Women in academic psychiatry

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Sophia Frangou Editor Women in Academic Psychiatry A Mind to Succeed 123 Women in Academic Psychiatry Sophia Frangou Editor Women in Academic Psychiatry A Mind to Succeed 123 Editor Sophia Frangou Department of Psychiatry Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY USA ISBN 978-3-319-32175-2 DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-32177-6 ISBN 978-3-319-32177-6 (eBook) Library of Congress Control Number: 2016944473 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland Preface Barely a day goes by without a news or an academic article about the status of women in science and medicine They paint a remarkably consistent picture of gender inequality that seems to transcend national and institutional boundaries No matter what measure is used, from salaries to promotion [1], to grant funding [2, 3], and to academic publishing [4]; women fare worse than similarly qualified men Not surprisingly, they are more likely to leave research and academic life Although there has been progress, the gender gap stubbornly refuses to go away The issue of the “vanishing women” is perhaps most acute in academic psychiatry This is because for more than two decades, psychiatry has been among the medical specialties with the highest proportion of women entering residency programs [5] The percentage of women in junior academic positions in psychiatry is also high and consistently higher than that of men However, the number of women in positions of leadership remains disproportionally low In the USA, for example, only 13 % of department chairs in psychiatry are women [1] My personal journey from medical school graduate of the University of Athens to trainee psychiatrist at the world-famous Maudsley Hospital and to senior faculty, first at the Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, and now at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, has provided the impetus for this book It has been a journey full of amazing encounters I have had the privilege of meeting many extremely accomplished women, true trail blazers, both as scientists, clinicians and role models I have also had the responsibility of helping younger women navigate their own voyage through the stormy waters of academia as a program director for academic trainees for over a decade and as a mentor to my graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and junior faculty The book reflects the duality of my experiences The first part “They Did It Their Way” starts with profiling 15 women that hold positions of leadership within academic psychiatry They have been very brave in their willingness to provide intimately personal, very honest, and extraordinarily moving accounts of their own journeys Their stories are not just accounts of professional success They are powerful tales of self-determination and empowerment A striking feature they all share is their desire to pursue their dreams and remain true to their selves and their v vi Preface generosity in opening up their lives to women everywhere There is of course no single pathway to academic success but reading these stories can help distill useful lessons The second part of the book therefore aims to signpost the “snakes” and to highlight the “ladders” of the academic world Very few are gender specific in themselves but they affect women disproportionally and they prevent the gender gap from closing I hope that the messages conveyed in these chapters will provide opportunities for self-reflection and inspiration for future action Some may argue that writing a book such as this implies that the problem with the gender gap is women themselves This was exactly what I was told early on in my career A senior female colleague advised me to stay away from any womencentered initiative because these were only for women that were not “good enough” to make it on scientific merit alone This was and is bad advice and a key example of how some women internalize and propagate negative societal attitudes about ourselves Others may also argue that in order to close the gender gap we need to focus on societal and institutional barriers This is of course true but meaningful change can only happen through the coordinated activity of a critical mass of likeminded people, women and men This is why this book is not just for women It is also for those men who, either as partners, fathers, brothers, mentors, or leaders, are interested in understanding the female perspective on the gender gap and are motivated to strategize change I have met many men who declared that they had no idea about the problems and barriers women faced Initially I tended not to believe them as these problems were both tangible and obvious to me However, I now think otherwise Male myopia when it comes to the gender gap is real and needs to be addressed if we are to transform our working environment The hope with “Women in Academic Psychiatry: A Mind to Succeed” is that it will show to all readers, women or men, that change is possible There are many more women than those contributing to this book that are engaged in this process of change Success in closing the gender gap is a group process that also critically depends on individual efforts and achievement Although this book is focused on psychiatry, it contributes to a wider