The cloud of nothingness

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Sophia Studies in Cross-cultural Philosophy of Traditions and Cultures 19 C.D. Sebastian The Cloud of Nothingness The Negative Way in Nāgārjuna and John of the Cross Sophia Studies in Cross-cultural Philosophy of Traditions and Cultures Volume 19 Series Editors Editor-in-Chief Purushottama Bilimoria, The University of Melbourne, Australia University of California, Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, CA, USA Co-Editor Andrew Irvine, Maryville College, Maryville, TN, USA Associate Editors Jay Garfield, The University of Melbourne, Australia Smith College, Northampton, Mass, USA Editorial Assistants Sherah Bloor, Amy Rayner, Peter Yih Jing Wong The University of Melbourne, Australia Editorial Board Balbinder Bhogal, Hofstra University, Hempstead, USA Christopher Chapple, Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, USA Vrinda Dalmiya, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, USA Gavin Flood, NUS-Yale, Singapore Jessica Frazier, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK Kathleen Higgins, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, USA Patrick Hutchings, Deakin University, The University of Melbourne, Australia Morny Joy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada Carool Kersten, King’s College, London, UK Richard King, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK Arvind-Pal Mandair, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA Rekha Nath, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, USA Parimal Patil, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA Laurie Patton, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont, USA Stephen Phillips, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, USA Joseph Prabhu, California State University, Los Angeles, USA Anupama Rao, Columbia University, Barnard College, New York, USA Anand J Vaidya, San Jose State University, CA, USA The Sophia Studies in Cross-cultural Philosophy of Traditions and Cultures focuses on the broader aspects of philosophy and traditional intellectual patterns of religion and cultures The series encompasses global traditions, and critical treatments that draw from cognate disciplines, inclusive of feminist, postmodern, and postcolonial approaches By global traditions we mean religions and cultures that go from Asia to the Middle East to Africa and the Americas, including indigenous traditions in places such as Oceania Of course this does not leave out good and suitable work in Western traditions where the analytical or conceptual treatment engages Continental (European) or Cross-cultural traditions in addition to the Judeo-Christian tradition The book series invites innovative scholarship that takes up newer challenges and makes original contributions to the field of knowledge in areas that have hitherto not received such dedicated treatment For example, rather than rehearsing the same old Ontological Argument in the conventional way, the series would be interested in innovative ways of conceiving the erstwhile concerns while also bringing new sets of questions and responses, methodologically also from more imaginative and critical sources of thinking Work going on in the forefront of the frontiers of science and religion beaconing a well-nuanced philosophical response that may even extend its boundaries beyond the confines of this debate in the West – e.g from the perspective of the ‘Third World’ and the impact of this interface (or clash) on other cultures, their economy, sociality, and ecological challenges facing them – will be highly valued by readers of this series All books to be published in this Series will be fully peer-reviewed before final acceptance More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/8880 C.D. Sebastian The Cloud of Nothingness The Negative Way in Nāgārjuna and John of the Cross C.D. Sebastian Philosophy Group, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Mumbai, Maharashtra, India ISSN 2211-1107    ISSN 2211-1115 (electronic) Sophia Studies in Cross-cultural Philosophy of Traditions and Cultures ISBN 978-81-322-3644-3    ISBN 978-81-322-3646-7 