, Z 2012 Deliberative Democracy: A Critical Introduction New York: Palgrave Macmillan Conti, C 2015 “Justice for Josef K.: Bringing Myth to an End in Kafka’s Trial.” New German Critique 124: 99-128 Crane, D., ed 2002 Global Culture: Media, Arts, Policy, and Globalization New York: Routledge Print Cubilié A 2005 Women Witnessing Terror: Testimony and the Cultural Politics of Human Rights Fordham, New York Cummings, K 1990 “Reclaiming the Mother(’s) Tongue: Beloved, Ceremony, Mothers and Shadows.” College English 52.5: 552-569 Danforth, L.  M and Tsiaras A 1982 The Death Rituals of Ancient Greece Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ Davilá, A 2002 “Mapping Latinidad: Language and Culture in the Spanish TV Battlefront.” In Sadowski-Smith, C., ed Globalization on the Line: Culture, Capital, and Citizenship at U.S. Borders Palgrave, 147-165 Dawes J 2007 That the World May Know: Bearing Witness to Atrocity Harvard, Boston De la Durantaye, L 2009 Giorgio Agamben: A Critical Introduction Stanford University Press, Stanford Delanty, G 2000 Citizenship in a Global Age: Society, Culture, Politics Phil.: Open University Press Donnelly, J 2003 Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice, 2nd ed Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press Print Durkheim, E 1992 Professional Ethics and Civic Morals Edited by Bryan S. Turner New York: Routledge Print —— 1995 The Elementary Forms of Religious Life Edited by Karen E.  Fields New York: The Free Press Print —— 1972 “Forms of Social Solidarity.” Emile Durkheim: Selected Writings Edited by Anthony Giddens New York: Cambridge University Press Print Eberly, D 2008 The Rise of Global Civil Society: Building Communities and Nations from the Bottom Up Encounter Books Featherstone, M., ed 1990 Global Culture: Naitonalism, Globalization and Modernity Sage WORKS CITED 119 Felman S and Laub D 1991 Testimony: Crises of Witnessing in Literature, Psychoanalysis and History Routledge, New York Fox, C. F 2002 “Fan Letters to the Culture Industries: Border Literature about Mass Media.” In Sadowski-Smith, C., ed Globalization on the Line: Culture, Capital, and Citizenship at U.S. Borders Palgrave, 121-146 Freedman, L 2012 “Wit as a Political Weapon: Satirists and Censors,” Social Research 79.1: 87-112 Frye, N 2007 The Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays Edited by Robert D. Denham Toronto: University of Toronto Press Print Galchinsky M 2012 “Framing a Rights Ethos: Artistic Media and the Dream of a Culture without Borders.” In: Borer T (ed.), Media, Mobilization, and Human Rights: Mediating Suffering Zed Books, New York, 67-95 —— 2014 “Lament as Transitional Justice.” Human Rights Review 15.3: 259-281 —— 2008 Jews and Human Rights: Dancing at Three Weddings Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield —— 2012 “Political Pamphlet.” In Burwick, F., ed The Encyclopedia of Romantic Literature New York Wiley-Blackwell, 1025-1034 Germain, R 2005 The Idea of Global Civil Society: Ethics and Politics in a Globalizing Era New York: Routledge Gilman, S 1990 Jewish Self-Hatred Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press Gutiérrez-Mouat, R 2013 “El lenguaje de los derechos humanos en tres obras de ficción: La muerte y la doncella, Insensatez y El material humano.” A Contra Corriente: A Journal on Social History and Literature in Latin America 11.1: 39-62 Grear, A 2007 “Challenging Corporate ‘Humanity’: Legal Disembodiment, Embodiment, and Human Rights.” Human Rights Law Review 7.3: 511-543 Habermas, J 1998 “Kant’s Idea of Perpetual Peace: At Two Hundred Years’ Historical Remove.” In Cronin, C. P and De Greiff, P., eds The Inclusion of the Other: Studies in Political Theory Boston: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 165-201 Print —— 1998 Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy Cambridge: MIT Press —— 1991 The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society Boston: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Hatley, B 1990 “Theatre as cultural resistance in contemporary Indonesia.” State and Civil Society in Indonesia: 321-348 Hayner P 2011 Unspeakable Truths: Transitional Justice and the Challenge of Truth Commissions 2nd ed Routledge, New York Hunt, L 2007 Inventing Human Rights New York: Norton Print 120 WORKS CITED Hurlburt, L. P 1989 The Mexican Muralists in the United States University of New Mexico Press Hutchings, K 2002 “Feminism and Global Citizenship.” In Dower, N and Williams, J eds Global Citizenship: A Critical Introduction New  York: Routledge, 53-62 Jameson, F., and Masao M., eds 1998 The Cultures of Globalization Durham, NC: Duke University Press Print Juergensmeyer, M 2005 Religion in Global Civil Society New York: Oxford Kaldor, M 2004 Global Civil Society: An Answer to War Polity Kalinowski, G 2010 “‘Fräulein Bürstners weiße Bluse’: Making Sense Stick in Kafka’s The Trial.” German Quarterly 83.4: 449-464 Katz, B 1998 “To What Extent is Requiem a Requiem? Unheard Female Voices in Anna Akhmatova’s Requiem.” The Russian Review 57: 253-263 Katz, S. T., Biderman, S., Greenberg, G., eds 2007 Wrestling with God: Jewish Theological Responses During and After the Holocaust Oxford University Press, New York Kavnaugh, T 1972 “Kafka’s The Trial: The Semiotics of the Absurd.” Novel: a Forum on Ficition 5.3: 242-253 Keane, J 2003 Global Civil Society? New York: Cambridge UP King, A 2004 Spaces of Global Cultures: Architecture, Urbanism, Identity New York: Routledge Kokotovic, M 2009 “Testimonio Once Removed: Castellanos Moya’s Insensatez.” Revista de Estudios Hispánicos 43.3: 545-562 Laddaga, R 2007 “From Work to Conversation: Writing and Citizenship in a Global Age.” PMLA 122.2: 449-463 Lasine, S 1990 “The Trials of Job and Kafka’s Josef K.” German Quarterly 63.2: 187-198 Lekha S. C., Martin-Ortega O., and Herman J 2010 War, Conflict, and Human Rights: Theory and Practice Routledge, New York Levinas, E 1969 Totality and Infinity Duquesne UP —— 1989 The Levinas Reader Hand, S., ed New York: Blackwell Publishers Levinson, M 2007 “What Is New Formalism?” PMLA 122.2: 558-569 Lorey, I 2010 “Becoming Common: Precarization as Political Constituting,” e-Flux 17.6: http://www.e-flux.com/journal/becoming-common-precarization-aspolitical-constituting/, accessed May 20, 2015 Lunsford, A and Rosenblatt, A 2011 “’Down a Road and into an Awful Silence’: Graphic Listening in Joe Sacco’s Comics Journalism.” In C.  Glenn and K. Ratcliffe, eds Silence and Listening as Rhetorical Arts Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 30-146 Mandel, U. M 1990 “Opening The Trial: Some Thoughts on Translating Kafka.” Journal of the Kafka Society of America 14.1-2: 51-55 McLean, H., ed 1963 Zoshchenko, M Nervous People and Other Satires Bloomington: Indiana UP WORKS CITED 121 McClennen, S.  