societal effort to understand what underpins discourse on gender equality in leadership New York, NY, USA Sophia Frangou References American Association of Medical Colleges The state of women in academic medicine, the pipeline and pathways to leadership 2014 https://www.aamc.org/ newsroom/aamcstat/,a=418758 Rockey S Women in biomedical research 2014 https://nexus.od.nih.gov/all/ 2014/08/08/women-in-biomedical-research/ Preface vii European Research Council Gender statistics 2014 https://erc.europa.eu/sites/ default/files/document/file/Gender_statistics_April_2014.pdf Filardo G, da Graca B, Sass DM, Pollock BD, Smith EB, Martinez MA Trends and comparisons of female first authorship in high impact medical journals: observational study (1994–2014) BMJ 2016;352:i847 American Association of Medical Colleges Report on residents 2015 https:// www.aamc.org/data/448474/residentsreport.html Contents Part I They Did It Their Way Lynn E DeLisi Judith M Ford 11 Ellen Frank 17 Sheila Hollins 23 Hilleke Hulshoff Pol 31 Eve C Johnstone 37 Shaila Misri 47 Antonia New 55 Mani Pavuluri 63 10 Mary Phillips 69 11 Natalie Rasgon 75 12 Marcella Rietschel 79 13 Nina Schooler 87 14 Patricia Suppes 93 15 Carol A Tamminga 99 16 Danuta Wasserman 105 Part II Plan Your Way 17 The Pursuit of Happiness 117 18 External Barriers: Societal Attitudes 121 19 Internal Barriers 125 20 Putting Yourself First 129 ix x Contents 21 Putting Yourself Forward 133 22 Project Confidence 137 23 Be Visible 141 24 Be Memorable 145 25 Be Connected 149 26 Be Persistent 153 Index 157 Contributors Lynn E DeLisi VA Boston Healthcare System, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Brockton, MA, USA Judith M Ford Department of Psychiatry, San Francisco VA Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA Sophia Frangou Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Ellen Frank Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, USA Sheila Hollins St George’s University of London, London, UK Hilleke Hulshoff Pol Division of Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands Eve C Johnstone Royal Edinburgh Hospital, University Department of Psychiatry, Scotland, UK Shaila Misri Department of Psychiatry, Obstetrics, Gynecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Department of Reproductive Mental Health Program, BC Children’s & Women’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada Antonia S New Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Mani Pavuluri Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Mary L Phillips Department Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Natalie L Rasgon Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA Marcella Rietschel Department of Genetic Epidemiology in Psychiatry, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany Nina R Schooler SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA xi 23 Be Visible 143 stakeholders to garner interest and funding Tweeting, blogging, podcasting, pinning news on Internet forums, self-archiving your publications, and maintaining an appealing, informative, and regularly updated Web site are all crucial elements of visibility in the digital era References Hewlett SA Executive presence Harper Business; 2014; ISBN-10: 0062246895; ISBN-13: 978-0062246899 Hewlett SA, Peraino K, Sherbin L, Sumberg K The sponsor effect: breaking through the last glass ceiling Harvard Business Reviews; 2011 Women of Influence White Paper: Solutions to Women’s Advancement 2014 http://www womenofinfluence.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Women-of-Influence-WhitePaper-2014.pdf Be Memorable Sophia Frangou 24 People make important judgments about others in a matter of seconds Research suggests that it takes between to 30 seconds to form an impression of someone during a personal interaction Similarly, recruiters take all of seconds to look at a resume before deciding whether an applicant is a good or bad fit for a position [1] Regardless of whether or not these figures are completely accurate, they make the point that the time frame for making positive impressions on others is very short The initial impression formed during that short time, be it positive or negative, serves as a filter through which all subsequent interactions are processed Because of this lasting impact, making a good first impression should be among your top priorities When interacting with others, the first thing we notice is their appearance; how they dress; and how they carry themselves Deborah Tannen, Professor of Linguistics at Georgetown University, has focused her research on how language depicts and affects relationships and highlights gender differences in communication Her now-famous essay, “There is No Unmarked Woman,” expands upon these concepts to explore how gender influences choosing and judging appearances [2] In linguistics, markedness refers to the way words are changed in order to impart a special meaning An “unmarked word” refers to a word in its most basic form Take for example the word “academic.” The singular, “academic,” is the unmarked word To denote the plural form, we mark the word by adding an “s,” as in “academics” thereby transforming it into a “marked word.” This same idea applies to words that imply gender Words associated with men are unmarked (e.g., male) and unmarked words are assumed to be male In contrast, those