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-3646-7 Library of Congress Control Number: 2016954123 © Springer India 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer (India) Pvt Ltd Everything is right when śūnyatā is possible; Nothing is right when śūnyatā is impossible (Nāgārjuna, MK 24, 14) This knowledge in unknowing is so overwhelming (John of the Cross, SCE 6) For Professor Sebastian Thuruthel my grand-uncle who taught me to love wisdom Foreword Nāgārjuna is a figure of legend We know very little about him as a historical personage, and there is considerable debate over which works attributed to him are authentic Their interpretation is, to say the least, tricky His dates are uncertain, although he is usually given as round about the second century CE. In Indian Buddhist philosophy Nāgārjuna is, of course, the philosopher of ‘emptiness’ or ‘nothingness’, ‘voidness’ (śūnyatā) This is generally well known He did not originate the concept in Buddhism, and even the use of the concept to apply to all things without any exception almost certainly did not originate with him Nevertheless, it is Nāgārjuna we tend to associate with the idea that ‘all things are empty’, or perhaps stated with more philosophical precision, ‘emptiness (nothingness, voidness) is nothing other than a universal property, a property that pertains to things, all things without exception’ This is the case no matter how rarified or spiritually central those things might be For all X, X is empty For all X, X has the property of emptiness (expressed in English with the ‘-ness’ ending) This applies even to nirvāṇa, a point made elsewhere by one of the [Mahāyāna] Buddhist scriptures quite probably before the time of Nāgārjuna The same scripture adds that even if there were to be something greater than nirvāṇa, that too would not escape emptiness, nothingness, voidness And it was Nāgārjuna who considered himself to be capable of showing, using impeccable logic and the principles and tenets accepted by those whom he sought to convince, that the universality of emptiness or nothingness was not just the insight of enlightened beings but also was rationally inescapable This ‘emptiness’ or ‘nothingness’ is not a vague or imprecise concept ‘Śūnyatā’ is a term that takes on a range of meanings across the history of Indian Buddhist philosophy In different Buddhist traditions, these meanings are by no means always the same or compatible with each other But it is a feature of Indian Buddhist thought that it thrives on conceptual precision And for Nāgārjuna, ‘emptiness’ or ‘nothingness’ is to be understood very strictly as an equivalent for ‘absence of intrinsic nature’ (niḥsvabhāvatā, ‘essencelessness’), a concept that in Nāgārjuna’s own usage comes to entail ‘absence of intrinsic existence’ Thus, each and every thing, no matter how refined, lacks its own intrinsic nature, i.e it lacks intrinsic existence This ix x Foreword property of lacking its own intrinsic nature, or its intrinsic existence, is its emptiness or its nothingness Why would Nāgārjuna say such a thing? Indeed, why would this be a significant thing for a Buddhist to say? What has it to with Buddhism as a religion, a path, a praxis with a salvific goal? What Nāgārjuna is saying here needs to be understood within the Buddhist discourse of his day and previous centuries going back to the Buddha himself It should not be unthinkingly torn out from it As a spiritual and intellectual soteriology, Buddhism originated in the idea that we suffer because we not see things the way they really are We are confused We suffer as a result of profound ontological ignorance (avidyā) We misunderstand the nature of things in a very, very deep way Hence, we act in a manner that causes us misery (suffering, duḥkha) And seeing things the way they really are (yathābhūtadarśana) – when it occurs in the deepest way, in a manner that is existentially ingrained in our minds at the deepest possible level – is totally life transformative It is enlightening, liberating, freeing us from all forms of suffering It is nirvāṇa And once attained, it will never be lost The person who sees this way has prajñā, ‘wisdom’ At first in Buddhism, this meant seeing