Victorian children’s literature

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Ruth Y Jenkins VI CTO R I A N C H I L DR EN’S L I TERATU R E Experiencing Abjection, Empathy, and the Power of Love Critical Approaches to Children’s Literature Series Editors Kerry Mallan Faculty of Education Children and Youth Research Centre Kelvin Grove, Queensland, Australia Clare Bradford School of Communication and Creative Art Deakin University Burwood, Victoria, Australia Aim of the series This timely new series brings innovative perspectives to research on children’s literature It offers accessible but sophisticated accounts of contemporary critical approaches and applies them to the study of a diverse range of children’s texts – iterature, film and multimedia Critical Approaches to Children’s Literature includes monographs from both internationally recognised and emerging scholars It demonstrates how new voices, new combinations of theories, and new shifts in the scholarship of literary and cultural studies illuminate the study of children’s texts More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/14930 Ruth Y. Jenkins Victorian Children’s Literature Experiencing Abjection, Empathy, and the Power of Love Ruth Y. Jenkins California State University, Fresno Fresno, California, USA Critical Approaches to Children’s Literature ISBN 978-3-319-32761-7 ISBN 978-3-319-32762-4 DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-32762-4 (eBook) Library of Congress Control Number: 2016951337 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Cover illustration @ Renfields_Garden Printed on acid-free paper This Palgrave Macmillan imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG, CH for Katws and Pys Cyw ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This project originated, appropriately enough, from reading to my older daughter, Katie Her passion for horses evolved into a deep love of listening to our reading Sewell’s Black Beauty to her, night after night as she imagined his story and later played it out with her toy horses Katie even became Beauty one Halloween For her, Sewell’s book offered endless possibilities of imagination For me, the narrative revealed the degree to which the desires and anxieties that saturated the literature written for adults during the Victorian era were present in these groundbreaking stories collected as literature for children This realization, together with the focalizing lens offered through Julia Kristeva’s theories of abjection, formed the seed for this book, which has grown beyond the joy of reading to her to include the pleasure of recognizing the extent to which Victorian literature for children remains a vital source of imaginative experience for adolescents today I want to thank Brigitte Shull and Critical Approaches to Children’s Literature series editors Kerry Mallan and Clare Bradford at Palgrave for their guidance and thoughtful readings and responses to the project I also want to acknowledge the original publication of a version of Chap as “Imagining the Abject in Kingsley, MacDonald, and Carroll: Disrupting Dominant Values and Cultural Identity in Children’s Literature” © 2011 by the Johns Hopkins University Press This article first appeared in The Lion and the Unicorn 35 (2011) I also want to acknowledge that a version of Chap was published as “Frances Hodgson Burnett’s The Secret Garden: Engendering Abjection’s Sublime” © (2011) by the Johns Hopkins University Press This article first appeared in Children’s Literature vii viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Association Quarterly 36:4 (2011) Martha Westwater’s constructive reading of Kristeva theories in Giant Despair meets Hopeful proved especially helpful in realizing a framework for that hopeful dimension to Kristeva’s theory, an aspect, though fundamental, that is often overlooked from discussions of her concepts I also want to recognize the students from my senior seminars on Victorian Children’s Literature for their frank observations and challenging questions about these narratives I especially want to thank my husband, John Moses, for his tireless patience in listening to my ideas evolve and willingness to read and respond to drafts with honest questions and astute observations I want to thank my daughter Emily, whose critique of the original title for this