referring to women are typically marked (e.g., female) Tannen remarks that men’s appearance is also unmarked because their choices (e.g., suit) are limited and carry only very S Frangou (&) Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1425 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10029, USA e-mail: sophia.frangou@mssm.edu © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 S Frangou (ed.), Women in Academic Psychiatry, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-32177-6_24 145 146 S Frangou basic significance In contrast, because there are numerous work-wear options for women (e.g., dress, skirt, pantsuit), our choices are inevitably “marked” by added meaning Tannen concludes her essay by commenting that it is “impossible for a woman to get dressed in the morning without inviting interpretations of her character.” Yet this is certainly not an appeal for conservatism in dress code for women in academia Instead, it is a call for awareness that our appearance will be memorable, whether we intend for it to be or not, and that the way we look outwardly will be used, by both women and men alike, to construct perceptions of our identity It is therefore important that the choices we make about our appearance, whatever they may be, are consistent with the narrative we want to project for ourselves and are in line with promoting our career goals Before being introduced to senior colleagues who may play important roles in your future career, make sure you have done your homework and are able to engage them in a way that showcases both your knowledge and appreciation of their work In general, neither women nor men remember a face in the crowd, but they remember the people who pay them compliments or make interesting remarks about their work As there are few women in academia, and even fewer in leadership positions, we are often memorable simply because our gender makes us stick out in male-dominated rooms Although most of us would gladly give up this advantage, until women and men are equally represented in academia, we need to use it as an opportunity to be noticed Yet this can be difficult On the first advisory board I was invited to join, I had the triple distinction of being the youngest person, the only woman, and the only foreigner I was treated as an outsider throughout my time on this particular board and felt neither welcomed nor valued My comments were met with indifferent silence or patronizing put-downs, both of which are common tactics that intimidate many women faculty into keeping quiet If we are really aspiring to success in academia, then silence and token participation is not the way forward We need to use our “uniqueness” in these forums to promote ourselves and to demonstrate that women can contribute to discussions at the “top table.” Regardless of seniority, success in academic psychiatry does not simply depend on the value of our work Our ability to communicate our achievements plays an equally significant role We need to throw modesty out of the window This is not to advocate bragging, which is generally off-putting, but to stop ourselves from using language that downplays the significance of our work and minimizes our personal contribution We should stop diminishing our accomplishments by attributing them to “luck” and “teamwork.” Under-reporting our accomplishments not only hurts our careers, but also increases the competitive advantage of men Men tend to report higher levels of past achievement and to overestimate their future potential Potential evaluators seem to take these gender differences in presentation at face value, thus assuming that females are less accomplished especially in academic environments where gender biases are pervasive [3] The net result is that men’s ability to self-promote increases their chances of being offered more career opportunities [4] To overcome this unfortunate status quo, you must make use of any opportunity to showcase your work Use your resume as a marketing 24 Be Memorable 147 tool, focusing on accomplishments rather than a timeline of life events Similarly, take advantage of any occasion to present your research, both at in-house or at external meetings, and use them as valuable occasions to highlight the importance of your work Although research presentations should be based on solid scientific findings, their purpose is not to detail procedures and facts Instead, their objective is to provide a memorable account of your research findings so that other people can appreciate them and their significance Every presentation should tell a story, and like a good story, a good presentation has a strong central theme and a “flow” that is easy to follow The primary focus of your interactions at work must be based on your strengths and priorities and should assist you in building a strategic toolkit to promote your achievements and convey your leadership potential References http://cdn.theladders.net/static/images/basicSite/pdfs/TheLadders-EyeTracking-StudyC2.pdf Tannen D There is no unmarked woman In: Cohen S, editor 50 essays: a portable anthology Bedford/St Martin’s; 2003; ISBN: 0-312-41205-3 Pololi LH, Jones SJ Women faculty: an analysis of their experiences in academic medicine and their coping strategies Gend Med 2010;7:438–50 Reuben E, Sapienza P, Zingales L How stereotypes impair women’s careers in science Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2014;111:4403–8 Be Connected Sophia Frangou 25 In academia, as is the case in all other aspects of life, “those who know how to build strong positive social networks reap many benefits” [1] To survive and thrive, we need a “tribe.” Building a tribe goes beyond networking As we discussed in “Be Visible,” networking is largely based on transactional alliances focused on a specific shared interest or goal In contrast, tribes are formed when people connect with others to build long-term, trusting, and mutually supportive relationships that transcend immediate needs Tribes satisfy a fundamental human need, the “need to belong” [2] This need motivates modern-day humans as much as it did for prehistoric cave dwellers Tribal membership is associated with many benefits including greater life satisfaction, greater happiness, and better subjective health [3] Although your tribe should include family and friends as well as colleagues, we focus here on professional or “academic tribes.” It was Roy Anthony Becher, the founding father of higher education research in Britain [4], who first made us aware of the tribal nature of academia through his influential book, “Academic Tribes and their Territories” [5], first published in 1989, which drew from his observations and experiences at academic institutions in the USA and UK Since then, numerous studies have shown that the strongest predictor of research output and career advancement is being part of a productive academic tribe The tribe effect gives you access to a wider range of resources and contacts which, in turn, increases your value as an academic Co-authorship and citation networks are perhaps the most objectively measurable functions of academic tribes Analysis of these networks can be performed using mathematical models derived from network and S Frangou (&) Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1425 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10029, USA e-mail: sophia.frangou@mssm.edu © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 S Frangou (ed.), Women in Academic Psychiatry, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-32177-6_25 149 150 S Frangou communication theories and has been greatly enabled by the availability of electronic databases [6] In addition to serving as an assessment of tribal influence, citations also measure of one’s own scientific impact and standing, as they indicate endorsement and confer authority A study of research collaborations among scientists found that most (60–80 %) were short-lived and lasted less than a year, with significant further attrition over five years [7] The same study also showed, that about out of 25 researchers had “super-ties” with other collaborators with whom they continued to work over decades [7] Articles from researchers with super-ties were cited on average 17 % more often those of their counterparts [7] This analysis is just one of multiple examples demonstrating the differential value of networking (short-term collaborations) compared to academic tribal membership The later comprised long-term relationships between scientists and was characterized by “trust, conviction, and commitment [7].” In academia, tribal membership is not inclusive but selective Selection is based on performance in various academic rites of passage that mark key transition points in career trajectories, as well “goodness-of-fit” assessments between prospective tribal members and the existing tribal culture At the beginning of our careers, it is important to look out for sponsors and mentors who are successful tribal leaders These individuals will have established and widespread collaborative relationships and should represent key figures of authority in our field of interest Shelda Debowski [8], whose expertise in higher education is marked by her experience as Deputy Vice Chancellor and Professor of Higher Education Development in Australia, defines the first phase of tribal membership as the “good citizen” phase The emphasis during this stage is on engaging in collegial activities that establish one’s value to the tribal leader and to the other members of the tribe According to Mary Evans, Centennial Professor at the Gender Institute, London School of Economics, these activities are particularly meaningful for women as “building friendships through work as a ‘citizen’ is a huge help in limiting that sense of isolation that is part and parcel of being an academic” [9] On the flip side, being a “good citizen” carries the danger of getting stuck in a position where one is indispensable but also invisible Both gender stereotypes and our own behavior place us at greater risk of becoming trapped in this scenario As women, we are more vulnerable to falling victims to the “loyalty trap” [10], because we value personal relationships and, as we saw in “Putting yourself first,” we often prioritize others’ needs above our own We therefore have to ensure that we move quickly from the “good citizen” phase to what Debowski calls the “strategic phase” [8], where we begin to carve out our own niche within the tribe and promote our own agenda and identity The third stage of tribal membership is that of the “engaged scholar” [8], where the emphasis shifts again from that of following and belonging, to leading or building a tribe of one’s own The stories