The transnational significance of the american civil war

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PA L G R AV E M A C M I L L A N T R A N S N A T I O N A L H I S T O R Y S E R I E S THE TRANSNATIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR Edited by Jörg Nagler, Don H Doyle, and Marcus Gräser Palgrave Macmillan Transnational History Series Series Editors Akira Iriye Harvard University Cambridge, USA Rana Mitter Department of History University of Oxford Oxford, United Kingdom This distinguished series seeks to develop scholarship on the transnational connections of societies and peoples in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries; provide a forum in which work on transnational history from different periods, subjects, and regions of the world can be brought together in fruitful connection; and explore the theoretical and methodological links between transnational and other related approaches such as comparative history and world history Editorial board: Thomas Bender, University Professor of the Humanities, Professor of History, and Director of the International Center for Advanced Studies, New York University Jane Carruthers, Professor of History, University of South Africa Mariano Plotkin, Professor, Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero, Buenos Aires, and member of the National Council of Scientific and Technological Research, Argentina Pierre-Yves Saunier, Researcher at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France Ian Tyrrell, Professor of History, University of New South Wales More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/14675 Jörg Nagler • Don H Doyle • Marcus Gräser Editors The Transnational Significance of the American Civil War Editors Jörg Nagler Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Germany Don H Doyle University of South Carolina Columbia, USA Marcus Gräser Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria Palgrave Macmillan Transnational History Series ISBN 978-3-319-40267-3 ISBN 978-3-319-40268-0 DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-40268-0 (eBook) Library of Congress Control Number: 2016953845 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Cover illustration: © Hermann Berghaus Printed on acid-free paper This Palgrave Macmillan imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This book originated in two conferences on “The Transnational Significance of the American Civil War” which were held at Friedrich Schiller Universität, Jena, Germany (September 15–18, 2011) and at the German Historical Institute, Washington, DC (September 20–22, 2012) The German Historical Institute contributed the major funding for both conferences The Washington conference was also funded by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation The conference in Jena received additional funding from the University’s Faculty of the Humanities as well as from the Ernst Abbe-Foundation, Jena, the American Embassy at Berlin, and the Hamburg Institute for Social Research (HIS) We are most grateful for their generous support of this project We thank all those colleagues who participated in the two conferences as chairpersons, contributors, and discussants and whose contributions could not be published here We are equally grateful for the diligence and cooperation of the authors whose essays are included here We also thank the staff at both institutions, in Jena and Washington, DC, whose work helped us enormously in realizing the conferences We would also like to thank Kristin Purdy, our editor at Palgrave Macmillan, who has been an ardent supporter of this project v CONTENTS Introduction: The Electric Chain of Transnational History Jörg Nagler, Don H Doyle, and Marcus Gräser Part I Liberalism, Citizenship, and International Law 13 Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Seas?: Civil War Statecraft and the Liberal Quest for Oceanic Order Robert Bonner 15 The American Civil War and the Transatlantic Triumph of Volitional Citizenship Paul Quigley 33 Lincoln as the Great Educator: Opinion and Educative Liberalism in the Civil War Era Leslie Butler 49 vii viii CONTENTS Part II Transnational Political Economy and Finance Southern Wealth, Global Profits: Cotton, Economic Culture, and the Coming of the Civil War Brian Schoen International Finance in the Civil War Era Jay Sexton Part III Transnational Discourses