behind the apparent stabilities of the things we meet with in our everyday unenlightened experience, particularly the persons we are, and comprehending their evanescent nature Our unenlightened seeing of stability when in reality there is change, seeing unity and identity when really there is diversity, is fundamental to the misperception that leads to misery We hope for permanence, we crave it, but we are faced with change, collapse, decay and death Understanding the way things really are, the Buddha pointed out, is to see in terms of ever-changing ‘aggregates’ (skandha) of, on the one hand, the flow of the physical world and, on the other, the mental flow, itself consisting of the flows of our feelings, perceptions, intentions/ volitions and that awareness which accompanies it all which we call consciousness This psychophysical flow is the reality out of which we construct stability and, for those of us who are unenlightened to the way things really are, some sort of hoped-­ for permanence as a refuge from decay and death Because it so contradicts the true nature of things, that hope is doomed to frustration and failure As time passed, this analysis within Buddhism became more refined so that what is really there came to be expressed in terms of dharmas In this context, ‘dharmas’ can best be thought of as conceptually irreducible ontologically fundamental elements which, while in the main causally produced and hence impermanent, are nevertheless held to be really there, that is, to be the actual final reality (or, better, realities), in opposition to the constructed way things simply appear to be to us unenlightened folk Most of these fundamental reals are part of a causally conditioned flow Each is caused by a previous one and is radically impermanent It gives rise to its successor in a stream, a flow, of conditionality In the case of mental events such as sensations, perceptions, or whatever (the mental aggregates), they are fundamental mental moments of the relevant type (‘mental atoms’), each again normally the result of causes and giving rise to its successor These fundamental reals (dharmas) by definition, therefore, must have their natures ‘in themselves’ (since they are fundamental Foreword xi reals they have svabhāva, their ‘own intrinsic nature’, an ‘essence’) They are ontologically the very opposite of things that have their natures given to them simply for practical purposes, the stable everyday objects like tables and chairs that we unenlightened folk think are really there Dharmas are ‘substantially existent’ (dravyasat), not merely ‘conceptually existent’ (prajñaptisat) They are ultimately real, not merely conventionally real, i.e simply held to be real things for our practical everyday conventional purposes But in stating that all things without exception, including all dharmas, lack fundamental ultimate reality, Nāgārjuna called into question this whole framework as an understanding of ‘the way things really (i.e ultimately) are’ This is because the distinction between something having its own intrinsic nature, being substantially existent, and that which lacks its own intrinsic nature (niḥsvabhāva) and is merely conceptually existent is itself only an apparent distinction This must be the case, Nāgārjuna argued, because if things are each one way or another the results of causes and conditions – and he felt this could be demonstrated through the careful use of critical reasoning – then they cannot in reality be ontologically fundamental Put bluntly, caused existence cannot ever be ontologically fundamental existence We might say, only something necessarily existent could be finally fundamentally existent And nothing, Nāgārjuna thought, was necessarily existent Each thing, no matter what, was no more than a product, one way or another, of its causes and conditions Thus, there can be no fundamental reals Hence, reason can demonstrate that all things whatsoever must lack their own intrinsic nature So all things whatsoever must indeed be empty (śūnya) of their own intrinsic existence And as we have seen, absence of intrinsic nature (niḥsvabhāvatā), for Nāgārjuna equivalent to absence of intrinsic existence, is the very same as