of the women who participated in this book demonstrate our potential for leading our own tribes and describe some of the many ways this can be achieved Each and every one of these women has made significant contributions to the discipline of psychiatry and to the lives of patients and their families Although 25 Be Connected 151 they all experienced challenges in their academic journeys, they stand out because they understood their worth, refused to give up on their vision, and in doing so achieved great professional success References Southwick SM, Charney DS Resilience: the science of mastering life’s greatest challenges Cambridge University Press; 2012; ISBN-10: 0521195632; ISBN-13: 978-0521195638 Baumeister RF, Leary MR The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation Psychol Bull 1995;117:497–529 Greenaway KH, Haslam SA, Cruwys T, Branscombe NR, Ysseldyk R, Heldreth C From, “we” to “me”: group identification enhances perceived personal control with consequences for health and well-being J Pers Soc Psychol 2015;109(3):53–74 https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/people/obituaries/roy-anthony-becher-19302009/406027.article Becher R Academic tribes and territories: intellectual enquiry and the cultures of discipline Open University Press; 1989; ISBN-10: 0335092217; ISBN-13: 978-0335092215 Newman MEJ Coauthorship networks and patterns of scientific collaboration Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004;101(Suppl 1):5200–5 Petersen AM Quantifying the impact of weak, strong, and super ties in scientific careers Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2015;112:E4671–80 Debowski S The new academic: a strategic handbook 1st ed Open University Press; 2012; ISBN-10: 0335245358; ISBN-13: 978-0335245352 https://www.timeshighereducation.com/features/is-academic-citizenship-under-strain/ 2018134.article 10 Women of Influence White Paper: Solutions to Women’s Advancement 2014 http://www womenofinfluence.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Women-of-Influence-WhitePaper-2014 pdf Be Persistent Sophia Frangou 26 Success in academia is a triumph of determination and passion over rejection and criticism Academic life is full of evaluative rituals, from institutional performance appraisals to various forms of “peer review” of our academic output Added to this, we have to deal with overt rejection from academic journals, from conference organizers, and from grant-giving bodies We can find solace in knowing that academics are not alone in dealing with rejection and in realizing that rejection itself does not necessarily reflect the true value of our work Earlier this year, J.K Rowling, the best-selling author of the Harry Potter series, published letters of rejection she received from different publishing houses at the beginning of her writing career [1] These letters are full of “helpful” but essentially patronizing advice not unlike the “feedback” we often get from the journal editors Rejection and criticism are distressing experiences for both women and men However, criticism, rejection, or even outright failure can only really stop you in your tracks if you let them As much as this may sound like a platitude or an unrealistic ideal, it is certainly not In fact, it is exactly what DeCastro and colleagues [2] found when they interviewed 100 former recipients of National Institutes of Health Mentored Career Development Awards and 28 of their mentors All interviewees reported that rejection was the prevailing experience of academic life Both women and men rated the ability to persevere and persist in the face of adversity, as more predictive of success than intellect or competence They commented on the “grit,” “toughness,” and “thick skin” required to overcome negative outcomes and feelings of frustration and stress Although men and women expressed similar opinions about the importance of perseverance in academia, there were some distinct differences in how each gender group processed and responded S Frangou (&) Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1425 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10029, USA e-mail: sophia.frangou@mssm.edu © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 S Frangou (ed.), Women in Academic Psychiatry, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-32177-6_26 153 154 S Frangou to academic criticism and rejection The study found that women were more prone to interpreting rejection as the evidence of lack of ability They were also more likely to transform a single rejection into a negative perception of their whole professional life and their entire self-worth Increased sensitivity to negative judgments is a typical response of individuals who believe themselves to be undervalued by those determining whether or not to confer approval [3, 4] This phenomenon, termed rejection sensitivity, is not unique to women or even academia Rejection sensitivity has been well documented in all competitive environments in which negatively stereotyped individuals are restricted from obtaining the necessary means for success [4] As we have already seen, women within academic institutions are often undervalued and offered fewer career-enhancing opportunities simply because of their gender Based on this widespread occurrence within academic institutions, London and colleagues [5] expanded the