project proved extremely helpful Finally, I want to acknowledge Emily’s own capacity for imagination and empathy, reminding me daily of the power of love CONTENTS Introduction: Emerging Identities and  the Practice of Possibility Imagining the Abject in Kingsley, MacDonald, and  Carroll: Disrupting Dominant Values and Cultural Identity in Children’s Literature 21 Gender, Abjection, and Coming of Age: Games, Dolls, and Stories 45 Constructing the Self: Connection and Separation 65 Giving Voice to Abjection: Experience and Empathy 97 Engendering Abjection’s Sublime: Frances Hodgson Burnett’s The Secret Garden 119 ix 176 CONCLUSION—ABJECTION’S SUBLIME: IMAGINING LOVE Andrea Powell Jenkins, “Last,” 82 Kristeva, Tales, 262 de Nooy, 184 Kristeva, Tales, 381 BIBLIOGRAPHY A.L.O.E [Charlotte Maria Tucker] 1857 Rambles of a Rat London: T. Nelson and Sons Arseneau, Mary 2004 Recovering Christina Rossetti: Female Community and Incarnational Poets Basingtoke: Palgrave Macmillan Ballantyne, R.M 2006 The Coral Island Rockville, MD: Wildside Press Ballantyne, R. M 2012 The Gorilla Hunters Lexington: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform Bell, Mackenzie 1898 Christina Rossetti: A Biographical and Critical Study Boston, MA: Roberts Brothers Boëthius, Ulf 1997 ‘Us Is near Bein’ Wild Things Ourselves’: Procreation and Sexuality in The Secret Garden Children's Literature Association Quarterly 22(4): 188–195 Bové, Carol Mastrangelo 2006 Language and Politics in Julia Kristeva: Literature, Art, Therapy Albany: State University of New York Press Briggs, Julia 1999 Speaking Likenesses: Hearing the Lesson In The Culture of Christina Rossetti: Female Poetics and Victorian Contexts, eds Mary Arseneau, Antony H.  Harrison, and Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, 212–231 Athens, OH: Ohio University Press Burnett, Frances Hodgson 2002 A Little Princess New York: Penguin Books ——— 1994 The Secret Garden London: Puffin Books Butler, Judith 1989 The Body Politics of Julia Kristeva Hypathia 3(3): 104–118 Caputi, Mary 1993 The Abject Maternal: Kristeva’s Theoretical Consistency Women and Language 16(2): 32–37 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016 R.Y Jenkins, Victorian Children’s Literature Critical Approaches to Children’s Literature, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-32762-4 177 178 BIBLIOGRAPHY Carroll, Lewis 2000 Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland & Through the LookingGlass New York: Signet Chapman, Alison 1999 Father’s Place, Mother’s Space: Identity, Italy, and the Maternal I in Christina Rossetti’s Poetry In The Culture of Christina Rossetti: Female Poetics and Victorian Contexts, eds Mary Arseneau, Antony H. Harrison, and Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, 235–259 Athens, OH: Ohio University Press Coats, Karen 2004 Looking Glasses and Neverlands: Lacan, Desire, and Subjectivity in Children’s Literature Iowa City: University of Iowa Press ——— 2006 The Role of Love In The Self: Beyond the Postmodern Crisis, eds Paul Fitz and Susan M. Flelch, 45–61 Wilmington, DE: Intercollegiate Studies Institute Colley, Linda 1992 Britons: Forging the Nation, 1797–1837 New Haven: Yale University Press Craig, Amanda Amanda Craig on Books That Changed the World Five http:// old.thebrowser.com/interviews/amanda-craig-on-books-changed-world Crownfield, David 1992 Inter-Text In Body/Text in Julia Kristeva: Religion, Women, and Psychoanalysis, ed David Crownfield, 107–109 Albany: State University of New York Press Cunningham, Valentine 1985 Soiled Fairy: The Water-Babies in Its Time Essays in Criticism 35(2): 121–148 Darcy, Jane 2009 The Edwardian Child in the Garden: Childhood in the Fiction of Frances Hodgson Burnett In Childhood in Edwardian Fiction: Worlds Enough and Time, eds Adrienne E. Gavin and Andrew F. Humphries, 75–88 New York: Palgrave Davies, Máire Messenger 2001 ‘A Bit of Earth’: Sexuality and the Representation of Childhood in Text and Screen Versions of The Secret Garden The Velvet Light Trap 48: 48–58 de Nooy, Juliana 1998 Derrida, Kristeva, and the Dividing Line: An Articulation of Two Theories of Difference New York: Garland Despret, Vinciane 2004 The Body We Care For: Figures of Anthropo-ZooEnesis Body and Society 10(2/3): 111–134 Dutheil, Martine Hennard 2001 The Representation of the Cannibal in Ballantyne’s