on Freedom and Radicalism 69 91 107 Uprooted Emancipators: Transatlantic Abolitionism and the Politics of Belonging Mischa Honeck 109 Africa and the American Civil War: The Geopolitics of Freedom and the Production of Commons Andrew Zimmerman 127 Part IV Nation Building and Social Revolutions: The American Civil War and Italy 67 The United States, Italy, and the Tribulations of the Liberal Nation Tiziano Bonazzi 10 Nation-Building, Civil War, and Social Revolution in the Confederate South and the Italian Mezzogiorno, 1860–1865 Enrico Dal Lago 149 151 169 CONTENTS Part V Race and Nationalism in Latin America and the Caribbean During the American Civil War Era ix 187 11 Race and Revolution: The Confederacy, Mexico, and the Problem of Southern Nationalism Andre M Fleche 189 12 Tocqueville’s Prophecy: The United States and the Caribbean, 1850–1871 Nicholas Guyatt 205 13 Reconstructing Plantation Dominance in British Honduras: Race and Subjection in the Age of Emancipation Zach Sell Index 231 243 LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS Tiziano Bonazzi is Emeritus Professor of US History and Politics, Department of Political and Social Sciences University of Bologna A political and intellectual historian, he has been President of the Italian Association of American Studies (AISNA) and member of the Board of the European Association for American Studies (EAAS) His most recent work is Abraham Lincoln: Un dramma americano (2016) Robert  Bonner is Professor of History at Dartmouth College His research on nineteenth-century politics and culture includes Mastering America: Southern Slaveholders and the Crisis of American Nationhood (2009) Leslie  Butler is Associate Professor of History at Dartmouth College Her work has explored nineteenth-century Anglo-American thought and culture Her first book was Critical Americans: Victorian Intellectuals and Transatlantic Liberal Reform (2007), and she is working on a book titled American Democracy and the Woman Question Enrico Dal Lago is Lecturer in American History at the National University of Ireland, Galway He is the author of Agrarian Elites: American Slaveholders and Southern Italian Landowners, 1815–1861 (2005); American Slavery, Atlantic Slavery, and Beyond: The U.S “Peculiar Institution” in International Perspective (2012); William Lloyd Garrison and Giuseppe Mazzini: Abolition, Democracy, and Radical Reform (2013); and The Age of Lincoln and Cavour: Comparative Perspectives on Nineteenth-Century American and Italian NationBuilding (2015) Don H.  Doyle is McCausland Professor of History at the University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina His recent books include The Cause of All Nations: An International History of the American Civil War (2015); American xi RECONSTRUCTING PLANTATION DOMINANCE IN BRITISH HONDURAS: RACE 239 Hyde brought him to a nearby estate According to McCutchon, when Hyde was visiting the estate’s sugar house, “the Chinaman walked in the river and was drowned.”39 So Tsing was brought from the river by fellow laborers and his body was taken to their quarters at Regalia When plantation managers and police arrived, the men refused to remove So Tsing’s body Laborers allegedly also stated their desire to kill Hyde for his responsibility in So Tsing’s death At the following day’s inquest, the verdict was “voluntary drowning” and in response Chinese laborers refused to return to work To break down the work stoppage, several striking laborers were taken, imprisoned, and forced to two weeks’ hard labor on public roads.40 *** When W. E B. Du Bois emphasized the necessity for considering “the stretch in time and space between the deed and the result,” he was specifically addressing the complexity of colonial production and metropolitan consumption Yet, Du Bois’ emphasis also provides a vantage for considering the continuing transnational impact of US slavery following the American Civil War While McCutchon and other white Southerners extended the cultivation of sugar in British Honduras through brutal violence against labor, their efforts ultimately failed to transform the economic basis of the colony The Light of the Age was the only ship of indentured laborers to arrive in the colony during the period Despite this, US planters’ involvement in the failed project serves as a reminder that the stretch of time and space characterizing US settler slavery’s impact extended past the US Civil War and beyond the United States.41 These stretches also went far beyond such failures NOTES The author is grateful to acknowledge support from the New Orleans Center for the Gulf South at Tulane University for a research grant which was indispensable to the completion of this project British Honduras Colonist, 29 February 1868 Ibid On Southerners’ recruitment see: Donald C.  