concept of rejection sensitivity to encompass gender They proposed that within academia, women’s awareness of negative gender stereotypes may lead to “self-silencing” [5, 6] Self-silencing involves suppressing those thoughts, feelings, and actions that may be considered incongruent with expected societal norms in order to avoid criticism or rejection Societal norms prescribe affiliative, supportive, and subordinate roles for women and discourage overtly competitive, ambitious, and assertive behavior Outwardly, self-silencing in women leads to the inhibition of self-expression and action, while inwardly it may trigger feelings of anger, depression, self-doubt, and alienation In a series of studies, London and colleagues examined the effect of gender rejection sensitivity on the behavior and academic engagement of men and women in highly competitive and evaluative academic institutions [5] Although their work did not focus on psychiatry, their findings resonate with similar research on academic medicine [2] They saw significant individual variability in rejection sensitivity within both gender groups but found that in general, women were more likely than men to expect gender-based rejection Women with higher rejection sensitivity were more likely to engage in self-silencing as a coping mechanism, which in turn led to increased feelings of alienation and eventual disengagement from academic life In other words, rejection sensitivity increased the odds of women opting out of academia because they did not feel they belonged Women with young children may be particularly vulnerable to this, as their sense of underachievement at work is compounded by feelings of guilt for their perceived failure to conform to the traditional female homemaker model [2] London and colleagues [5] also suggest that gender-based rejection may invoke an additional type of detrimental reaction involving denial Some women minimize gender rejection sensitivity by ignoring or reframing signs of gender discrimination or bias Although this behavior may protect the individual, it creates an environment where gender biases are allowed to persist because their existence is denied by those they affect the most Denial of gender-based rejection also feeds into the negative stereotype of women as not being a “good fit” for competitive academic environments Many lines of evidence underscore the importance of mentorship and support networks within academia For me, the best practical advice comes from Carla 26 Be Persistent 155 Harris, Vice Chair of Wealth Management, and Managing Director and Senior Client Advisor at Morgan Stanley, because she clearly defines the types of support that you need Harris [7] explains that it is important to have an “advisor,” a “mentor,” and a “sponsor.” Many different people, both within your institution or without, can play the role of advisor Advisors are the individuals you can trust to help you increase your “situational understanding” and make you aware of the issues at play as you negotiate professional transitions and plan important career moves A mentor is a senior colleague with whom you have a personal relationship and who truly cares about your professional and personal development Mentors serve as insightful resources and can provide strategic advice about your career A sponsor should be someone with resources and power Their role is to provide and facilitate access to resources Within academia, that would mean access to laboratory space, research funds, or patient cohorts The sponsor is also the person who should act as your advocate, willing to “fight your corner” at all the crucial decisions regarding your career Will these people come knocking at your door? Experience says this is unlikely Establishing these valuable relationships requires initiative and action as well as a clear understanding that reciprocity underlies each one Advisors, mentors, and sponsors must be people whose interests are aligned with your own They are the people to whom you are unforgettably visible because of your unfaltering persistence and your unabashed confidence to consistently put yourself forward References https://twitter.com/jk_rowling/status/713298761288708096 DeCastro R, Sambuco D, Ubel PA, Stewart A, Jagsi R Batting 300 is good: perspectives of faculty researchers and their mentors on rejection, resilience, and persistence in academic medical careers Acad Med 2013;88:497–504 Horney K The neurotic personality of our time New York, NY: Norton; 1937 Merton RK Social theory and social structure (Enlarged Edition) Free Press; 1968; ISBN-10: 0029211301; ISBN-13: 978-0029211304 London B, Downey G, Romero-Canyas R, Rattan A, Tyson D Gender-based rejection sensitivity and academic self-silencing in women J Pers Soc Psychol 2012;102(5):961–79 Jack DC, Ali A Silencing the self across cultures: depression and gender in the social world (Reprint Edition) Oxford University Press; 2012; ISBN-10: 0199932026; ISBN-13: 978-0199932023 Harris CA Expect to win Plume; 2010; ISBN-10: 0452295904; ISBN-13: 978-0452295902 Index A Academic success academia, 138 assert, 138 confidence, 137 impostor phenomenon, 137 leadership, 137 perfectionism, 137 praise, 138 psychiatry, 44, 142 Altshuler, Lori, 72 American Psychiatric Association, 94 American Psychopathological Association, 88 American Society for Clinical Psychopharmacology, 89 