The Coral Island: Colonial Anxieties in Victorian Popular Fiction College Literature 28(1): 105–122 Evans, Gwyneth 1994 The Girl in the Garden: Variations on a Feminine Pastoral Children’s Literature Quarterly 19(1): 20–24 Ferguson, Moira 1994 Breaking in Englishness: Black Beauty and the Politics of Gender, Race and Class Women: A Cultural Review 5: 34–52 Fisher, David 1992 Kristeva’s Chora and the Subject of Postmodern Ethics In Body/Text in Julia Kristeva: Religion, Women, and Psychoanalysis, ed David Crownfield, 91–206 Albany: State University of New York BIBLIOGRAPHY 179 Fletcher, John, and Andrew Benjamin 1990 Abjection, Melancholia and Love: The Work of Julia Kristeva London: Routledge Fröebel Educational Trust http://www.froebel.org.uk/about-us/our-history/ Fröebel, Friedrich 1887 The Education of Man Trans W.N.  Hailmann New York: D. Appleton Gagnier, Regina 1991 Subjectivities: A History of Self-Representation in Britain, 1832–1920 New York: Oxford University Press Gee, James Paul 1999 An Introduction to Discourse Analysis: Theory and Method London: Routledge Geer, Jennifer 2003 ‘All Sorts of Pitfalls and Surprises’: Competing Views of Idealized Girlhood in Lewis Carroll’s Alice Books Children’s Literature 31: 1–24 Grass, Sean 2011 Piracy, Race and Domestic Peril in Hard Cash In Pirates and Mutineers of the Nineteenth-Century: 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Palgrave Macmillan Harrington, Thea 1998 The Speaking Abject in Kristeva’s Power of Horror Hypathia 13(1): 138–157 Heath, Michelle Beissel 2009 Playing at House and Playing at Home: The Domestic Discourse of Games in Edwardian Fictions of Childhood In Childhood in Edwardian Fiction: Worlds Enough and Time, eds Adrienne E. Gavin and Andrew F. Humphries New York: Palgrave Holt, Jenny 2010 ‘Normal’ Versus ‘Deviant’ Play in Children’s Literature: An Historical Overview Lion and the Unicorn 34(1): 34–56 Hughes, Bill 2009 Wounded/Mounstrous/Abject: A Critique of the Disabled Body in Sociological Imaginary Disability and Society 24(4): 399–410 180 BIBLIOGRAPHY Hughes, Thomas 1989 Tom Brown's Schooldays Oxford: Oxford University Press Hunt, Peter 2001 Children’s Literature: An Anthology, 1801–1992 Oxford: Blackwell Jenkins, Andrea Powell 2006 ‘The Last […] Thing One Needed to Know’: Kristeva’s ‘Herethics’ in Evelyn Scott’s Escapade and the Narrow House Journal of Modern Literature 29(3): 82 Jenkins, Ruth Y 2004 ‘I’m Spinning This for You, My Child’: Voice and Identity Formation in George Macdonald’s Princess Books The Lion and the Unicorn 28(3): 325–344 ——— 1995 Reclaiming Myths of Power: Women Writers and the Victorian Spiritual Crisis Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press Johnson, Kristin Jeffrey 2008 Curdie’s Intertextual Dialogue: Engaging Maurice, Arnold, and Isaiah In George Macdonald: Literary Heritage and Heirs: Essays on the Background and Legacy of His Writing, ed Roderick McGillis, 153–182 Allentown, PA: Zossima Kaston, Andrea J 1998 Speaking Pictures: The Fantastic World of Christina Rossetti and Arthur Hughes The Journal of Narrative Technique 28(3): 305–328 Katz, Wendy R 1984 Muse from Nowhere: Christina Rossetti’s Fantasy World in Speaking Likenesses Journal of Pre-Raphaelite Studies 5(1): 14–35 Kazamias, Andreas M 1966 Herbert Spencer on Education New York: Teacher’s College Press Kearns, Cleo McNelly 1992 Art and Religious Discourse in Aquinas and Kristeva In Body/Text in Julia Kristeva: Religion, Women, and Psychoanalysis, ed David Crownfield, 111–123 Albany: State University of New York Press Keltner, S.K 2011 Kristeva: Thresholds Cambridge: Polity Press Keyser, Elizabeth Lennox 1983 ‘Quite Contrary’: Frances Hodgson Burnett’s The Secret Garden Children’s Literature 11: 1–13 Kincaid, James R 1973 Alice’s Invasion of Wonderland PMLA 88(1): 92–99 Kingsley, Charles 1994 Water Babies: A Fairy Tale for a Landbaby Herfordshire: Wordsworth Edition Limited Knoepflmacher, U.C 1998 Ventures into Childland: Victorians, Fairy Tales, and Femininity Chicago: University of Chicago Press Kristeva, Julia 1990 The Adolescent Novel In Abjection, Melancholia and Love: The Work of Julia Kristeva, eds John Fletcher and Andrew Benjamin, 8–23 London: Routledge ——— 2007 Adolescence, a Syndrome of Ideality Psychoanalytic Review 94(5): 715–725 ——— 1989 Black Sun: Depression and Melancholia Trans: Leon S.  