Simmons Jr Confederate Settlements in British Honduras (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2001), 30–31 On mahogany see: Barbara Bulmer-Thomas and Victor BulmerThomas, The Economic History of Belize: From the Seventeenth Century to Post-Independence (Benque Vieo del Carmen: Cubola Books, 2012), 97 240 Z SELL British Honduras Colonist, 11 April 1868 Records of Antebellum Southern Plantations from the Revolution through the Civil War University Publications of America Samuel McCutchon Papers Microfilm Series I, Pt Selections from Louisiana State University: Reels 5–6 Hereafter cited as: Samuel McCutchon Papers O. Nigel Bolland and Assad Shoman, Land in Belize, 1765–1871 (Mona, Jamaica: Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies, 1977), 82 David Roediger, “Pre-Capitalism in One Confederacy: A Note on Genovese, Politics and the Slave South,” in Towards the Abolition of Whiteness: Essays on Race, Politics, and Working Class History (New York: Verso, 1994), 49–50 Seth Rockman, “Slavery and Capitalism,” The Journal of the Civil War Era (2012): Dwijendra Tripathi, “Opportunism of Free Trade: Lancashire Cotton Famine and Indian Cotton Cultivation,” Indian Economic & Social History Review (1967): 255–263 William Otto Henderson, The Lancashire Cotton Famine 1861–1865 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1934), 11 Matthew A Schnurr, “Commodity Cropping and the Delineation of Agricultural Space in Natal, 1850–1863,” South African Historical Journal 61 (2009): 138 R. Gerard Ward, “Land Use on Mago, Fiji: 1865–1882,” The Journal of Pacific History 37 (2002): 103 See further: Gerald Horne, The White Pacific: U.S.  Imperialism and Black Slavery in the South Seas after the Civil War (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2007) 10 Sven Beckert, “Emancipation and Empire: Reconstructing the Worldwide Web of Cotton Production in the Age of the American Civil War,” The American Historical Review 109 (2004): 1405–1438 11 A. V Hill, “The Tobacco Industry in Australia,” Economic Botany 6, (1952): 152 12 Arthur H. Cole, “The American Rice-Growing Industry: A Study of Comparative Advantage,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 41 (1927): 619 Judith Carney, “Landscapes of Technology Transfer: Rice Cultivation and African Continuities,” Technology and Culture 37 (1996): James H. Tuten, Lowcountry Time and Tide: The Fall of the South Carolina Rice Kingdom (Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 2010), 26, 22–27 13 David B.  Grigg, The Agricultural Systems of the World: An Evolutionary Approach (New York: Cambridge University Press, RECONSTRUCTING PLANTATION DOMINANCE IN BRITISH HONDURAS: RACE 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 241 1974), 102 Cheng Siok Hwa, “The Development of the Burmese Rice Industry in the Late Nineteenth Century,” Journal of Southeast Asian History (1965): 74 Robert F. Pace, “‘It Was Bedlam Let Loose’: The Louisiana Sugar Country and the Civil War,” Louisiana History 39 (1998): 389 Ibid., 390 Mark Schmitz, “The Transformation of the Southern Cane Sugar Sector: 1860–1930,” Agricultural History 53 (1979): 270–285 L Bouchereau and A Bouchereau, Statement of the Sugar and Rice Crops Made in Louisiana (New Orleans: Pelican Book and Job Printing Office, 1869), 69 Not until the 1890s did Louisiana production match pre-Civil War levels Schmitz, “Transformation of Southern Cane,” 271 United States Department of the Treasury Bureau of Statistics, Monthly Summary of Commerce: World’s Sugar Production and Consumption, 1800–1900, 1902 See also: “The World’s Sugar Production and Consumption, 1800–1900,” The Louisiana Planter and Sugar Manufacturer (Jan., 1902): 202 Ralph S.  Kuykendall, Hawaiian Kingdom 1854–1874, Twenty Critical Years (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1953), 141 On sugar production in Hawaii see: Rebecca Stefoff and Ronald T.  