A., and Slaughter, J 2009 “Introducing Human Rights and Literary Forms; or, The Vehicles and Vocabularies of Human Rights.” Comparative Literature Studies 46.1: 1-19 McCloud, S 1993 Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art New York: Harper Books Melin, C 1996 “Renderings of Alice in Wonderland in Postwar German Literature.” Women in German Yearbook 12: 149-165 Mill, J. S 1989 Autobiography New York: Penguin Print Millar, G 2011 “Local Evaluations of Justice through Truth Telling in Sierra Leone: Postwar Needs and Transitional Justice.” Human Rights Review 12.4: 515-535 Miller, B and Schweitzer, P 2006 “The Art of Survival: A Conversation with Dori Laub, M.D.” Reading On 1.1: 1-14 Moretti, F 2007 Graphs, Maps, and Trees: Abstract Models for Literary History New York: Verso Morson, G.  S and Emerson, C 1990 Mikhail Bakhtin: Creation of a Prosaics Stanford UP Moss, L 2006 “‘Nice, Audible Crying’: Editions, Testimonies, and Country of My Skull.” Research in African Literatures 37.4: 85-104 Moyn, S 2010 The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History Cambridge: Harvard UP Nichols, B 2008 “Documentary Reenactment and the Fantasmatic Subject.” Critical Inquiry 35.1: 72-89 Nijman, J. E 2004 The Concept of International Legal Personality Hague: T. M C. Asser Press Nussbaum, M 1997 Poetic Justice: The Literary Imagination and Public Life Boston: Beacon Press Owen, R.  J 2007 “Voicing the Drowned Girl: Poems by Hilde Domin, Ulla Hahn, Sarah Kirsch, and Barbara Kohler in the German Tradition of Representing Ophelia.” Modern Language Review 102: 781-792 Price Grieve, G 2012 “Do Human Rights Need a Self? Buddhist Literature and the Samsaric Subject.” In Schultheis Moore and Swanson Goldberg, eds Theoretical Perspectives on Human Rights and Literature, 247-259 Propst, L 2011 ““Making One Story”? Forms of Reconciliation in Jonathan Safran Foer’s Everything Is Illuminated and Nathan Englander’s The Ministry of Special Cases.” Melus 36.1: 37-60 Puar, J 2012 “Precarity Talk: A Virtual Roundtable.” TDR: The Drama Review 56.4: 163-177 Putnam, R 2001 Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community New York: Simon and Schuster Reed, A 1956 Orozco New York: Oxford UP Reed, R.  R 2007 “The Restorative Power of Sound: A Case for Communal Catharsis in Toni Morrison’s Beloved.” Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 23.1: 55-71 122 WORKS CITED Riceour, P 2006 Memory, History, Forgetting Blamey, K and Pellauer D., trans Chicago: Chicago UP Roche, M 2000 Megaevents and Modernity: Olympics, Expos and the Growth of Global Culture New York: Routledge Schaffer, K and Smith, S 2004 Human Rights and Narrated Lives: The Ethics of Recognition New York: Palgrave Macmillan Print —— 2006 “Human Rights, Storytelling, and the Position of the Beneficiary: Antjie Krog’s Country of My Skull.” PMLA 121.5: 1577-1584 Schultheis Moore, A 2013 “Témoignage and Responsibility in Photo/Graphic Narratives of Médecins Sans Frontières.” Special issue on Humanitarian Responsibility, eds Kerry Bystrom and Glenn Mitoma Journal of Human Rights Schreiber, M.  Y 2007 Singing in a Strange Land: A Jewish American Poetics Stanford: Stanford University Press Seigworth, G. J and Gregg, M., eds 2010 The Affect Theory Reader Raleigh: Duke University Press Sikkink, K 2011 The Justice Cascade: How Human Rights Prosecutions are Changing World Politics New York: W. W Norton Slater, M.  