Roudiez New York: Columbia University Press ——— 1980a Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art Trans Leon S. Roudiez New York: Columbia University Press BIBLIOGRAPHY 181 ——— 2010 Hatred and Foregiveness Trans Jeanine Herman New  York: Columbia University Press Kristeva, Julia The Impudence of Uttering: The Mother Tongue Trans Anne Marsella http://www.kristeva.fr/impudence/html Kristeva, Julia 1987a In the Beginning Was Love: Psychoanalysis and Faith Trans Arthur Goldhammer New York: Columbia University Press Kristeva, Julia Motherhood Today http://www.kristeva.fr/motherhood.html Kristeva, Julia 1995 New Maladies of the Soul Trans Ross Guberman European Perspectives and Ed Lawrence D. Kritzman New York: Columbia University Press ——— 1980b Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection Trans Leon S. Roudiez New York: Columbia University Press ——— 1984 Revolution in Poetic Language Trans Margaret Waller New York: Columbia University Press ——— 1991 Strangers to Ourselves New  York: Columbia University Press Trans Leon S. Roudiez ——— 1987b Tales of Love Trans Leon S.  Roudiez New  York: Columbia University Press ——— 2006 This Incredible Need to Believe Trans Beverley Bie Brahic New York: Columbia University Press Lechte, John, and Maria Margaroni, eds 2004 Julia Kristeva: Live Theory New York: Continuum Lechte, John, and Mary Zournazi, eds 2003 The Kristeva Critical Reader Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Lurie, Alison 1990 Don’t Tell the Grown-Ups: The Subversive Power of Children’s Literature Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company MacDonald, George 1996a A Dish of Orts Whitethorn, CA: Johannesen ——— 1994 The Princess and Curdie London: Puffin Books ——— 1996b The Princess and the Goblin London: Puffin Books Mann, David D., and William Hardesty 1987 Stevenson’s Revisions of Treasure Island: ‘Writing Down the Whole Particulars’ Text: Transactions of the Society for Textual Scholarship 3: 377–392 Marquis, Claudia 1987 The Power of Speech: Life in the Secret Garden AUMLA 68: 163–187 McBratney, John 1992 Imperial Subjects, Imperial Space in Kipling’s The Jungle Book Victorian Studies 35(3): 277–293 McGillis, Roderick 1991 Childhood and Growth: George Macdonald and William Wordsworth In Romanticism and Children’s Literature in NineteenthCentury England, ed James Holt McGavran Jr., 150–167 Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press ——— 1992 For the Childlike: George MacDonald’s Fantasies for Children Scarecrow: Metuchen, NJ 182 BIBLIOGRAPHY ——— 1987 Simple Surfaces: Christina Rossetti’s Work for Children In The Achievement of Christina Rossetti, ed David A.  Kent, 208–230 Cornell: Cornell University Press Midttun, Birgitte Huitfeldt 2006 Crossing the Borders: An Interview with Julia Kristeva Hypathia 21(4): 164–178 Mistletoe Symbol Dictionary http://symboldictionary.net/?p=1590 Mitch, David F 1992 The Rise of Popular Literacy in Victorian England: The Influence of Private Choice and Public Policy Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press Moi, Toril, ed 1986 The Kristeva Reader New York: Columbia University Press Moore, Grace 2011 Pirates For Boys: Masculinity and Degeneracy in R.  M Ballantyne’s Adventure Novels In Pirates and Mutineers of the NineteenthCentury: Swashbucklers and Swindlers, ed Grace Moore, 165–179 Farnham, England: Ashgate Moran, Mary Jeanette 2001 Nancy’s Ancestors: The Mystery of Imaginative Female Power in the Secret Garden and a Little Princess In Mystery in Children’s Literature: From the Rational to the Supernatural, eds Adrienne E. Gaven and Christopher Routledge, 32–45 New York: Palgrave Morgenstern, John 2000 Children and Other Talking Animals Lion and the Unicorn: A Critical Journal of Children’s Literature 24(1): 110–127 Moss, Anita 1985 Varieties of Children’s Metafiction Studies in the Literary Imagination 18(2): 79–92 Murray, Heather 1985 Frances Hodgson Burnett’s The Secret Garden: The Organ(Ic)Ized World In Touchstones: Reflections on the Best in Children’s Literature, ed Perry Nodelman, 30–43 West Lafayette: Children’s Literature Association Nadel, Ira Bruce The Mansions of Bliss: Play in Victorian Life and Literature Children’s Literature 10, no 18-36 (1982).