Takaki, Raising Cane: The World of Plantation Hawaii (New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1994) Takaki, Pau Hana: Plantation Life and Labor in Hawaii, 1835–1920 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1984) Richard A. Hawkins, “The Impact of Sugar Cane Cultivation on the Economy and Society of Hawaii, 1835–1900,” Illes I Imperis, (Dec 2006): 61 Lacy K. Ford, Deliver Us from Evil: The Slavery Question in the Old South (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 104 British Honduras Colonist, 11 April 1868 Morrell relocated from Mississippi to Texas in the 1830s John Hodge to Lieutenant Governor J.  Gardiner Austin, May 1866 CO 123/121, National Archives of the United Kingdom On Xaibe see: Rosemarie M. McNairn, “Baiting the British Bull: A Fiesta, Trials, and a Petition in Belize,” The Americas 55 (1998): 240–274 Albert Muntsch, “Xaibe: A Mayan Enclave in Northern British Honduras,” Anthropological Quarterly 34 (1961): 121–126 “Rough Notes Taken on a Flying Visit to the Northern District of British Honduras,” Sugar Cane (1 Jan 1870): 29–30 242 Z SELL 25 Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (Clayton: Prestwick House Press, 2004), 65 26 Consul Samuel B. Dutton, “Report Forwarded by the Foreign Office Upon the Cultivation of Cotton in the District of Aux Cayes, Hayti,” Cotton Supply Reporter November 1866 Willis D. Boyd, “James Redpath and American Negro Colonization in Haiti, 1860–1862,” The Americas 12 (1955): 169–182 John R.  McKivigan, Forgotten Firebrand: James Redpath and the Making of Nineteenth-Century America (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008) 27 Phillip Magness and Sebastian Page, Colonization after Emancipation: Lincoln and the Movement for Black Resettlement (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2011) 28 Matthew Pratt Guterl, American Mediterranean: Southern Slaveholders in the Age of Emancipation (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008) Gerald Horne, The Deepest South: The United States, Brazil, and the African Slave Trade (New York: New York University Press, 2007) 29 Great Britain Parliament “British Honduras,” House of Commons Papers; Accounts and Papers, vol 49 (1870), p 28 30 British Honduras Colonist, 14 March 1868 31 Richard Follett, The Sugar Masters: Planters and Slaves in Louisiana’s Cane World, 1820–1860 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2005), 51, 98, 112 32 James Oakes, The Ruling Race: A History of American Slaveholders (New York: Knopf, 1982), 153–91 33 Charles A.  Pilsbury, “Southern Immigration—Brazil and British Honduras” DeBow’s Review (1867): 537–545 34 British Honduras Colonist, 22 February 1868 35 British Honduras Colonist, 14 March 1868 36 “Register of Deaths Occurring Amongst the Immigrants of British Honduras.” 107R307 Belize Archives and Records Services (BARS) 37 Edwin Adolphus to Thomas Graham, October 1866, 89r494 BARS 38 Samuel McCutchon Papers, 315–316 39 Ibid 40 Ibid 41 W.E.B. Du Bois, The World and Africa (New York: Viking Press, 1947), 42 INDEX A Abeokuta, 130, 133–6 abolitionism/abolitionists, 8, 18, 52, 53, 71, 78, 79, 109–43, 207, 218, 219 Abolition Society, 215 Abraham Lincoln Association, 64n14 Abyssinians, 152 Achaean League, 216 ACS See American Colonization Society (ACS) Adam, I.P., 56 Adams Charles Francis, Jr., 15, 19, 42, 100 Charles Francis, Sr., 20 Henry, 99 John Quincy, 19 Adams County, 177 Adler, Dorothy, 105n10 Adolphus, Edwin, 242n37 Africa, 7, 8, 17, 20, 70, 74, 127–43, 163, 190, 236 Alabama, 22–4, 26, 84, 101, 130, 172, 173 Algeria, 195, 221, 222 Allen, Henry Watkins, 190 American Colonization Society (ACS), 135–9, 210 American exceptionalism, 212 American Revolution, 36, 82, 121, 128, 153, 190, 192 Anderson, Benedict R., 169 Anthony, Susan B., 120 Appomattox, 15, 205, 214, 215 Apulia, 175, 178 Arabs, 159, 163 Argentina, 93 Arkansas, 94, 140, 143 Asante, 131, 136 Ashworth, Henry, 19 Asia, 7, 25, 72, 190 Aspinwall, William, 91, 96 Assing, Ottilie, 113, 114 Australia, 233, 234 Austria, 2–3, 73, 119, 164, 197 B Báez, Buenaventura, 208, 216–18 Baltimore, 112 © The Author(s) 2016 J Nagler et al (eds.), The Transnational Significance of the American Civil War, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-40268-0 243 244 INDEX Bancroft, George, 37, 41, 43 Banti, Alberto Maria, 164n164, 166n19 Barbados, 236 Bari, 178 Baring Alexander, 93 Thomas, 100 Baring Brothers, 92, 93, 95 Bates, Joshua, 92, 95, 100 Battle of Puebla, 