B 2010 “Shifting Literary Tectonic Plates: Kundera’s Call for Supranational Literature and the World Literature in French Manifesto.” MLN 125.4: 913-926 Slaughter, J 2007 Human Rights, Inc.: The World Novel, Narrative Form, and International Law New York: Fordham University Press Print —— 2006 “The Bildungsroman and International Human Rights Law.” PMLA 121.5: 1405-1423 Sommer, D 2006: “Useful Humanism.” PMLA 121.5: 1670-1673 Sontag, S 2003 Regarding the Pain of Others New York: Picador Print Sreberny-Mohammadi, A., Winseck, D., McKenna, J., Boyd-Barrett, O., eds 1998 Media in Global Context: A Reader Hodder Arnold Sundaram, C 2006 “‘The stone skin of the monument’: Mayakovsky, Dissent and Popular Culture in the Soviet Union.” Toronto Slavic Quarterly 16: http:// sites.utoronto.ca/tsq/16/sundaram16.shtml, accessed July 29, 2015 Swanson Goldberg, E 2007 Beyond Terror: Gender, Narrative, Human Rights New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press Print Swanson Goldberg, E and Schultheis Moore, A 2012 Theoretical Perspectives on Human Rights and Literature Routledge, New York Sznaider, N 2011 Jewish Memory and the Cosmopolitan Order Polity Press, Cambridge and Malden Taylor, J.  M 1982 “The Politics of Aesthetic Debate: The Case of Brazilian Carnival.” Ethnology 21.4: 301-311 Thompson, B 2007 “Turning Novel Ideas Into Inhabitable Worlds.” Washington Post, Oct 30: C01 WORKS CITED 123 Tomlinson, J 2007 “Globalization and Cultural Analysis.” In Globalization Theory: Approaches and Controversies Edited by David Held and Anthony McGrew, 148-168 Malden, MA: Polity Print Ungar, S 2008 “Kundera’s Variations: Passing Thoughts on Novel and Nation.” South Central Review 25.3: 57-67 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, http://www.un.org/en/documents/ udhr/index.shtml, accessed May 20, 2015 Ward, B. K 2004 “Giving Voice to Isaac: The Sacrificial Victim in Kafka’s Trial.” Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies 22.2: 64-84 White, H 1975 Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth Century Europe Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press Print Wiebelhaus-Brahm, E 2010 Truth Commissions and Transitional Societies: The Impact on Human Rights and Democracy Routledge, New York Williams, R 1977 Marxism and Literature New York: Oxford University Press Print Wisse, R. R 1984 “Two Jews Talking: A View of Modern Yiddish Literature.” Prooftexts 4.1: 35-48 INDEX A Abu Ghraib, 108 affective formalism, 15–19 affects See sociopolitical emotions; civil society affect theory, 17–18 Afghanistan, 28 Agamben, G., 57 Akhmatova, A., 43, 49–51 Albertson Fineman, M., 17 Alexander, J., 18, 95, 96, 98, 105 Anderson, B., 20 An-Na'im, A.A., 84 Appiah, K.A., 104 Arab Spring, 94 Archibugi, A., 19 Arendt, H., 75 Argentina, 56, 73, 77, 107 Aristotle, Attenborough, R., 10 B Bakhtin, M., 13, 18, 24, 55, 59, 81 and chronotopes, 46 and discrowning laughter, 70 forms of laughter in, 55 and laughing death, 56, 70 responsive utterances in, 70 and unfinalizability, 71 Barthes, R., 100 Benn, G., 43 Bernstein, C., 43 Bettelheim, B., 57 Bildungsroman, 11, 104 Bienek, H., 44 Black Lives Matter movement, 97 Boal, A., 95 body-person See embodied personality Bono, 109 Bosnia, 28, 33, 56, 57, 109 Bronte, C., 95 Brooks, G., 97 Buber, M., 57 Buiza, N., 81 Burke, E., 42 Burma, 106 Bush, G.W. President, 108 Butler, J., 17, 22, 28 © The Author(s) 2016 M Galchinsky, The Modes of Human Rights Literature, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-31851-6 125 126 INDEX C Carnaval, 94 Castellanos Moya, H., 14, 73, 78–82 Catholic Church, 73, 78 Celan, P., 12, 43 China, 100, 108 citizens of the world, 19, 20, 84, 93 See also cosmopolitanism Civil Rights Movement, US, 3, 97 civil society, 24, 25, 33, 35, 56, 65, 72, 77, 84 genealogy of, 86 role of associations in, 88, 92 role of culture in, 84, 86, 90, 94, 97 role of emotions in, 2, 6, 7, 20, 29, 92, 96, 98, 100 role of media in, 88, 92 