emptiness, nothingness (śūnyatā) So when Nāgārjuna speaks of ultimate reality as emptiness, nothingness, what is meant here is that the true nature of things is that they lack any intrinsic and hence ultimate existence That is, when things are understood in their ontologically final way, since they are the results one way or another of causes and conditions, so they are seen to lack fundamental, intrinsic, existence, to lack any ultimate existence intrinsic to them, any existence beyond that extrinsically given to them by their causal conditioning That property of ‘lacking ultimate existence’ is their ultimate nature, i.e what they truly, ontologically, are That property itself is their nothingness, their emptiness It should be clear that this way of speaking that we find in Nāgārjuna needs to be totally contextualised within his Buddhist world view and project This is important because it is too easy for well-meaning cross-cultural comparisons to tear out of context Nāgārjuna’s assertion that the ultimate truth is emptiness, nothingness, and seek or hope to equate it with perhaps the intrinsically, fundamentally, absolutely existent Ultimate Reality of, e.g., Śaṅkara’s Brahman, or even the God or Godhead of theistic religions In these cases, a necessarily existent Absolute Reality, hence necessarily intrinsically existent, is said in itself to be empty of something or another, empty of the relative, empty of creation, empty of ignorance, empty of all our ­conceptualities, or whatever It was in order to avoid such a confused interpretation 166 Of Nothingness: Apophasis and Metaphor References Abbreviations of Original Sources AMC: John of the Cross (1991) The Ascent of Mount Carmel In The collected works of Saint John of the Cross (K Kavanaugh & O 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Absurdities, 83 Advaitic, 69 Advaitins, 65 Aesthetic, 52, 127, 137 Affection, 86, 91, 95, 96, 100, 101, 118, 153, 157 Affirmation, 3, 8, 22, 28, 33, 34, 40, 45, 61, 83, 85, 91, 97, 102, 103, 126, 136, 148, 152, 156 Afflictions, 96, 120, 153 Afghanistan, 20 Agnosticism, 34, 45, 103 Alexandria, 37 Allegory of the cave, 38–39 Altruistic, 117 Analogy, 42, 85, 137, 144, 145, 149 Anātman, 23, 53, 121 Anderson, T., 57 Andhra, 27 Anirodha, 67 Annihilation, 41, 64, 66, 67, 88, 95, 103, 120, 121, 156, 157 Anthropomorphic, 21 Anti-Christ, the, 82 Antithesis, 81 Anuccheda, 67, 68 Aparapratyaya, 64, 72 Aphrahat, 36 Apoha, 21, 23, 24 Apohasiddhi, 23 Apologetic, 22 Apophasis, 3, 7, 34, 85, 135–165 Apophatic, 2, 15, 19, 20, 22, 33, 35, 38, 40, 41, 43, 85, 111, 130, 135–136, 137, 140, 141, 146, 148, 151, 152, 157, 161 Apophatism, 2, 5, 14, 17, 19, 22, 32, 33, 39, 43, 45, 95, 150 Aporia, 85, 110 Appetites, 44, 56, 83, 86, 89–92, 97, 100, 101, 113, 115, 118, 149, 150, 156, 162 Aquinas, T., 3, 6, 11, 20, 32, 33, 39–44, 122, 125 Archetypal, 4, 151 Areopagite, 35, 38 Arising, 54, 68, 111, 143, 147 Aristotle, 35, 37 Armenians, 37 Arthātman, 23 Āryadeva, 27 Ascent, 14, 33, 39, 43, 44, 83, 90, 91, 100, 102, 126, 136, 151, 154, 156–158, 165 Ascetics, 35, 151 Asia, 24 Assertion, 45, 111, 125–127, 145 Aśūnya, 28, 29 Asymmetry, 21 Atheism, 45 Ātman, 23, 65, 119, 121, 144 Augustine, 11, 33, 39, 40, 164 Avidyā, x © Springer India 2016 C.D Sebastian, The Cloud of Nothingness, Sophia Studies in Cross-cultural Philosophy of Traditions and Cultures 19, DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-3646-7 171 172 Avila, 83, 123 Avyakata, 22 Avyākṛta, 21, 23 Avyākṛta-vastūni, 22 B Babinsky, E.L., 40, 41 Babylon, 11, 160 Baghdad, 20 Balthasar, von, 39, 85, 126 Barnhart, B., 126 Barrow, J., Beloved, 97, 98, 129, 150, 156, 157, 160 Berger, A.A., 161 Berger, D.L., Berger, L.S., 110 Beth Abe, 36 Bhāvaviveka, 27, 57 Bible, 11, 38, 119, 123, 156 Bilimoria, P., 4, 59, 126 Bodhisattva, 25, 60, 62 Bonaventure, 33, 39, 125 Bondage, 61, 73, 119 Borys, P.N., 120 Bradley, A., 2, 3, 21, 38, 140 Brainard, F.S., 56, 60, 69, 118, 141 Brenan, G., 81 Bride, 160 Bridegroom, 95, 157, 160 Brock, S., 36, 39 Bryden, M., 33 Buber, Buddha, 8, 9, 14, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 53, 54, 58, 60–62, 65, 66, 68, 69, 71, 72, 74, 116–119, 122, 136, 140, 144, 159, 162, 163, 165 Buddhadeśana, 