196 Beecher, Henry Ward, 114 Belize, 214, 231 Belmont, August, 92, 94, 97, 98, 103 Bend, Davis, 141, 142 Benjamin, Judah P., 189, 198, 215 Bigelow, John, 207 Bismarck, Otto von, 3, 4, 41, 190 Blair, Francis P., 211 Blight, David, 133, 161 Bluntschli, Johann, 25, 26 Boccaccio, 156 Bodin, Jean, 152 Bonaparte, Charles Louis-Napoléon See Napoléon III borders, 20, 35, 56, 70, 104, 128, 162, 164, 195, 198, 199, 213, 215 interior, 162 national, 35 southern, 195, 199 Brace, Charles Loring, 119 Brazil, 18, 236 Bright, John, 55, 56, 58, 59 Britain See Great Britain British Honduras, 9, 231–9 Brown John, 57, 113 William Wells, 112 Bruce, Wallace, 50 Bryan, Edward B., 72, 74 Buchanan, James, 37, 74, 80, 82, 208, 211 Bull, John, 75, 93 Bull Run (battle of), 212 Bunch, Charleston Robert, 76 Burma, 233, 234 Burritt, Elihu, 112 C Calabar (town of), 133 Calhoun, John C., 71, 199 Cambodia, 195 Camillo Benso (Conte di Cavour), 160 Campania, 175, 178 Canada, 4, 211, 218 capital, 8, 20, 27, 91–6, 100, 101, 103, 129, 173, 195, 206, 232–4 foreign, 91, 92, 94–6, 101, 103, 206 capitalism, 3, 70, 129, 131, 142, 233 global, 70 industrial, 3, 233 capitalists, 1, 16, 91, 94, 95, 97, 99, 100, 102, 110, 129, 135, 141, 232–4, 237 American, 102 British, 91, 95, 97, 100, 237 European, 94, 99 Capitanata, 178 Carey, Henry C., 78–80, 82–4 Caribbean, 9, 24, 73, 95, 104, 192, 205–22 Cass Lewis, 37 William, 20 Central America, 137, 211, 212, 214, 221 Charmes, Gabriel, 26 Chicago, 77, 79, 81 China, 4, 161, 163, 236 Chinese, 207, 234, 236, 238, 239 Christopher Alan Bayly, 52 INDEX Church Missionary Society (CMS), 133, 134, 140 citizenship, 7, 33–45, 115, 118–20, 122, 206, 210, 214, 215, 221, 222 American/U.S., 33, 38, 39, 41, 115, 222 black, 215, 221 second-class, 206 transformation of, 33, 34 volitional, 33–45 civilization, 16, 27, 101, 114, 119, 120, 122, 129, 137, 139, 156, 158, 159, 163, 164, 197, 216 European, 158, 159, 163, 164 Claiborne, John C., 73, 74 class, 34, 60, 93, 96–8, 101, 103, 110, 114, 117, 120, 129, 138, 154, 159, 160, 162, 169, 170, 195, 198, 206 conflict, 96 financial, 101, 103 planter (see planter elite) ruling, 138, 154, 159, 160, 170, 195, 198 working, 34, 129 Cleveland, 213 Coahuila, 194 Cobb, Thomas R. R., 75 Cobden, Richard, 18, 21, 23, 25, 26, 58 Cochinchina, 195 Collamer, Jacob, 209 colony/colonies, 74, 100, 133, 134, 153, 158, 206, 207, 210, 212, 214, 232, 235, 236, 238, 239 American, 153 Dutch, 100 North African, 74 Colwell, Stephen, 80, 82 commerce, 7, 16–19, 22, 24, 70, 73–5, 77–9, 138, 198 245 American, 22, 138 global/international, 70, 74, 78 oceanic, 16 Comonfort, Ignacio, 189, 193 Confederacy, 8, 9, 20, 25, 27, 33, 38, 39, 44, 76, 81, 83, 84, 94–100, 128, 138, 140, 143, 169–78, 180, 189–200, 212, 219, 221 Confederate agents, 96–8 armies, 190, 199, 213 leaders, 96, 190, 197 officials, 38, 39, 198 Confiscation Act (Second), 177 Congoes, 137, 138 Congress, 25, 39, 40, 42, 43, 53, 82, 112, 154, 177, 208, 209, 212, 213, 217 conscription, 33, 38, 39, 43–5, 162 Cooke, Jay, 102, 103 Coolie trade, 25 Corn Laws, 18, 21, 53, 71 Coronado, Carolina, 215 cotton, 7, 8, 69–84, 94, 97–9, 135, 141, 233, 234, 236 bonds, 98, 99 cultivation, 233 embargo, 97, 98 interests, 71, 77 monopoly, 72 Parliament, 72 plantations, 71 planters, 72, 78, 80, 234 South, 75–7, 79, 81, 82 States, 76, 77, 80, 83 trade, 70, 72, 80, 94 Whigs, 77, 78 Crimea, 57 CSS Alabama, 22, 23 CSS Florida, 22, 23 Cuba, 18, 24, 25, 72, 205–9, 211, 215, 217–19, 222, 236 246 INDEX Cubans, 209–11, 218, 221 Czolgosz, Leon, 151 D Dahomey, 130, 131, 136, 193 Davis, Jefferson, 20, 81, 97, 141, 173 Davis, John, 179 Deep South, 70, 72–5, 78, 79, 83, 135, 209 Degler, Carl, 170 Delany, Martin R., 135, 136 democracy, 2, 53, 55, 57–61, 77, 119, 121, 122, 155, 190, 196, 206 Democratic Party, 71, 161 democrats, 60, 71, 72, 77–9, 112, 113, 208, 210, 211, 214, 222 Denmark, 79, 110 Deutsch, Karl, 153 diplomacy British, 24, 94 Civil War, 96 cotton, financial, 8, 96–8 free trade, 16 gunboat, 93, 94 Dominican Republic, 206–8, 212, 216, 218, 220 Donatelli, Carmine “Crocco:,” 174 Doolittle, James, 210 Douglass, Frederick, 113, 117, 118, 120, 218, 219, 221, 235 Douglas, Stephen, 53, 54 Dred Scott decision, 33 Du Bois, W.E.B., 239 E Ecuador, 43 Edinburgh, 26, 49, 50, 60 Egba Yoruba, 133 Egypt, 233 emancipation, 5, 9, 24, 27, 45, 49, 53, 60, 61, 70, 71, 75, 110, 113, 118–20, 122, 129, 134, 139, 142, 169, 176, 177, 180, 