Coetzee, J., 107 comfort women, Comte, A., 91 conscious innocence See lament, and post-traumatic innocence cosmopolitanism, 21, 25, 64, 85, 89, 91, 99, 100, 104, 109, 111 Crane, D., 21, 101 cultural antiquities Buddhas of Bamiyan, 107 Iraqi national museum, 107, 108 ISIS destruction of, in Syria, 107 struggle over Elgin Marbles, 107 World Heritage sites, 20, 104, 111 cultural imperialism, 21, 22, 25, 101 cultural rights, 103, 107, 111 cultural sociology, 17–18, 84, 88, 95, 103 culture without borders, 3, 19, 22, 25, 51, 83, 91, 102 Cummings, K., 49 Czechoslovakia, 56, 58, 60 D Defoe, D., 103 Dangarembga, T., 104 Darwin, C., 52 Dawes, J., de Kock, E., 37 Delanty, G., 103 democracy communicative, 89, 99, 105 cosmopolitan, 18–19, 89, 99, 102, 112 deliberative, 18–19 procedural, 87, 99 procedural vs communicative, 88 Dickens, C., 14, 76 distant reading, 7, 16 Donnelly, J., 22 Dorfman, A., 12 Douglass, F., 97 DuBois, W.E.B., 97 Duoduo, 42 Durkheim, E., 10, 95, 96, 102 E Eberly, D., 105 El Salvador, 106 Elgin Marbles, 107 Eliot, G., 14, 91 embodied personality, 54, 65, 69, 71, 72, 75, 77, 78, 80 Englander, N., 14, 73–78 ethical turn in the humanities, 16–17 exilic laughter See Laughter, acute Exodus (Book of), 97 Ezekiel (Book of), 32, 33, 38 F Faulkner, W., 73 feminism, 22, 53, 94, 104 INDEX Folman, A., 36 Forché, C., 24, 28 Forgetting See Laughter Frank, A., 11 Frye, N., 5, 9, 14 G Galloway, S., 28, 33 Garton-Ash, T., 34, 93 genocide, 11–13, 28, 39, 44, 55, 81, 100, 104, 108, 109 Gerardi, Bishop J., 78 global civil culture, 5, 19, 99, 102, 106 assumption of Western bias of, 86 definition of, 85 and the Internet, 109 vs national civil culture, 86, 98 non-western models of, 84 resurgence of after 9/11, 108 role of celebrities in, 109 role of emotions in, 85 role of film in, 106 role of novels in, 107 role of photography in, 109 role of sports in, 100, 107 role of testimony in, 107 as set of nomadic practices, 103 global civil society, 104 See also civil society; global civil culture composition of, 85 increasing instability of, 105 role of culture in, 106 role of Internet in, 94 role of media in, 106 role of NGOs in, 93, 105 role of social media in, 94 globalization theories, 21, 101 and audience reception, 101 and cultural flows, 101 and media imperialism, 101 127 and negotiation vs competition, 101 Gobodo-Madikezela, P., 37 Goethe, W., 64 Graves, R., 42 Grear, A., 17, 54, 70, 81 Greece, 51, 107 grief-time See lament Guantanamo Bay, 28, 108 Guatemala, 56, 73, 78, 107 Guguletu Seven, 48 H Habermas, J., 2, 19, 21, 89 habits of the heart, 2, 18, 88, 90, 92, 96, 100, 112 Havel, V., 60 Hayner, P.B., 34 Hirsi Ali, A., 23, 107 Hitler, A., Holan, V., 40 Holocaust, 8, 12, 31, 39, 40, 43, 45, 107 Homer, 48 Huchel, P., 47 Hughes, L., 97 human rights as civic religion, 91 philosophical foundation of, 54 and transitional justice, 52 human rights abuse, 54 perpetrators, 3, 9, 29, 34, 35, 37, 38, 46, 73, 104 survivors, 11, 24, 34, 39, 40, 50, 79, 81 victims, 3, 8, 9, 12, 23, 29, 30, 34, 37–39, 41, 43, 46, 51, 54, 58, 72, 84, 106, (see also subjected subject) witnesses, 3, 9, 11, 34, 44, 50, 81, 109 128 INDEX human rights literature as cullture without borders, 83 developing criticism of, formal dimensions of, 15 genres of, and historical context, as horizontal communication, 19 and humanism, infrastructure for, 23 and multiculturalism, purposes, as quasi-religious narrative, 17 as responsive utterance, 17 role of emotions in, 19 shared dimensions of, as social phenomenon, 18 tradition of, and universal civility, 112 Human