******* Nesbit, E 1994 The Story of the Treasure Seekers London: Puffin Books Nowak, Magdalena 2011 The Complicated History of Einfühlung Argument 1(2): 301–326 Nyman, Jopi 2001 Re-Reading Rudyard Kipling’s ‘English’ Heroism: Narrating Nation in The Jungle Book Orbis Literarum 53(3): 205–220 Oliver, Kelly 2003 The Crisis of Meaning In The Kristeva Critical Reader, eds John Lechte and Mary Zournazi, 36–54 Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press ——— 1993 Reading Kristeva: Unraveling the Double-Bind Bloomington: Indiana University Press ——— 1988 Subjectivity Without Subjects: From Abject Fathers to Desiring Mothers Oxford: Rowan and Littlefield Olson, Marilynn Strassert 2002 Little Workers of the Kindergarten The Lion and the Unicorn 10: 353–373 Padley, Jonathan 2009 Marginal(Ized) Demarcator: (Mis)Reading the WaterBabies Children’s Literature Association Quarterly 34(1): 51–64 BIBLIOGRAPHY 183 Parsons, Linda T 2002 ‘Otherways’ into the Garden: Re-Visioning the Feminine in the Secret Garden Children’s Literature in Education 33(4): 247–268 Phillips, Jerry 1993 The Mem Sahib, the Worthy, the Rajah and His Minions: Some Reflections on the Class Politics of the Secret Garden The Lion and the Unicorn 17: 168–194 Pratt, Mary Louise 1992 Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation New York: Routledge Price, Danielle E 2001 Cultivating Mary: The Victorian Secret Garden Children’s Literature Association Quarterly 26(1): 4–14 Prickett, Stephen 1983 The Two Worlds of George Macdonald Northwind: Journal of the George MacDonald Society 2: 14–23 Reimer, Mavis 1997 Treasure Seekers and Invaders: E. Nesbit’s Cross-Writing of the Bastables Children’s Literature 25: 50–59 Reineke, Martha 1992 The Mother in Mimesis: Kristeva and Girard on Violence and the Sacred In Body/Text in Julia Kristeva: Religion, Women, and Psychoanalysis, ed David Crownfield, 67–85 Albany: State University of New York Press Reynolds, Kimberley 1990 Girls Only?: Gender and Popular Children’s Fiction in Britain, 1880–1910 Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press Rhedding-Jones, Jeanette 2000 The Other Girls: Culture, Psychoanalytic Theories and Writing Qualitative Studies in Education 13(3): 263–279 Robinson, Jenny 2000 Feminism and the Spaces of Transformation Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers New Series 25(3): 285–301 Rose, Jacqueline 1984 The Case of Peter Pan, or the Impossibility of Children’s Fiction Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press Rossetti, Christina 1875 Speaking Likenesses Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press Rother, Carole 1984 Lewis Carroll’s Lesson: Coping with Fears of Personal Destruction Pacific Coast Philology 19(1/2): 80–94 Roudiez, Leon S 1974 Twelve Points from Tel Quel L’Espirit Createur 14: 291–303 Ruskin, John 2002 Of Queen’s Garden In Sesame and Lilies, ed Deborah Epstein Nord, 68–93 New Haven: Yale University Press Salerno, Allen 2001 Reappraisals of the Flesh: Christina Rossetti and the Revision of Pre-Raphaelite Aesthetics The Journal of Pre-Raphaelite Studies 10: 71–89 Senior, Claire Maiden-Songs: The Role of the Female Child in Christina Rossetti’s Speaking Likenesses The Journal of Pre-Raphaelite Studies 11 (Fall 2002): 63-94 Sewell, Anna 1994 Black Beauty London: Puffin Books Sickbert, Virginia 1993 Christina Rossetti and Victorian Children’s Poetry: A Maternal Challenge to the Patriarchal Family Victorian Poetry 31(4): 385–410 Silver, Anna Krugovoy 1997 Domesticating Brontës Moors: Motherhood in The Secret Garden The Lion and the Unicorn 21(2): 193–203 184 BIBLIOGRAPHY Silver, Anna K 1997 ‘My Perpetual Fast’: The Renunciation of Appetite in Christina Rossetti’s Speaking Likenesses Victorian Institute Journal 25: 177–201 Smith, Sidonie, and Julia Watson 2001 Reading Autobiography: A Guide for Interpreting Life Narratives Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press Söderbäck, Fanny 2011 Motherhood According to Kristeva: On Time and Matter in Plato and Kristeva philoSOPHIA: A Journal of Continental Feminism 1(1): 65–87 Sökefeld, Martin Aug-Oct 1999 Debating Self, Identity, and Culture in Anthropology Current Anthropology 40(4): 417–448 Soto, Fernando 2008 Kore Motifs in the Princess Books: Mythic Threads between Irene and Eirinys In George MacDonald: Literary Heritage and Heirs: Essays on the Background and Legacy of His Writing, ed Roderick McGillis, 65–81 Allentown, PA: Zossima