205, 207, 208, 213, 217, 218, 221, 231–4, 236 African American, 232 age of, 231–9 black, 9, 118, 119, 233, 234 British, 70, 207 Catholic, 53 slave, 171, 180, 232 West Indian, 71, 208 Emancipation Proclamation, 100, 110, 176, 177, 236 England, 17, 21, 23, 24, 53, 56, 59, 71, 73–6, 78, 80, 101, 114, 115, 153, 155, 164, 189, 233 European administrators (see European, officials) banks, 96 capitalists/financiers, 8, 94, 97, 99 colonial rule, 131, 132, 190 colonists/settlers, 110, 137 countries/nations/states, 39, 40, 43, 158, 212 expansion, 70 immigrants (see European, colonists/settlers) imperialism, 69 investors (see European, capitalists/ financiers) merchants, 130, 132 officials, 76, 82, 140 power/powers, 18, 70, 73, 76, 81, 83, 212 proletariat/workers, 128, 141 radicals/revolutionaries, 111, 114, 140, 143 Europe/Europeans, 2, 5, 8, 9, 11, 18, 19, 21, 34, 35, 37, 39, 40, 43, INDEX 44, 51, 58, 59, 69, 70, 72–6, 81–4, 91, 92, 94, 96–102, 110–16, 119, 120, 122, 128–34, 137, 139, 140, 142, 143, 153–5, 158, 159, 161, 163, 164, 169–71, 190, 191, 195, 196, 199, 200, 210–12, 218, 238 Ewe (African tribe), 131, 132 expansion/expansionists American, 72, 190, 205, 207, 208, 211, 217, 222 British, 51 cotton cultivation, 233 European, 70 territorial, 117, 211 Expatriation Act of 1868, 43 F Farnsworth, John F., 218 Fenians, 41 Field, David Dudley, 26 Fiji, 233, 234 finance, 7, 91–104 American, 102–4 foreign, 99 international/transnational, 91–104 Follen, Charles, 112 Forey, Élie Frédéric, 197 Forster, William, 3, 43, 170 Fort Sumter, 84, 151, 173 Forty-Eighters, 113, 117, 118 France, 5, 22, 34, 38, 72–4, 76, 81, 91, 104, 110, 114–16, 153, 164, 191, 194, 195, 198, 206, 208, 212, 215, 222 Franco-Prussian War, 121 Franklin, Benjamin, 19 Fraser, John, 99 free soil, 15–17, 75, 78, 83, 128, 129, 142, 233 Freidel, Frank, 56, 57 247 Frémont, John C., 95 French (people), 4, 9, 21, 26, 35, 37, 38, 55, 56, 58, 97, 98, 112, 113, 134, 154, 190–8, 207, 215, 221 French Revolution, 34, 35, 37, 38, 154 Fugitive Slave Act, 213 G Garibaldi, Guiseppe, 113, 159, 174 Garrison, William Lloyd, 59, 112, 139, 218 Gasparin, Compte Agénor de, 55, 58 Geffrard, Guillaume Fabre-Nicholas, 193, 213, 216 gender, 34, 120, 156, 237 roles, 156 Germany, 3, 4, 7, 27, 76, 91, 100, 114–16, 119, 121, 153, 164, 190, 222 Gettysburg, Grant, Ulysses S., 142, 200, 221 Great Britain, 6, 7, 34, 35, 43, 44, 116, 194 Grotius, Hugo, 17, 26 Guyana, 214 H Habsburg monarchy, Haiti, 177, 192, 193, 206–9, 212–21, 236 Haitian Revolution, 177, 206, 207, 209 Hale, Edward Everett, 110 Hammond, James Henry, 73, 74, 80, 209 Havana, 216, 220 Haven, Gilbert, 115 Hawaii, 234 Hawgood, John, 248 INDEX Hecker, Friedrich, 113 Heinzen, Karl, 115, 118, 120 Holly, James, 157, 213 Howe, Samuel, 219 Hungary/Hungarians, 2, 3, 119, 152 I Icarians, 131 Ỵle Vache, 214, 236 India, 78, 190, 211, 222, 233, 234, 236 Indians, 71, 117, 192, 196, 205, 206, 208 Ireland, 41, 110, 114 Isabel (Queen), 212, 215, 216 Italian government, 23, 171, 175, 178–81 Italians, 9, 23, 79, 112, 113, 152, 154–7, 159–63, 169–81 Italy/Italian Kingdom/Italian State, 4, 8, 9, 27, 114, 121, 151–64, 170–2, 174–6, 178–81, 222 J Jackson, Andrew, Jamaica, 207, 217, 220 James, CLR, 140 Japan, 4, 27, 161 Jefferson, Thomas, 36, 52 Jeune Ecole, 26 Johnson, Andrew, 40, 61, 215, 217, 221, 222 Jordan, Winthrop, 177 Juárez, Benito, 193–5, 200 K Kansas, 74, 140, 211 Kapp, Friedrich, 121, 122 Kentucky, 50, 84, 209 King Cotton, 8, 70, 73, 74, 76, 77, 80, 97 Know Nothings, 210 Knoxville, 173 Kock, Bernard, 214 Ku Klux Klan, 222 L labor, 15–27, 44, 70, 71, 73, 77, 80, 93, 121, 129–6, 140, 142, 159, 171, 192, 207–9, 218, 232–9 black, 141, 238 coolie, 71 forced/unfree, 121, 171, 209 indentured, 236, 238, 239 laborers, 134, 192, 235–9 See also workers enslaved, 237 indentured, 238, 239 labor shortages, 73 Lagos, 130, 133, 134, 135 Lancashire, 233 Latin America, 6, 9, 40, 43, 93, 94, 103, 214, 215 Liberalism, 7, 49–61, 160 Liberia, 136–9, 210, 213 Lieber, Francis, 6, 17, 18, 22, 25, 26, 116 Lincoln, Abraham, 7, 16, 20, 23, 39, 49–61, 79, 83, 84, 100, 110, 121, 137, 138, 172, 176–8, 195, 211–16, 220, 221, 236 Lincoln administration, 16, 20, 195, 214 Liverpool, 22, 72, 94, 98, 99 London, 20, 37, 74, 75, 92–5, 97, 98, 101–3, 111, 196, 197 London Stock Exchange, 93, 94, 101 López, Antonio, 193, 216 INDEX Lorimer, James, 26 Louisiana, 9, 81, 93, 130, 172, 189, 209, 210, 231–4, 236, 237 