14 Buddhapālita, 27, 30 Buddha-śāsana, 14 Buddha-vacana, 25, 122, 159, 165 Buddhism, 1, 3, 5, 8, 9, 10, 20, 22–31, 37, 43, 45, 52, 56, 64, 69, 115, 140, 145, 165 Buddhist, 2, 3, 5–9, 12–15, 20–28, 30, 31, 45, 51–53, 60–65, 108, 111, 114, 116, 119, 121–123, 127, 130, 143, 145, 165 Buddhyātman, 23 Bugault, G., 73 Burton, D.F., 55, 67 Buston, Index C Calian, C.S., 35 Candrakīrti, 56, 57, 58, 62, 64, 109, 119 Cannon, 69, 162 Canonical, 25, 26 Caputo, J., 2, 28, 33, 140 Carmel, 11, 12, 44, 80, 82, 83, 86, 90, 92, 96, 98, 102, 114, 116, 123, 127, 151–154, 156 Carmelite, 5, 10, 151 Cartographers, 98 Cataphatic, 20, 22, 45, 85, 148 See also Kataphatic Cataphatism, 14, 33 Catuḥstava, Catuṣḳoṭi, 12 Causality, 40, 70 Causation, 111, 159 Caverns, 86, 92, 114, 160 Caves, 157 Cessation, 29, 45, 66, 71, 92, 107, 118, 120, 124, 127, 143, 145, 163 Chakrabarti, A., 57 Charity, 35, 91, 92, 100, 115, 117, 125 Chasm, 63 Chatterjee, A.K., 10, 20, 25, 26, 28, 29, 72, 73, 163 Cheng, H.-L., 68, 70 China, 9, 20 Chong-Beng Gan, P., 114 Christ, 11, 15, 37, 81, 85, 123–125 Christianity, 5, 6, 15, 32–45, 148, 158, 165 Christian orient, 20, 35–38 Christo-centric, 15, 123 Church, 10, 36–40, 151, 156, 164 Cling, 81, 82 Cloud of Unknowing, the, 6, 20, 38, 42, 149 Cloud, the, 33, 39–45 Commentary, 11, 23, 30, 66, 68, 74, 92, 94, 114, 142 Commonality, 12, 129 Communion, 92, 113 Companionship, 98 Comparative philosophy, 4, 7, 131 Comparative religion, Conceptualization, 63, 64, 67, 163 Conduct, 58, 62, 109 Confessions, Augustine’s, 39 Index Consciousness, 10, 23, 28, 41, 62, 69, 73, 102, 109, 163 Contemplation, 11, 21, 84, 90, 94, 96, 103, 120, 126, 151–153, 155, 156 Context, 26–28, 54, 59, 64, 70, 99, 112, 127, 144, 146 Continental, 2, 33, 136, 139, 140, 143, 165 Contingent, 93 Contradiction, 28, 33, 59–61, 73, 97, 140, 141 Conventional, 8, 10, 12, 14, 27, 30, 31, 53, 54, 56–58, 60–63, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 108–111, 116, 118, 127, 141, 142, 146, 147, 149 Conze, E., 25 Copleston, F., 21 Creature, 15, 21, 40–43, 71, 86–89, 95, 96, 98, 100–103, 109, 112, 113, 124, 158 Criticism, 69, 136, 162, 163 Critique, 3, 45, 60, 71, 120, 136 Cross-cultural hermeneutics, 4, 5, 8, 12, 13, 130 Cross-cultural philosophy, 13, 130 Cryptic, 12 Cult, 25 Culture, 4, 5, 121, 138, 160 D Darkness, 11, 14, 33, 34, 35, 38–40, 44, 79, 81, 83, 85, 87–96, 101, 102, 118, 120, 126, 139, 152–155 Dark Night, the, 11, 80–83, 90, 92, 95, 96, 99, 101, 116, 120, 126–128, 139, 153–156, 158, 164 Daye, D.D., 59, 72 D’Costa, G., 33 De Nicolas, A.T., 11, 12 Death, 40, 81, 101, 110, 155–157 Decay, x Deflationism, 60 Deistic, 45 Demythologization, 56 Denial, 23, 40, 93, 100, 116, 120, 126, 141, 164 Dependent origination, 31, 55, 66–68, 124 Derrida, J., 2, 8, 33, 56, 57, 140 Descartes, 3, 136 Desert, 20, 42, 103, 157, 158 Desire, 33, 35, 80, 81, 84, 87, 99–100, 123, 124, 155, 157 Devoid, 63, 64, 66, 67, 73, 136, 137, 142, 143 Dharma(s), 10, 23, 28, 52, 53, 55, 60, 61, 71 Dharmakāya, 26 Dharmakīrti, 3, 23 173 Dharmanairātmya, 28 Dharmaśūnyatā, 10, 28 Dignāga, 23 Dinnāga, 20 Dionysius, 15, 38, 39, 94, 126 Discourse, 2, 19, 20, 28, 33, 64, 70, 79, 85, 110, 117, 120, 121, 125, 136–141, 143, 147, 165 Discrimination, 63, 64, 67 Discursive, 21, 25, 30, 34, 35, 73, 93, 94, 100–102, 163 Disguised, 83, 92, 100, 118, 154 Dissimilarity, 85, 119, 124, 125, 129–131 Distinction, 4, 13, 25, 27, 32, 35, 37, 38, 61, 63, 65, 110, 119, 125, 126 Divine, 7, 13, 21, 32, 35, 37, 38, 40, 43, 80, 82–85, 87, 90–92, 96, 100, 101, 114, 121, 123, 126, 128, 129, 138, 139, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152–156, 158, 162 Doctor of Nothingness, 12, 16 Dogmatic, 71–73 Dombrowski, D.A., 82, 85, 86, 112, 117, 164 Dravyasat, xi Dream, 30, 39, 119, 143 Dreyfus, G.B.J., 27 Dṛṣṭiśūnyatā, 10 Dualities, 30, 146 Duerlinger, J., 120 Dunne, J., 115 E Eastern, 6, 20, 22, 33, 35, 37, 39, 148, 151 Eckel, M., 57 Eckhart, M., 6, 15, 20, 33, 39–44, 121, 139 Ecstasy, 11, 21, 129, 148, 152 Ecumenical, 35 Edelglass, W., 54 Edessa, 20, 36 Ego, 119, 120, 145, 155 Egoistic, 121 Eight negations, 6, 52, 66–74, 111 Emotion, 39, 89, 126 Emptiness, 2, 5, 7, 8, 10–12, 14, 21, 27, 29–31, 44, 51–55, 57, 58, 59, 62, 64, 65, 68, 71–74, 