Spencer, Herbert 1896 The Principles of Psychology, vol New York: D. Appleton Stevenson, Robert Louis 1994 Treasure Island London: Puffin Books Straley, Jessica 2007 Of Beasts and Boys: Kingsley, Spencer, and the Theory of Recapitulation Victorian Studies 49(4): 583–609 Stringer, Sharon A 1997 Conflict and Connection: The Psychology of Young Adult Literature Portsmouth: Boynton/Cook Publishers Heinemann Thacker, Deborah 2001 Feminine Language and the Politics of Children’s Literature The Lion and the Unicorn 25(1): 3–16 thwaite (e, n:) OED Online Oxford University Press Http://www.oed.com hmlproxy.lib.csufresno.edu/view/Engry/201596?redirectedFrom+thwaite Tompkins, Jane 1985 Sensational Designs: The Cultural Work of American Fiction, 1790–1860 New York: Oxford University Press Warner, Marina 2009 Out of an Old Toy Chest Journal of Aesthetic Education 43(2): 3–18 Webb, Jessica 2007 Corrupting Boyhood in Didactic Children’s Literature: Marryat, Ballantyne, and Kingsley Atenea 27(2): 81–93 Westwater, Martha 2000 Giant Despair Meets Hopeful: Kristevan Readings in Adolescent Fiction Edmonton: University of Alberta Press Wilkie-Stibbs, Christine 2002 The feminine Subject in Children’s Literature New York: Routledge Williams, Todd A 2014 The Autobiological Self and Embodied Knowledge of God in Christina Rossetti’s Time Flies Literature and Theology 28(3): 321–333 Wood, Naomi 2004 (Em)Bracing Icy Mothers: Ideology, Identity, and Environment in Children’s Fantasy In Wild Things: Children’s Culture and Ecocriticism, eds Sidney I. Dobrin and Kenneth B. Kidd, 198–214 Detroit: Wayne State University Press Zornado, Joseph L 2001 Inventing the Child: Culture, Ideology, and the Story of Childhood New York: Garland INDEX A abjection acknowledgement of, 9, 10, 68, 70 ambiguity, 8, 34, 50, 70, 72, 75–8, 81, 83, 85, 92, 174 anxiety, revealed through, 18n17, 24, 46, 80, 100, 126, 127, 135, 148, 159 denial of, 8–9, 62 desire, 2, 6, 8–11, 16, 21, 31, 32, 46, 47, 48, 57, 58, 62, 68, 71, 73, 75, 77, 78, 84, 86, 87, 89, 91, 92, 99, 112, 119, 126–7, 135, 138, 143n45, 146, 159, 160, 162, 173, 174, 175 drive, 8–10, 30, 135, 173, 174 extreme other, 98, 99–100, 107, 116 gender, 14, 15, 21, 34, 39, 40, 45–64, 100, 120, 121, 122, 133, 139, 154, 158, 159, 166, 167 haunting of, 9, 14, 29, 46, 60, 83, 124 maternal, 6, 86–7, 95n54, 136, 137, 145, 157 metabolizing, 10, 149, 173, 175 pre-oedipal, 8, 22 sublimity of, 9, 14, 29, 33, 46, 52, 81, 82, 101, 116, 119, 121, 124, 135, 137, 146, 148, 173–5 threat of, 8, 9, 21–4, 29, 33–9, 46, 61, 77, 86, 120, 124, 143n45, 148, 173, 174 untransposable, violence, 6, 48, 121 “Adolescence: A Syndrome of Ideality,” 173 “Adolescent Novel,” 7, 18n28, 47 A Lady of England (A.L.O.E), 16, 97, 100 See also Tucker, Charlotte Maria (A.L.O.E.) Alice in Wonderland (1865), 2, 21, 22, 33–9, 45, 146–7, 150, 159, 161 A.L.O.E See A Lady of England (A.L.O.E) amatory identification, 102–3, 106, 113 Arseneau, Mary, 147, 169n3, 170n24, 172n54 authority, beloved, 6, 13, 59, 66, 67–9, 70, 77, 79–84, 87, 88–90, 98, 99, 101–2, 103–5, 106, 109, 111, 112, 113–14, 115, 116, 119, 122, 133, 145, 161–4, 165, 173, 174 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016 R.Y Jenkins, Victorian Children’s Literature, Critical Approaches to Children’s Literature, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-32762-4 185 186 INDEX B Ballantyne, R. M., 15, 65, 69, 75, 76, 94n242 Bell, Mackenzie, 146 Benjamin, Andrew, 18n28 Bildungsroman, 49, 54, 70 Black Beauty (1878), 1, 16, 97, 100, 107–16, 119, 149 Black Sun: Depression and Melancholia, 63n7 Boëthius, Ulf, 139n2 borders See also thetic as filter boundaries, 34, 66, 84, 157, 158 failed/breached, 24, 29, 32, 36, 57, 60, 79, 80, 91, 112, 127, 146, 147, 161, 162, 164 Bové, Carol Mastrangelo, 93n16 Briggs, Julia, 148–50, 170n24 Burnett, Frances Hodgson, 1, 16, 55, 62, 64n43, 116, 119–43 Butler, Judith, 168 C Caputi, Mary, 86, 95n54, 134, 137 Carroll, Lewis, 2, 14, 21–43, 146, 147, 150, 159, 161 Chapman, Alison, 167, 172n54 chora, 55, 56, 60, 73, 74, 75, 77, 84, 86, 111, 127–30, 138, 142n42 See also Semiotic chora Coats, Karen, 5, 6, 14, 18n17, 48, 66, 120 Colley, Linda, 40n2 Coral Island, The (1858), 1, 15, 65, 66, 69–77, 79–83, 94n21, 95n45, 97 Craig, Amanda, 117n17 Crownfield, David, 115, 118n24 Cunningham, Valentine, 25, 41n15 D Darcy, Jane, 140n12, 141n14 Davies, Máire