Louisiana Purchase, 93 Lovejoy, Elijah, 54 Lowell, James Russel, 58, 60 Lusitania, 15, 16 Lyons, Richard, 82 M Mahan, Alfred Thayer, 27 Manchester, 72, 233 Mann, Dudley, 73 Marcy, William, 20 Martí, José, 221 Marx, Karl, 128, 142 Maryland, 84, 209 Mason-Dixon Line, 94 Mason, James, 198 Massachusetts, 92 Maximilian, Ferdinand (Archduke), 197, 198, 200, 215 Maya, 234, 235, 238 McCutchon, Samuel, 288, 294–97, 232, 236–9 McDuffie, George, 71 McKinley, William, 151 Mexico City, 195, 197 Mexico/Mexicans, 4, 9, 43, 71, 93, 104, 190–200, 205, 206, 209, 211, 212, 214, 215, 236 Mezzogiorno, 169–81 migration, 7, 8, 16, 26, 35, 38, 44, 100, 110, 111, 114, 117, 119, 135, 137, 161, 209, 213, 237 forced, Haitian, 209, 213 mass, 35, 44, 110 transatlantic, 38 Mill, John Stuart, 52, 56, 58, 59 249 Mississippi, 54, 71, 72, 81, 93, 94, 97, 130, 140, 141, 172, 173, 176, 177, 209, 215 Mississippi River, 54, 81, 140, 141, 215 Mississippi Valley, 140–2 Missouri, 54, 140, 209, 211 Molyneaux, Edmund, 76 monarchy, 3, 155, 162, 195–9 Habsburg, Italian, 162 plans for in Mexico, 244–46, 249 Monroe Doctrine, 191, 195, 199, 212 Montgomery (Alabama), 76, 81, 83, 172 Moore, Frank, 58 Morant Bay, 220 Morgan, J.P., 93 Morgan, J.S., 92, 94 Morrell, Z.N., 234 Morrill Tariff, 79, 81, 82 Morse, John T., 42 Motley, John Lothrop, 2, 5, 121 N Napoléon III, 5, 82, 190, 194–6, 199, 212, 214, 215 nationalism, 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 79, 102, 110, 112, 116, 120, 152, 155–8, 163, 164, 169, 170, 189–200, 211 American, 155, 158, 160 Bourbon and Italian, 171 Confederate, 190, 191, 194 cosmopolitan, 117, 120 ethnic, 120, 122 European revolutionary, 163 liberal, 8, 116, 164 protective, 79 Southern, 189–200 250 INDEX nationalists, 4, 18, 23, 79, 83, 111, 112, 117, 118, 120, 154, 189, 191–3, 200 Nat Turner rebellion, 206 naturalization, 35–8, 40–5, 156 Navigation acts, 16, 73, 75 New England, 56, 78, 115 New Orleans, 76, 231 New York (state), 56, 58 New York City, 56, 58, 82 New York Stock Exchange, 102 New Zealand, 234 Nicaragua, 72 Nightingale (slave ship), 138, 139 North Carolina, 173, 176 Northern Pacific Railroad, 103 Northwest Ordinance, 217 Norton, Charles Eliot, 56, 58–60 O O’Gorman, Richard, 189 Oneida, 131, 132 Community in New Zork, 132 Owen, Robert, 141 Oyo Empire, 133 P Padmore, George, 140 palm oil, 130, 132, 135 Paris, 16, 19, 20, 23, 25, 98, 100, 111 Declaration of, 16, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 52, 153, 222 Pax Britannica, 16 Peabody, George, 92, 96, 100, 104 Pennsylvania, 77–9 Philadelphia, 78–80, 84, 114 Phillips, Wendell, 54, 59, 207 Pickett, John T., 194 Piedmontese Kingdom, 174 Pilsbury, Charles A., 237 Pittsburgh, 78, 118 Pitt, William, 97 plantations, 9, 15, 24, 71, 114, 129, 132, 140–2, 214, 231–9 cotton, 71, 236 rice, 233 sugar, 231, 232, 234, 236, 237 planter elite, 173 planters, 9, 72–4, 78, 80, 121, 128, 173, 189, 209, 218, 232, 234–9 Poinsett, Joel, 191 Port-au-Prince, 216 Portugal, 78 Powell, Samuel, 80 Prussia/Prussian, 3, 35–8, 40–2, 44, 45, 112, 119 Puebla, 195–7 Puerto Rico, 205–7, 215, 217 Q Quintero, José Agustín, 194 R race, 9, 19, 22, 25, 34, 38, 45, 57, 95, 103, 112, 116–20, 135, 189–200, 206, 208, 210, 214, 216, 219–22, 231–9 negro, 135 relations, 112 war, 206, 221 white, 196 racial differences, 205 hierarchies, 192, 198, 209 (in)justice, 121 segregation, 162 racism, 136, 139, 140, 159, 161, 200 radicalism, 8, 116, 142, 143 reconstruction, 34, 45, 61, 122, 133, 142, 143, 161, 163, 181, 206, 214, 217, 220, 222, 237 reconstruction amendments, 45 INDEX Redpath, James, 213, 214 republicanism, 75, 76, 157, 212 anti-slavery, 74 Free Soil, 75 Republican Party, 20, 56, 61, 78, 95, 121, 137, 161, 172, 211 Republicans, 5, 36, 51, 74, 75, 77–80, 82, 133, 177, 191, 208–15, 218 revolution(s), 8, 23, 34, 36–8, 44, 51, 58, 69, 79, 80, 82, 83, 92, 98, 110–17, 119–21, 128, 129, 134, 136, 138, 140, 142, 143, 153–5, 157, 169–81, 189–200, 206, 207, 209, 218, 233, 234 American, 34, 36, 51, 128, 153, 154, 192 Atlantic, 8, 110, 111, 143 bourgeois/capitalist, 129 conservative, 190 Cuban, 218 European, 8, 110, 111, 140, 163, 191 French, 35, 37, 154 Haitian, 177, 206, 207, 209, 234 industrial, 233 transportation, 70, 92 revolutionaries, 111, 112, 114, 116, 120, 121, 140, 190 European, 111, 120, 140, 190 rice, 233 Richmond, 20, 39, 91, 99, 173, 196–8 rights, 5, 16, 18–22, 25, 27, 34–8, 40–4, 60, 61, 69, 77, 81, 115, 