81, 83, 85, 86, 88–92, 94–96, 101, 102, 111, 116, 118, 119, 120, 126, 130, 139, 141, 143, 145, 146, 147, 151, 156, 158, 163 Enlightened-indifference, 125–127, 129, 130 Enlightenment, 127, 143 174 Ephrem, 36 Epicureans, 37 Epiphany philosophical, 7, 127–130 theological, 7, 127–130 Epistemic, 71 Eriugena, J.S., 39 Eros, 39, 110 Error, 30, 69, 111, 162 Essence, 4, 10, 23, 26, 35, 54, 58, 62, 66, 82, 85, 111, 140, 143, 146 Essencelessness, 14, 28, 31, 64, 109, 110, 127, 145 Eternal, 37, 41, 66, 67, 72, 119, 120, 162, 164 Eternalism, 68, 121 Ethics, 115 Ethiopians, 37 Etymological, 58, 62 Eurocentric, 3, Evagrius, 85, 126 Evolution, Existential, 25, 114 Ex nihilo, 38 Exodus, 22, 38 F Faculty(ies), 6, 8, 13, 14, 33, 35, 42–44, 59, 79–103, 108–110, 113–115, 123, 125, 129, 148–150, 153, 155, 162, 163 Failure, 20, 43, 137 Faith, 11, 22, 32, 35, 36, 44, 91, 92, 94, 100, 102, 117, 124–126, 130, 149, 153, 161 Fallacies, 54, 73 Falsify, 68 Faxian, 24 Fear, 89, 101, 103, 160 Feeling, 23, 33, 43, 45, 81, 86, 87, 91, 92, 94, 96, 99, 112, 114, 121, 129, 139, 160, 161, 164, 165 Feminine apophasis, 157, 158 Fides et ratio, 91, 102 Fire, 144, 152, 154, 157, 160, 164 Formless, 88 Forster, E.M., Fox, M., 35, 41 Freedom, 72, 120, 140, 150, 152, 153, 162 Frustration, x Fullness, 40, 81, 85 Index G Gadamer, H.-G., 4, Gandharvas, 119, 143 Gandolfo, S., 60 Ganeri, J., 114 Garden, 157 Garfield, J.L., 3, 4, 10, 31, 51, 52, 54, 57, 58, 60, 62–66, 69, 71, 74, 109, 118, 140, 142–146, 162 Gawronski, R., 85, 126 Gerson, L.P., 147, 148 Gethin, R., Gnosticism, 37 Gnostics, 35 Goal, 7, 8, 13, 14, 15, 20, 21, 65, 93, 100, 117, 120, 122, 124–126, 130, 148, 153, 163, 165 God, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 13–15, 21, 22, 28, 32–45, 79–103, 108–114, 116–120, 123–130, 138, 146–158, 161–165 Godhead, Grace, 92, 153, 158 Grāhadvayaśūnyatā, 10, 28, 29 Greco-Roman, 37 Gregory, 125 Gudmudsen, C., 57 Gullon, R., 112 Gunaratne, R.D., 116 H Hanh, T.N., 146 Harmony, 101 Harris, I.C., 64, 65 Harrison, P., 25 Hart, K., 32 Heart, 3, 39, 54, 58, 68, 84, 98, 129, 157 Heaven, 81, 100, 151 Hebrew, 37 Hegel, Heidegger, 2, 33 Hellenism, 37, 128 Hellenistic, 35, 37, 119 Heresy, 40 Heritage, 3, 36 Hermeneutics, 4, 8, 12, 13, 64, 85, 110, 130, 140, 146 Hermetic, 37 Heuristic, 69 Hīnayāna, 28 Hirakawa, A., 24, 25 Hirota, D., 29 Hoffman, F.J., 72 Index Hope, 34, 86, 89, 91, 92, 100, 101, 116, 124, 125, 127, 164 Howards, Hymn on Faith, 36 Hymn on Paradise, 36 Hypostatization, 29, 45, 63, 64, 163 I Iamblichus, 37 Ichimura, S., 9, 10, 56, 57, 71, 142–144 Idealistic, 37 Identity, 3, 8, 28, 31, 37, 42, 54, 68, 70, 119, 131, 140, 146, 155 Idiom, 58, 59, 139 Ignorance, 21, 38, 84, 96, 99, 103, 115, 118 Ikeda, D., 68 Illuminate, 127, 131, 158 Illusion, 54, 62, 65, 143 Images, 13, 21, 24, 35, 39, 41, 74, 80, 82, 83, 88, 94, 95, 99, 100, 103, 104, 112, 113, 121, 145, 147, 150–152, 162, 163 Imagination, 3, 14, 43, 88–90, 93, 98, 100, 109, 112, 140, 143, 151, 158 Inada, K., 9, 10, 54, 55, 60, 61, 63, 64, 66, 71–73, 144, 162 Inadequacy of language, 10, 22, 69, 82, 110 Incarnation, 45, 116, 123, 152 Inception, Incommunicability, 36, 72 Incompleteness, 29, 30, 32 Indescribable, 12, 69, 84, 95, 100, 111, 112, 113 Indeterminacy, 29, 30, 32 India, 5, 8, 9, 20, 24–27, 36 Ineffability, 3, 45, 74, 84, 85, 99, 100, 103, 110–113, 147, 155 Ineffable, 2, 3, 7, 8, 34, 45, 63, 73, 84, 85, 86, 93, 96–99, 103, 110–113, 118, 129, 136, 139, 146, 147, 152, 155 Inexpressible, 10, 12, 20–24, 55, 84, 103, 110 Intellect, 6, 12–14, 21, 36, 39–45, 80, 82, 83, 86–92, 94, 96, 98–102, 109, 112–115, 118, 120, 125, 129, 138, 149, 153, 162–164 Intention, 27, 123, 151, 153 Interdependence, 62, 146 Intersubjectivity, Intimacy, 157 Intrinsic nature, 27, 31, 54, 55, 63, 64, 66, 67, 70, 124, 142–144, 163 175 Inwardness, 33 Iran, 20, 36 Iraq, 36 Irvine, A., Isaac of Nineveh, 36 Islam, 11 Israel, 36, 37, 123, 158 J Jackals, 157 Jamspal, L., 26 Japan, Jaspers, K., Jñānaśrīmitra, 21, 24 John of the Cross, 1–15, 21, 33, 38, 39, 43–45, 79–104, 107–130, 135–165 Johnston, W., 11, 42, 81, 85 Joy, 86, 89, 91, 101, 116, 148, 155 Judaic, 37 Judeo-Christian, 37, 130 K Kalupahana, D., 9, 55, 56, 61–64, 67, 111, 116, 143, 144, 162 Kamalaśīla, 49 Kant, 