Andreasen, Nancy, 7, 33 Anti-depressant drugs, 39 Antipsychotic drugs, 39 Assertiveness, 138 Association for Clinical Psychosocial Research, 88 B Baldessarini, Ross, 95 Behavioral Neuroendocrinology Program, 76 Beyond Words, 24, 25 Biological psychiatry, 5, 33 Biosignatures of pediatric mood disorders, 64 Bipolar disorder, 20, 65, 96 Bipolar Disorders Research Program, 94 Board of Biological Psychiatry, Board of Science at British Medical Association, 24 Boomsma, Dorret, 33 Booth, Chris, 41 Borderline personality disorder, 56, 60 Brain and Environmental Training Towards Emotional Resilience (BETTER), 65 Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, 32 Brain imaging, 12, 32, 56, 138 Brain plasticity, 32 Brown, Alec, 40 Buchsbaum, Monte, Butters, Nelson, 33 C Center for Neuroscience in Women’s Health, 76 Cichon, Sven, 81 Clayton, Paula, Cole, Jonathan, 89 College of Occupational Therapists, 24 Cullberg, Johan, 109 Curie, Marie, 4, D DeLisi, Lynn E ambition, aspirations, 5–6 best career move, career advice, 10 difficult times, handling, doing differently, 9–10 leadership and negotiation skills, mentor(s), 6–7 neuroimaging and genetics, to psychiatry, 4–5 obstacles, 7–8 role (positive/negative), 8–9 schizophrenia research, work–family balance, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM), 94 E Edinburgh High Risk Study, 38 Emotional processes, 70 European Psychiatric Association (EPA), 106, 110 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 S Frangou (ed.), Women in Academic Psychiatry, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-32177-6 157 158 F Female healthcare provider, 51 Female mentorship, 57, 68 First-episode psychosis, 88 fMRI See Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Ford, Judith M ambition, 12 best career move, 13 career advice, 15 day care, 15 difficult times, handling, 14 EEG, 12 imaging modalities, 12 interacting with patients, 13 mentor(s), 13 neural mechanisms, 13 obstacles, 14 role (positive/negative), 14 psychopathology, 13 schizophrenia brain imaging project, 12 translational psychiatry, 12 work–family balance, 15 Foster, David, 72 Frank, Ellen ambition, 18 best career move, 20 career advice, 21–22 difficult times, handling, 20 emerita status, 19 mentor(s), 19 as mother, 21 obstacles, 20 to psychiatry, 18–19 role (positive/negative), 21 unipolar and bipolar disorders, 20 work–family balance, 21 Freedman, Danny, 101 Freedom feminism, 118 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 65, 66, 68, 72 G Gabor Ungvari, 65 Gender equality, 118 Gender, 18, 21, 25, 35, 41, 43, 59, 65, 73, 101, 121, 134, 145, 146, 150, 154 Genetics and ethics, 80 psychiatric disorders, 80 Gershon, Elliot., Grantsmanship skills, 72 Gray, Jeffrey, 72 Index H Henn, Fritz, Herrington, Reg, 40 Hersenstichting Nederland, 32 Hillyard, Steve, 13 Hollins, Sheila ambition, 24 being different, 28–29 best career move, 25–26 career advice, 29 ‘cross-bench’ peer, 24–25 intellectual disabilities, 24 married life, 27 mental health and developmental disability, 24 mentor(s), 25 obstacles, 26–27 to psychiatry, 24 role (positive/negative), 27–28 work–family balance, 28 I Immortality, 4, Ingram, Malcolm, 40 Institute of Human Genetics, 81 Intellectual disability, 40 International Association of Suicide Research (IASR), 106 International Society of Psychiatry Genetics, 80 Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum, 88 Internet, 33, 35, 142 Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy for Bipolar Disorder, 18 Ivy League education, 59 J Jansson, Bengt, 109 Jarvik, Lissy, 77 Joëls, Marian, 33 Johnstone, Eve C ambition, 38–39 career advice, 44–45 Clinical Research Centre, 41 clinical skills, 44 difficult times, handling, 42 Medical Research Council, 41 mentor(s), 40–41 obstacles, 42 to psychiatry, 39–40 role (positive and/negative), 43 work–family balance, 43–44 Index K Kahn, René, 33 Karolinska Institutet, 110 Kibbutz, 88 Kraemer, Helen, 19 Kupfer, David, 72, 90 Kydd, Robb, 64 L Learning disabilities, 24 Levi, Lennart, 109 Lithium discontinuation, 96 M Maternalistic mentoring ability, 74 McElroy, Susan, 96 McGuire, Michael, 77 Medical Research Council, 41, 108 Metabolic disorders, 76 Misri, Shaila ambition, 48 career advice, 53 difficult times, handling, 50–51 mentor(s), 49 obstacles, 50 perinatal mental health, 49 psychiatric illness, pregnant and post-partum mothers, 49 to psychiatry, 48 research obligations, 52 role (positive/negative), 51–52 work–family balance, 52 Mood disorders, 70, 76 Mullen, Paul, 67 Multi-photon microscopes, 40 N National Academy Medicine, 18 National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental Ill-Health, 108 National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, 110 National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 5, 6, 8, 58, 88 Netherlands Twin Register, 32 Neurobiology of schizophrenia, 38 Neuroimaging, 4, 34, 38, 70 Neuropsychiatry, 71 Neuroscience, 12, 13, 32, 34, 40, 57, 58, 65, 71, 72, 95, 100 New, Antonia ambition, 56 brain imaging and genetics, 52 career advice, 60–61 159 difficult times, handling, 58–59 mentor(s), 57 NIH- and VA-funded research, 58 obstacles, 58 to psychiatry, 56–57 role (positive/negative), 59 work–family balance, 59–60 NIMH See National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Nöthen, Markus, 81 P Patrick Wild Centre, 39 Pavuluri, Mani ambition, 64 