116, 118–21, 152, 156, 158, 160, 162, 192, 214, 216, 220, 222 economic, 34 individual, 69, 116 king’s, 156 maritime, 21 natural, 35–7, 154 neutral, 16, 19, 21 251 voting, women’s, 120 Rome, 156, 162, 164 Rothschilds, 92, 94, 97–9, 101, 103 Russia, 73, 79, 110, 114, 119, 208 S Samaná Bay, 208, 217 Santana, Pedro, 208, 212, 215 Santo Domingo, 206, 212, 215, 219–22 Sardinia, 151, 174 Savannah, 76 Schurz, Carl, 114, 212, 219–2 secession, 3, 8, 41, 69, 70, 72, 74–7, 80–3, 100, 121, 152, 158, 172–5, 198, 212, 218 secession crisis, 72, 173, 175 secessionists, 3, 74–6, 80, 82, 121, 173 Seward, William, 39–41, 45, 77, 122, 137, 209, 211, 212, 214–16 Sheridan, Philip, Sherman, William T., 221 Sicily, 73, 174 Sierra Leone, 130, 134, 140 slavery, 7–9, 15, 18–20, 25, 33, 51, 53–5, 57, 61, 70–6, 78, 79, 94, 95, 97, 99, 100, 110–22, 127–43, 155, 158, 159, 161, 171, 172, 177, 190, 192, 195, 205–11, 213, 215–19, 221, 232, 233, 235, 239 abolition of, 192, 195 defenders of, 53, 207, 209 slave trade, 8, 17, 18, 20–2, 24–6, 72, 76, 80, 112, 127, 129, 130, 131, 138, 209 Slidell, John, 98, 197 Smith Gerrit, 211 Goldwin, 57 James McCune, 207 252 INDEX soldiers black, 214 French, 190 German, 140 immigrant, Italian, 178 Union, 45, 134, 140 South Carolina, 2, 71, 76, 80, 172, 174, 191, 209, 233 Spain, 174, 194, 195, 206–8, 212, 215, 217, 218 Stevens, Thaddeus, 216, 217 Sturgis, Russell, 95, 100 sugar/sugar cane, 9, 189, 206, 220, 231–9 Sumner, Charles, 17, 18, 20–6, 207, 211, 213, 218–22 Sweden, 43 T Taranto, 178 Taylor, Miles, 210 Tennessee, 84, 140, 173, 177, 195 Texas, 71, 72, 172, 234 Thirteenth Amendment, 214 Thomas, Lorenzo, 141 Thompson Jacob, 72 Waddy, 192 Tocqueville, Alexis de, 9, 52, 205–23 Togo, 131 Toombs, Robert, 194 Toussaint Louverture, FranỗoisDominique, 207 trade, 7, 8, 16–26, 70–5, 78–82, 93–5, 112, 127, 129–31, 138, 160, 195, 209 cotton, 70, 72, 80, 94 slave, 8, 17, 18, 20, 21, 24, 25, 26, 72, 76, 80, 112, 127, 129, 130, 131, 138, 209 transnational alliance against slavery, 120 approaches/perspective, 2, 6, circuits of capital, 233 coalition for human liberation, 118 dimensions of slavery, 171 effects/dimensions of the Civil War, 69 experiment, 236 finance, 91 history, 1–9 impact of U.S slavery, 239 liberals, networks, process of citizenship, 35 revolutionaries, 121 significance of the Civil War, 2–4, 36, 102 structures of economy, 103 turn, 170 transnationalism, 118 Treaty of Washington (1871), 17 Trent Affair, 21 Trento, 162 Trescot, William Henry, 72, 75 Trieste, 162 Tsing Whan, 238 Turin, 151 Turkey, 78 Tyler, John, 71 U United Kingdom, 18, 55 See also Great Britain US Navy, 21, 138 USS Saratoga, 138 V Vera Cruz (port of), 195 Vicksburg, 141 INDEX Victor Emmanuel (Italian king), 175 Vidaurri, Santiago, 194 Vienna, 154 violence, 4, 19, 54, 57, 81, 139, 157, 221, 238, 239 Virginia, 36, 57, 77, 84, 173, 177, 197, 206, 209, 212, 214 Vittorio Emanuele II, 151, 162 Vizcarrondo, Julio, 215 W Walker, Robert J., 97, 209 Wall Street, 100, 102 Ward, Thomas Wren, 92 Washington, D.C., 7, 17, 20, 22, 37, 39, 49, 91, 208, 216, 217, 220 Wendell Holmes, Oliver, 121 West Africa, 16, 127, 129, 130, 132, 133, 136, 138, 140, 236 Western Hemisphere, 69 West Indies, 206, 207, 216, 217 British, 207 Danish, 206, 216 French, 207 Wheaton, Henry, 20, 36 Whigs, 71, 77–9, 210 White House, 60, 217 Willich, August, 118, 119 253 women, 33, 34, 56, 109, 119, 120, 131, 132, 157, 174, 237 African, 109, 120 American, 34 black, 56, 119, 120 white, 56 workers, 25, 26, 74, 119, 129, 132, 140, 141, 155, 207 See also laborers Asian contract, 26 black agricultural, 141 enslaved, 134, 141 European, 141 free, 129, 132, 140 indentured, 25, 238 northern, 74 Wright, Joseph A., 37, 41 X Xaibe, 235, 236 Y Yoruba states, 130 Z Zollverein, 73, 79 ... ordeals at the hands of their southern rebels, the American Civil War and of the War of the Brigands Whereas in 1865 the Confederacy collapsed, together with the southern slaveholding system, the Kingdom... Carl N.  Degler, The American Civil War and the German Wars of Unification: The Problem of Comparison,” in On the Road to Total War: The American Civil War and the German Wars of Unification,... the impact of the American Civil War on the historical change of war and military organization The American conflict has often been interpreted as the anticipation of the total wars of the twentieth
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