56, 59 Kataphasis/Kataphatism, 3, 33–35, 85, 152, 165 See also Cataphatism Kataphatic, 38, 40, 43, 152 Katsura, S., 10, 29–31, 45, 54, 55, 57, 60–64, 66, 67, 70–73, 109, 111, 119, 141, 144, 145, 147, 162 Katz, S.T., 121 Kavanaugh, K., 10–12, 21, 94 Kenosis, 41, 82, 121, 146 Kerala, 36 Khapa , T., 3, 27, 114, 120 Khuzistan, 36 Kleśa, 64 Knowable, 40, 42, 54, 88 Knowledge in unknowing, 14, 44, 93, 94, 96, 97, 99, 103, 148, 149 Krishna, D., 7, 8, 131 Kukla, A., 112 L Ladder, 83, 88, 92, 100, 118, 137, 151, 154, 156 Laity, 24, 25 176 Language, 6, 10, 12, 13, 20–22, 27, 29, 30, 32–34, 38–40, 42, 45, 52, 55–61, 64, 69–74, 80, 82–86, 93, 94, 97, 99, 100–101, 103, 109–111, 115, 118, 121, 123, 125, 137–139, 143, 147, 148, 151, 152, 155, 159–162 Leaman, O., 71 Lebanon, 36 Leibnitz, Lewis, C.S., 42 Lichtman, M., 40, 41 Light, 2, 11–13, 15, 39, 64, 72, 81, 83, 85, 90–92, 94, 96, 101, 103, 119, 126, 129, 141, 148, 152, 155, 160, 162, 164 Lindtner, C., 9, 65, 73 Linguistic, 3, 5, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 34, 38, 42, 56, 62, 72, 73, 80, 85, 109–111, 120, 126, 137, 139, 140, 146, 161 Living Flame of Love, the, 11, 81, 86, 116, 127, 160 Logo-centric, 15 Loizzo, J., Loka-saṁvṛti, 27 Luther, 38 M Mabbett, I., 29, 30 Madhyamaka, 8, 9, 61, 140 Madhyamakaśāstra, 12 Madhyamakavatāra, 12 Mādhyamika, 2, 5, 6, 8–10, 12–15, 20, 23, 26–29, 31, 51–63, 65, 66, 68–73, 108, 114, 115, 118, 139–141, 143, 145, 146, 162, 165 Mādhyamikakārikā, 9, 26 Magliola, R.R., 56, 57 Mahākaruṇa, 25 Mahāparinirvāṇa, 24 Mahāsāṅghika, 24, 26 Mahāyāna, 5, 8, 9, 20, 23–27, 30, 51, 140, 145, 159 Marion, J.-L., 2, 33 Mathura, 26 Matilal, B.K., 52, 111 Mattai, Mar, 36 Mayer, J.R.A., 38 McCabe, H., 32 McCagney, N., 67, 145 McClintock, S.L., 27 McCrea, L.J., 21, 24 McGinn, B., 15, 21, 32, 42 Index Meditation, 3, 14, 43, 100, 163 Memory, 6, 13, 80, 86, 88–94, 96, 98, 99, 100–102, 109, 113–115, 118, 120, 125, 129, 153, 160, 162, 163 Memre, 36 Mental aggregates, x Mental atoms, x Merton, T., 95, 126 Mesopotamia, 36 Metaphor, 7, 19, 20, 33, 36, 39, 45, 82, 83, 120, 135–165 Metaphysical, 7, 13, 30, 39, 43, 55, 56, 60, 69, 72, 73, 85, 108, 139, 144, 147 Metaphysics, 10, 30, 35, 61, 70, 71, 97, 127, 128 Method, 21, 29, 36, 71, 87, 94, 120, 153, 162, 163 Methodology, 5, 14, 15, 130 Metonymy, 7, 159–160 Michaelson, J., 38 Middle ages, 38, 39, 125 Middle way, 8, 27, 61, 68, 165 Middling, 27 Mipham, J., 69 Miracles, 81 Mirror, the, 40, 41 Mithyā, 62 Monastery, 26, 27, 36 Monastic, 24, 123, 130 Monistic, 37 Monk, 5, 10, 14, 24–26, 33, 35, 38, 122, 123, 130, 165 Montana, 12, 104 Mookerjee, S., 21 Moorings, 38 Morphological, 45 Mortification, 83, 86, 87, 101, 120, 150, 156 Moses, 22, 38, 39, 152 Mosul, 36 Mount, 11, 12, 38, 44, 79, 82, 83, 86, 90, 92, 94, 96, 98, 102, 114, 116, 123, 127, 151–154, 156 Mūlamadhyamakakārikā, 52, 53, 140 Murray, R., 36 Murti, T.R.V., 8, 9, 27, 55, 56, 65, 69, 118 Mystery, 33, 34, 110, 113, 123, 141, 151, 152 Mystic, 10, 40, 69, 74, 96, 103, 113, 118, 121, 123, 125, 130, 155, 156, 162, 164 Mystical theology, 35, 38, 123, 126, 153 Mysticism, 35, 38, 39, 69, 81, 82, 95, 100, 105, 118, 128, 140 Myth, 56 Index N Nada, 5–7, 11–13, 79–104, 107–131, 135–137, 139, 165 Nagao, G., 22, 52, 58, 64, 69, 73 Nāgārjuna, 1–15, 20, 26–27, 29–31, 51–74, 107–111, 113–130, 135, 137, 139–163, 165 Nagatomo, S., 58 Nairātmya, xviii, 52 Nakamura, H., 9, 68 Nakedness, 11, 80, 90, 91, 95, 102, 118, 120, 153 Nameable, 54 Nameless, 30, 41, 121 Nayak, G.C., 60, 61, 64, 70, 73 Negatio, 40 Negation, 3, 6, 11, 14, 21–24, 28, 30, 33, 34, 38, 40–42, 44, 45, 52, 56, 66–69, 74, 80, 82, 83, 85, 91, 93, 96, 97, 102, 103, 111, 116, 119–121, 125, 126, 127, 136, 137, 144, 151, 153, 155, 156, 158, 164 Negative theology, 11, 20, 21, 22, 28, 32, 42, 85, 95, 103, 140, 143, 150 Negative way, 2, 3, 5–8, 11–15, 19–45, 60, 66, 68, 73, 74, 80–82, 86, 88, 91, 93–95, 97, 98, 101, 102, 103, 107–109, 111, 113–115, 117–119, 121–130, 136–139, 141, 146–150, 152, 153, 158, 161–165 Neo-Platonism, 6, 11, 20, 37–39, 149 Neo-pythagoreans, 37 Neti neti, 20 Neyārtha, 64, 65 Nibbāna, 30, 53 Nicholas of Cusa, 21, 38, 39, 148–149 Nicholson, A.J., 65 Nietzsche, F., 82, 165 Night, 11, 43, 44, 80–83, 90, 92, 95, 96, 98, 99, 