career advice, 68 difficult times, handling, 66–67 fMRI research path, 68 mentor(s), 65–66 obstacles, 66 phenomenology, 65 to psychiatry, 64–65 role (positive/negative), 67 work-family balance, 67–68 Pediatric Mood Disorders Clinic Program, 64, 66 Personalized interventions, 64 Pfefferbaum, Dolf, 13 Pharmacological treatments, 56, 88 Phillips, Mary L ambition, 70 brain–behavior relationships, 71 career advice, 74 mentor(s), 72 obstacles, 73 psychiatric neuroscience research, 71 to psychiatry, 70–71 role (positive/negative), 73–74 self-doubt, 74 work–family balance 74 Pol, Hilleke Hulshoff ambition, 32 career advice, 36 difficult times, handling, 34 genetic and environmental influences, 32 mentor(s), 33 neuropsychology, 34 new ideas, implementation of, 33 obstacles, 34 to psychiatry, 32 role (positive/negative), 34–35 structural and functional brain plasticity, 32 work–family balance, 35 160 Precision neuropsychopharmacology in developing brain, 65 Pregnancy Blues, 48 Professional achievement female ambition, 134 initiatives, 134 leadership, 134 self-promotion, 134 strategy, 134 success, 129 Propping, Peter, 81 PSC See Psychopharmacology Service Center (PSC) Psychiatric genetics, 80, 82 Psychiatric imaging, 44 Psychiatric research, 19, 107, 131 Psychiatric services, 50 Psychiatry of disability, 24 Psycho-biosocial models, 65 Psychodynamics, 65, 106 Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Panel, 18 Psychopharmacological treatment of patients with schizophrenia, 88 Psychopharmacology, 6, 89 Psychopharmacology Service Center (PSC), 88 Psychosis, 12, 38, 40, 100 Psychosis research, 38, 90 Psychosomatics, 107 Psychotic disorders, 70 R Rapoport, Judith, 33 Rasgon, Natalie ambition, 76 career advice, 78 difficult times, handling, 77 mentor(s), 77 obstacles, 77 psychiatry, 76 research collaborations, 76 role (positive/negative), 77 work–life balance, 78 Ree, Jan van, 33 Reproductive medicine, 48 Reproductive Mental Health Program, 48, 50 Retterstol, Nils, 110 Rietschel, Marcella ambition, 80 career advice, 85 difficult times, 83 mentor(s), 81 Index obstacles, 82–83 to psychiatry, 80 role (positive/negative), 84 work–family balance, 84 Roth, Tom, 13 S Saxby, John, 65 Schatzberg, Alan, 77 Schiebel, Arnold, 95 Schizophrenia International Research Society, Schizophrenia Research, 4, 5, Schizophrenia, 4, 5, 12, 33, 38–40, 42, 80, 89, 90 Schooler, Nina advice, 92 ambition, 88 difficult times, handling, 91 education, 88 mentor(s), 89–90 mentoring opportunities, 89 obstacles, 90 to psychiatry, 89 role (positive/negative), 91 work–family balance, 91 Scientific Advisory Board of the Dutch Brain Foundation, 32 Self-fulfilment, 117 Sexism, 73 Sexual discrimination, Siever, Larry, 57 Single-mindedness, 57 Societal attitudes, 121–123 Sole, Goldberg, 89 “Sugar lump” polio vaccine, 38 Suicidal behaviours, 106 Suicide prevention, 106, 108, 110 Suicidology, 106 Suppes, Trisha advice, 98 ambition, 94 bipolar disorder, 96 career advice, 98 difficult times, handling, 97 mentor(s), 95–96 neuroscience of mood disorders, 95 obstacles, 96 psychiatry, 94 role (positive/negative), 97 work–family balance, 97 Sweeny, John, 65 Index T Tamminga, Carol A ambition, 99–100 brain mechanisms, 100 career advice, 103 difficult times, 101 failed experiments, 102 mentor(s), 101 obstacles, 101 psychiatry, 100 role (positive/negative), 102 work–life balance, 102 Telephone conference, 35 Tenured faculty, 13 Texas Medication Algorithm Project, 94 U University of Edinburgh, 38 University of Texas Southwestern Medical School (UTSW), 96 V Veterans Administration Medical Center, 33 W Wasserman, Danuta advice, 113 ambition, 106–107 career advice, 112 difficult times, 111 mentor(s), 109–110 obstacles, 111 psychiatry, 107–108 role (positive/negative), 111 suicidality, 108 work–family balance, 112 Weissman, Myrna, 7, 19 WHO See World Health Organization (WHO) 161 WHO Collaborating Center for Research, 106 Women academia, 146 academic tribes, 149 appearance, 145 attitudes, 126 belonging, 150 communication skills, 146 competency, 121 external barriers, 121–123 female guilt, 125, 126 helpful behavior, 130–131 implicit bias, 125 internal barriers, 125–126 Internet and social media, 142 leadership, 126, 131, 142, 146 mentorship, 154 merit, 141 networking, 142 over-giving, 130 perseverance, 153 persistence, 153–155 psychiatry, 142, 150 rejection, 154 self-doubt, 125, 126 self-promotion, 142, 146 self-silencing, 130, 154 setting priorities, 131 societal expectations of, 129 success, 117 tribal culture, 150 verbal communication, 122 workplace interaction, 147 Women's Leadership Group, 70 Women's Wellness Program, 76 World Health Organization (WHO), 108, 110 Wright, Jim, 64 Wyatt, Richard J., .. .Women in Academic Psychiatry Sophia Frangou Editor Women in Academic Psychiatry A Mind to Succeed 123 Editor Sophia Frangou Department of Psychiatry Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai... choosing to a fellowship in biological psychiatry in the NIMH intramural program rather than going to one of the schools for training in psychoanalysis The year was 1978 In summary, my choice of psychiatry. .. profiling 15 women that hold positions of leadership within academic psychiatry They have been very brave in their willingness to provide intimately personal, very honest, and extraordinarily moving
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