Messenger, 140n10, 140n12 De Nooy, Juliana, 175 Desire in Language, 12 Despret, Vinciane, 115 development, psychic, 2, 3, 6, 7, 82, 109 dialogic, 12, 150 Dickens, Charles, 91 discourse See also narrative; scripts authority, 3, 13, 82, 89, 99, 115, 151, 174 cultural, 2–4 Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge See Carroll, Lewis Dutheil, Martine Hennard, 75, 77, 80 E Einfühlung, 13, 79, 99, 102, 110, 111 See also empathy embodiment, 149, 167, 172n53 empathy, 3, 13, 16, 17, 79, 97–119, 122, 137, 138, 141n14, 145, 148, 152, 154–9, 174 See also Einfühlung as transference, 13, 16, 79, 99, 102, 148, 158, 174 Evans, Gwyneth, 139n2 F Ferguson, Moira, 111 Fisher, David, 114 Fitz, Paul C., 18n23 Flelch, Susan M., 18n23 Fletcher, John, 18n28 Foucault, Michel, 4, 142n42 Fröebel, Friedrich, 122, 124, 140n10, 140–1n12, 141n14 INDEX G Gagnier, Regina, 3, garden as chora, 127–30, 138, 142n42 as educational model, 16, 120, 122, 124, 133, 138, 140n12 as gendered, 120–2, 133, 139n2 Gee, James Paul, Geer, Jennifer, 36 genotext, 32, 42n32, 130, 136 golden age children’s literature, 2, 3, 14, 17n3, 23, 33 Golding, William, 69 Grass, Sean, 77 Gross, Elizabeth See Grosz, Elizabeth Grosz, Elizabeth, 8, 41n16, 60 Gubar, Marah, 4, 5, 17n3, 39, 62, 63n1, 64n34, 95n58, 96n67 Gutiérrez-Albilla, Julián Daniel, 135 H Hansen, Natalie Corinne, 107, 115, 117n16, 118n39 Hardesty, William H., 64n26 Harper, Lila Marz, 41n13 Harrington, Thea, 92 Hatred and Forgiveness, 168 Heath, Michelle Beissel, 139n2 Herethics, 3, 16, 114–16, 145–72, 173–5 Holt, Jenny, 91, 92 Hughes, Bill, 126 Hughes, Thomas, 123, 141n22 Hunt, Peter, 40n13, 123 I identity See also moratorium, psychic abjection, 2, 6, 8, 9–12, 14, 16, 17, 18n28, 21, 22, 31, 34, 46, 48, 187 54, 55, 59, 62, 65, 67, 68, 75, 79, 80, 83, 84, 89, 91, 98, 100, 121, 125, 127, 131, 137, 173 constructed self, 3, emerging, 1–20, 65–7, 79, 80, 83, 84, 98, 123 experimentation, 52 possible, 6, 7, 11, 15, 46, 47, 55, 65, 75, 79, 82, 83, 132, 173 imaginary, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 56, 58, 62, 63n10, 66, 86, 87, 91 “Impudence of Uttering,” The, 121 Incredible Need to Believe, This, 10, 86, 148, 173, 174 Ingelow, Jean, 146 interplay, 149, 150–4, 155 In the Beginning Was Love, 18n18, 114 J Jenkins, Andrea Powell, 146, 175 Johnson, Kirstin Jeffrey, 41n20 Jungle Book, The, 89, 90 K Kaston, Andrea, 146, 157, 159, 170n11, 171n34 Katz, Wendy R., 171n34 Kazamias, Andreas M., 141n15 Kearns, Cleo McNelly, 114, 118n24 Keltner, S. K., 94n39 Keyser, Elizabeth Lennox, 143n46 Kilgour, Maggie, 75 Kincaid, James R., 34, 36, 37, 42n35 Kingsley, Charles, 14, 21–43, 152, 157 Kipling, Rudyard, 89, 90 188 INDEX Knoepflmacher, U. C., 147, 150, 161, 170n18, 171n31 Kristeva, Julia, 2, 3, 6–15, 18n24, 18n28, 21–3, 25, 27–30, 32, 36, 40n11, 41n16, 46, 47, 50, 52, 54–57, 59, 61, 66–71, 73, 77–9, 82, 86, 90, 92, 95n54, 98, 99, 102, 103, 107, 108, 110, 114, 115, 121, 122, 124, 128, 130, 133–7, 145–50, 154, 157, 158, 164, 168, 169, 173–5 L Lacan, Jacque, 5, 6, 8, 12, 13, 67, 98 Lechte, John, 20n84, 68 Lesnik-Obserstein, Karin, 41n13 Little Princess, A (1911), 1, 15, 48, 54–62 Looking Glass, Through the (1871), 33, 36–9, 159, 160 love, maternal dynamic, 13, 133–7, 138, 145, 167–9 transference, 13, 168 Lurie, Alison, 34 M MacDonald, George, 1, 14, 21–43, 149 Maladies of the Soul, 7, 73, 92 Mann, David D., 64n26 Margaroni, Maria, 20n84 Marquis, Claudia, 127, 138n1, 142n42 McBratney, John, 89, 90 McGillis, Roderick, 41n20, 146, 147, 149, 150, 163, 170n27, 171n34, 172n51 McMilan, Margaret, 140n10 Midttun, Birgitte Huitfeldt, 95n54 Mitch, David, 17n2 Moi, Toril, 95n57 Moore, Grace, 71, 75, 76, 94n24 Moran, Mary Jeanette, 138n1, 142n42 moratorium, psychic, 7, 10, 11, 15, 48, 51, 52, 54 Morgenstern, John, 100, 117n16 Moss, Anita, 95n50 mother-father conglomerate, 13, 157 motherhood as ethics, 86, 95n54, 133, 134 as mental, 95n54, 134, 142n42 “Motherhood Today,” 95n52 Murray, Heather, 139n2, 143n46 N Nadel, Ira Bruce, 123 narrative, 1–3, 5, 6, 10–16, 25–7, 29, 34, 36, 39, 40n11, 45–9, 51–7, 60–2, 63n1, 64n26, 65, 67–9, 70–3, 78, 79, 80, 82–4, 86, 88–93, 95n58, 96n67, 97–100, 102, 104, 105, 107–11, 113–16, 119–21, 124, 125, 138, 139n1, 141n12, 150–3, 156, 161, 163, 170n27, 172n53, 173, 175 See also discourse; scripts narrative-I, 67–9, 111 Nesbit, Edith, 15, 65, 69, 82, 83, 90, 91, 95n50, 96n67 