Rights Watch, 20, 109 Hunt, L., I Indonesian puppet theater, 94 International Criminal Court, 108 Iraq, 28, 106–108 J Jameson, F., 21 Japan, Jeremiah (Book of), 48 Jews, 8, 12, 16, 31, 40, 74 Jolie, A., 109 K Kafka, F., 11, 13, 55, 59, 65, 68–72, 79 Kant, I., 42, 43, 89, 90 Kashua, S., 109 Kigali Genocide Memorial, Rwanda, 12 King, M.L. Jr., 97 Kirsch, S., 30 Klepfisz, I., 39 Koff, C., 41 Kokotovic, M., 80 Korea, Kosovo, 41 Kovner, A., 45 Krog, A., 7, 12, 28, 36, 38, 46, 48 Kruschev, N., 68 Kundera, M., 57–59 Book of Laughter and Forgetting, 59–65 The Curtain, 64 The Joke, 58 sublation of power in, 64 Unbearable Lightness of Being, 79 L Laddaga, R., 109 Lahiri, J., 109 lament, 7–9, 12–13, 27–52 ambivalence in, 38 and Antigone, 28 being excluded from, 38 and botched salvation, 32, 45 as collective story, 35–38, 51 containing multitudes, 38–42, 50, 51 as feminine form, 79 first and second narratives in, 37 genres of, 28 and ghosts, 12, 44, 47, 51 in graphic novels, 46 grief-time in, 45–47, 51 as hopeful mode, 31, 44 and the maternal, 48–52 as means of civic repair, 29, 30, 34, 49, 52 INDEX and metonymy, 41, 51 and parataxis, 39, 51 and post-traumatic innocence, 16, 30–33, 48, 51 purposes of, 28 and reconciliation, 29, 34, 35, 37, 48, 52 and rememory, 34, 46 as reenactment, 46 and renewal, 31, 49, 51 and ressurection, 32 and ritual, 27, 30, 35, 51 role of emotions in, 30, 47–49 sources for, 35 and the sublime, 42, 43, 51 as symbolic process, 29, 30 and synecdoche, 40, 41 as transitional justice, 24, 29, 47, 52 Lamentations (Book of), 31, 40 Laughter, 8, 53–82 acute, 55–65 and agency, 57, 72 alliance with political and sexual freedom, 58, 79 and ambiguity, 62, 66 and ambivalence, 60, 81 as assault on legal personality, 69, 70 and the carnivalesque, 59 chronic, 55, 56, 65–72 and collective memory, 59 at death, 56, 70, 72 and detachment, 79, 82 and exile, 24, 59, 64 and forgetting, 59, 62, 63 as form of resilience, 4, 13, 24, 55, 57, 58, 67, 72, 79, 81 forms of, 55 and heteroglossia, 65 as internal freedom, 54, 55, 65, 79 merging with lament, 14, 24, 58, 72, 78 and minorities, 57, 76, 77 129 and misogyny, 79 and pathos, 56 posthumous, 55, 56, 72–82 and renewal, 15, 65 role of emotions in, 66, 79 and unfinalizability, 71, 82 and vulnerability, 54, 55, 57, 58, 70, 72 laughter-from-above See Laughter, chronic laughter-from-below See Laughter, chronic laughter-from-the-side See Laughter, acute Lazarus, E., 95 League of Nations, 84 Levi, P., 7, 38 Levinas, E., 17, 22 Levinson, M., 16 Locke, J., 22, 84, 86–88 Longinus, 42 M Madikizela-Mandela, W., 38 Malcolm X, 97 Mandelstam, O., 38 Mannheim, K., 18 Martin Luther King, Jr Memorial, 97 Mayakovsky Square, 94 McClennen, S., McLean, H., 66 memory vs recollection, 35–38, 51, 63 Menchu, Rigoberta, 107 mental culture See structure of feeling metonymy See lament Mill, J.S., 18, 86, 91, 98, 103 Milosz, C., 45 Milton, J., 94 Miya, E., 49 modes, 6–15 130 INDEX critical approach to, 15 as culture without borders, 83 formal dimensions of, 15 vs genres, as ideal types, 10, 14 intentionality in, lament, 9, 12–13 (see also lament) laughter, 13–15 (see also Laughter) as macro-forms, 9, 28 non-contingent and widespread, 5, 9, 51 permeability of, 14 protest, 6, 9–11 role of emotions in, 10, 15, 24 (see under civil society) testimony, 6, 9, 11–12 as a tradition, Moretti, F., 5, 7, 14, 16, 98 Morrison, T., 12, 28, 33, 44, 47, 49, 51 Moss, L., 38 Moyn, S., 6, 10 Muselmänner, 57 N new formalism, 15–16 Ngewu, C., 48 Nichols, B., 46 non-governmental organizations (NGOs), 2, 19, 35, 