New Maladies of the Soul, Nowak, Magdalena, 110 Nyman, Jopi, 89 O Oliver, Kelly, 110, 115, 146, 169, 174 Olson, Marilynn Strasser, 141n13 Other, absolute, 7, 16 INDEX P Padley, Jonathan, 41n13 Parsons, Linda T., 139n2 phenotext, 32, 130, 136 Phillips, Jerry, 140n10, 140n12 Powers of Horror, an Essay on Abjection, 22, 46, 124 Pratt, Mary Louise, 72 Price, Danielle E., 139n1, 142n42, 142n45 Pricket, Stephen, 41n20, 42n27 Princess and Curdie, The (1882), 22, 28–33, 36 Princess and the Goblin, The (1872), 22, 28, 31–3, 36 psychic, splitting, 13, 59, 66–7 psychic structure, open, 6–8, 10, 11, 40n11, 47, 50, 52, 65, 68, 90, 97, 108, 148, 173 psychoanalysis as parallel to narrative, 5, 11, 46 R Ramblings of a Rat (1857), 2, 100–7, 119 Reimer, Mavis, 90 Reineke, Martha, 93n2 Revolution in Poetic Language, 19n35 Reynolds, Kimberley, 45 Rhedding-Jones, Jeanette, 5, 13, 67 Robinson, Jenny, 19n41 Rose, Jaqueline, 5, 117n16 Rossetti, Christina, 16, 138, 145–72 Rossetti, Dante Gabriel, 146 Rossetti, William Michael, 146 Roudiez, Leon, 19n36, 20n77 Ruskin, John, 121, 122, 146, 147 S Salerno, Allen, 171n31 scripts See also discourse; narrative as-if, 11, 83, 84, 90, 91, 93 as-if-I, 14, 54, 69–75 98, 173 189 as-if-other, 16, 97–9, 108, 173, 175 normative, Secret Garden, The (1911), 16, 116, 119–43, 145 Sedding, John, 122 self See also subject formation construction of, 3–5, 7, 10, 15, 48, 65–116 emergent, 66–7, 82, 103, 174 identity, 55 self-story, 3, 55, 62, 69, 110 Semiotic chora, 8, 59, 66, 68, 74, 80, 105, 159 Senior, Claire, 166, 167, 169n3, 171n31, 172n53 Sewell, Anna, 1, 16, 97, 107, 108, 111–15, 117n16 Sickbert, Virginia, 150, 151, 156, 157 signifying process, 8–9, 71, 78 dynamic, 6, Silver, Anna Krugovoy, 142n42, 171n31, 172n53 Sing-Song, 146, 150, 151, 156, 157 Smith, Sidonie, 17n4 Söderback, Fanny, 86 Sökefeld, Martin, Soto, Fernando, 41n20 Speaking Likenesses (1875), 2, 138, 145–69 Spencer, Herbert, 122–24, 138 splitting, psychic See also subjects-in-process literacy’s affect on, mirror state, 59, 66 castration in relationship to, 78 primary, 5, 66, 67 secondary, 5, 67 Stevenson, Robert Louis, 48, 63n26, 69 Story of the Treasure Seekers, The (1889), 1, 15, 65, 66, 69, 82–92 Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 107 Straley, Jessica, 41n13 Strangers to Ourselves, 158 190 INDEX Stringer, Sharon A., 54, 92 subject consolidation, subject formation, 5, 6, 86, 148 subjectivity, multivalent, subjects-in-process, 10, 15, 65, 87, 92, 98 See also psychic, splitting sublimation, 9, 56, 71, 89, 121, 146, 175 symbolic, 5, 6, 8–13, 15, 16, 21–39, 40n11, 41n16, 42n35, 47, 49, 50, 52–8, 60, 61, 65–88, 90–3, 95n54, 97–101, 103–9, 111–14, 119, 122, 124, 127–33, 134–8, 142n45, 145, 146, 148–50, 157, 159, 162, 168, 169, 172n53, 174, 175 T Tales of Love, 10, 79, 99, 175 Taylor, R. Loring, 146 Thacker, Deborah, 4, 42n25, 45 thetic as filter boundary, as, 10, 29, 36, 70, 103 phase, 8, 30, 32, 78 recalibrated, 32 rupture, as, 29 Tom Brown’s School Days, 123 Tompkins, Jane, 107 transference analytical, 10, 173 imaginative, 10–12, 47–8, 81–6 literary, 12, 16, 46, 62, 148, 158, 168 love, 10, 13, 79 See also as-if-I, as-if-other transposition, 25, 26, 30, 31, 33, 39, 78, 86, 102, 103, 112, 133 Treasure Island (1883), 1, 15, 40, 48–54 Tucker, Charlotte Maria (A.L.O.E.), 16, 97, 100–2, 105, 106, 111, 162 Turley, Hans, 77 W Warner, Marina, 141n14 Water-Babies, The (1863), 1, 22, 23–8, 29, 32, 37, 40n13 Watson, Julia, 17n4 Webb, Jessica, 74, 78 Westwater, Martha, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 18n18, 18n24, 46, 61, 67 Wilkie-Stibbs, Christine, 12, 46, 148 Williams, Todd O., 169n3 Winnicott, D. W., Wood, Naomi, 41n13 Z Zornado, Joseph L., 42n34 ... in literature written for children and adolescents, and that such literature from the Victorian era, children’s literature s “golden age,” is particularly rich with instances of abjection Victorian. .. written for Victorian children At the heart of this study is this question: What is the relationship between Victorian children’s literature, its readers, and their psychic development? The Victorian. .. this in mind, children’s literature may provide a unique opportunity to examine the tensions between culture’s normalizing discourses and those offered in response Victorian children’s literature
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