85, 93, 100–102, 105 Norridge, Z., O official vs practical consciousness, 65–68, 82 Okubo, M., 95 Olympic Games, 100, 107 Orozco, J., 84 Orwell, G., 11 Ouettar, T., 106 P Pamuk, O., 109 parataxis See lament pariah vs parvenu, 75–78 Poitier, S., 94 Poland, 40 Pollack, S., 106 post-traumatic innocence See lament Price Grieve, G., 84 Price, M.E., 100 Price, V., 99 Putnam, R., 88 R Radio Rwanda, Radnóti, M., 46 rape, 44, 48, 51, 104, 107, 108 Reed, R., 49 reflexive laughter, 57–59 See Laughter, acute relative universality, 22, 102 Religion of Humanity, 91 responsive utterances, 17, 70 Ricoeur, P., 17 Rousseau, J.-J., 86, 87, 105 Rozewicz, T., 41 Rusesabagina, P., 11 Rushdie, S., 23, 107 Rwanda, 8, 11, 28, 44, 109 S Sacco, J., 57–59 Sa'id, A.A (pseud Adonis), 32 Satrapi, M., 95 Schaffer, K., 4, 8, 34 INDEX Schreiber, M., 48 Schultheis Moore, A., 4, Sepamla, S., 37 Serge, V., 32, 43 Sesame Street, 104 Sierra Leone, 34, 109 Slater, M.B., 23 Slaughter, J., 4, 11, 103 slavery, 12, 28, 32, 108 Smith, S., 4, 8, 34 sociopolitical emotions, 7, 15, 17 See also civil society Sojourner Truth, 97 Solzhenitsyn, A., 10 Sontag, S., 17, 109 South Africa, 10, 37, 106, 107 Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 11, 29, 36, 48 Soviet Union, 40, 43, 50, 56 Soyinka, W., 109 Stalin, J., 38, 65 Stalinism, 43 Stassen, J. P., 28, 44, 48 Stowe, H. B., 94 structure of feeling, 2, 3, 9, 18, 23, 85, 88, 92, 95–98, 111 subjected subject, 54, 55, 57, 65, 68, 70, 71, 79, 81, 82 sublime See Lament Sudan, 21, 100, 109 surface reading, 16 Swanson Goldberg, E., 4, synecdoche See Lament Syria, 32, 107 Szymborska, W., 40, 45 T Taha, M.M., 22 telenovela, 104 Testimonio, 78 131 Theater of the Oppressed, 95 Tocqueville, A de, 18, 86, 88–91, 95 torture, 50, 78, 80, 95, 104, 108 transitional justice, 24, 29, 30, 34, 47, 52, 78 translation of human rights works, 22–23 trauma theory, 17, 35 truth commissions, 24, 29, 33, 34, 52 Tsvetayeva, M., 32 Tuquan, F., 48 Tutu, Bishop D., 29, 37 U UNESCO, 20, 103, 106, 111 Union of Soviet Writers, 68 United Kingdom, 107 United Nations, 2, 105, 106, 108 United States, 21, 28, 87, 91, 95, 101, 107, 109 Universal civility, 9, 18, 23, 64, 90, 99, 105, 112 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1, 10, 93, 103 US Holocaust Memorial Museum, 12 V vulnerability See Laughter W Weltliteratur, 64 White, H., 5, 9, 14, 16 Whitman, W., 91 Wikipedia, 94 Williams, R., 18, 65, 95, 96 Wilson, A., 97 132 INDEX Wisse, R., 76 Wollstonecraft, M., 94 Wordsworth, W., 43, 92 Wright, R., 97 Wu Ming arts collective, 110 Y Yerushalmi, Y.H., 35 Z Zaitsev, B., 50 Zoschenko, M., 13, 55, 59, 65–68, 72 "A Summer Breather", 67 "The Galosh", 66 "Lyalka Fifty", 67 "Nervous People", 66 ... by offering an account of two of the major modes of human rights literature lament, the literature of mourning, and laughter, the literature of resilience These literary modes exemplify art that... Communications theorists have considered the effect on viewers of the framing of human rights issues in the media (e.g., Borer 2012) This book contributes to the humanistic study of human rights by offering... strives to locate the shared, human dimensions of human rights literature The focus is on the aspects of the literature that seem most widespread, even while other aspects of the same literary
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: The modes of human rights literature , The modes of human rights literature

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn

Nhận lời giải ngay chưa đến 10 phút Đăng bài tập ngay