101–103, 110, 113, 116, 118, 120, 123–128, 139, 140, 153–156, 158, 164, 165 Nihilism, 10, 57, 66, 68, 145, 152, 163 Nihilistic, 10, 31, 52, 54, 56, 57 Nihilo, 33, 38 Nihilum, 41, 57 Niḥsvabhāva, 28, 54, 57, 61, 67, 124, 142, 143 Niḥsvabhāvatā, 14, 27, 28, 31, 54, 62, 64, 67, 68, 72, 127, 139 Nirmāṇakāya, 26 Nirvāṇa, 27, 30, 53, 63, 66, 72, 111, 116, 141, 162 Nirvikalpa, 63, 64 Nisibis, 20 Nītārtha, 64, 65 177 Nominalism, 50 Nonbeing, 34, 45, 55 Nonexistence, 62, 67, 146 Nonmystical, 69, 118, 162 Non-self, 27, 119, 120 Nonsubstantiality, 68, 126, 145 Nothingness of God, 42, 81 of self, 81 Noumenon, 56, 65 Nous, 39 Numrich, P., 30 O Oakshott, M., Obbard, E.R., 42 Objective, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28, 35, 40, 61, 93, 103, 114, 125, 129–130, 163 Olson, C., 116 Ontological, 3, 7, 28, 31, 32, 53, 55, 58–61, 111 Orient, 20, 35–38 Origination, 31, 54, 55, 59, 66–68, 124, 143 P Padhye, A.M., 72 Palakeel, J., 85 Palestine, 36 Pali, 30, 53 Panikkar, R., 2–4, 34, 45, 83, 84, 87, 113, 117 Pantheistic, 45 Papanikolaou, A., 22 Paradise, 36, 82 Paradox, 5, 6, 80–86, 98, 111, 139, 140, 151 Paradox of language, 6, 80, 82–86, 111 Paramārtha, 12, 25, 27, 58, 61–63, 65, 66, 69–71, 115, 116, 127, 139, 141 Parinirvāṇa, Passions, 89, 101, 161 Paśyati, 7, 15, 27, 127 Pawelski, J.O., 127 Payne, S., 13, 85, 100, 103, 113, 147, 152 Peace, 81, 98, 99, 102, 128, 139, 164 Pedagogical, 29, 117, 119 Perception, 12, 23, 64, 70, 87, 103, 127 Perfection wisdom, 25 Permanence, 64, 68, 120 Perrin, D.B., 89, 90, 92, 116, 127, 154 Phantasy, 13, 80, 95 Phantom, 30 Phenomenal, 25, 73, 87, 109, 115, 143 Phenomenology, 2, 128 178 Philosophical epiphany, 7, 127–130 Philosophy, 1–4, 6, 7, 13, 23, 26, 31, 33, 37, 38, 51, 52, 56–61, 68, 71, 72, 97, 114, 115, 119, 122, 127, 128, 130, 131, 136–141, 144, 145, 153, 164 Pillay, N., 4, Plato, 37, 39 Plenum, 33 Plotinus, 37, 38 Plurality, 66, 70, 73 Poet, 1, 5, 10, 13, 36, 82, 85, 130 Poetry, 10, 11, 36, 85, 86, 123, 136, 137, 141, 149, 163 Porete, M., 6, 33, 39–44 Porphyry, 37 Positive theology, 85 Positivist, 14 Potter, K.H., 114, 164 Prabhu, J., 4, 5, 12, 130 Prajñā, 25, 54, 67, 72, 127, 163, 164 Prajñāpāramitā, 12, 25, 26, 51, 130, 145 Prajñapatisat, xi Prajñapti, 57, 59, 72, 115, 139 Pramāṇasamuccaya, 23 Pramāṇasiddhiḥ, 23 Pramāṇavārttika, 23 Prapañca, 57, 58, 64, 66, 71, 74, 115, 139, 147 Prapañcopaśama, 64, 66, 118 Prāsaṅgika, 27 Prasannapadā, xxi, 16, 46, 75, 166 Pratijñā, 70, 113 Pratītyasamutpāda, 54, 57, 59, 66–68, 111, 124, 139 Pratītyasamutpādahṛdayakārikā, Praxis, 26, 60, 62 Prayer, 39 Preaching, 22, 69 Priest, G., 69, 70, 74, 162 Privation, 83 Proclus, 37 Psalm, 11, 38, 160, 163 Pseudo-Dionysius, 2, 6, 20, 33, 37–40, 43–45, 150 Psychophysical, 119 Pudgala, 53, 55 Pudgalanairāmya, 28 Pudgalaśūnyatā, 10, 28 Purification, 13, 80, 86, 90, 101, 154 Putnam, H., 70 R Rahula, W., 30 Rationalism, 36 Index Ratnakīrti, 23, 24 Ratnāvalī, Raza, 36 Realisation, 8, 22, 27, 44, 62, 93, 100, 124, 127 Realism, 8, 66 Reality, 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12–14, 20, 21, 26, 28–31, 35, 37, 54–57, 60–74, 83, 87, 97, 108, 110, 111, 117–119, 121, 124, 125, 127, 128, 138, 142, 144–147, 152, 158, 162, 164 Rebirth, 115, 119, 122 Reductio ad absurdum, 71, 141 Reformation, 38 Remotio, 40, 103 Revelation, 123, 124 Rhys Davids, T.W., 30 Rivers, 97, 157, 160 Robinson, J.M., 41 Rocca, G.P., 33, 40 Romances, 11, 126, 127, 160 S Sacramental, 123 Saito, A., 54, 64 Śākyabhikṣu, 27 Sāṁkhya, 26 Saṁmitīya, 26, 53 Saṁskāra-, 53 Saṁskṛta, 143 Saṁvṛti, 6, 12, 14, 25, 51–74, 108–110, 114–116, 127, 139 Saṅgha, 24 Sanjuanist, 13 Saṅkara’s, 56 Śāntarakṣita, 23 Śāntideva, 27 Sarvāstivādin, 26 Satisfaction, 43, 86, 87, 96, 98, 101, 149, 150, 153, 156 Satya, 12, 61, 62, 73, 141 Sautrāntika, 27 Scepticism, 60, 82 Scharfstein, B.-A., 56 Scherrer, S., 90 Schopen, G., 24, 25 Sebastian, C. D., 8, 21, 26, 29, 115 Secret, 13, 38, 42, 81, 83, 84, 89, 99, 100, 118, 125, 128, 139, 141, 147, 155–157 Segragatio, 40 Self, 27, 39, 41, 53, 56, 59, 64, 72, 81, 82, 89–92, 96, 100, 114, 116, 119–121, 136, 137, 139–141, 151, 153, 155–157, 163 Self-abnegation, 119, 121, 126, 155, 156, 163 Index Self-denial, 100, 120, 156, 157 Self-emptying, 82, 121, 146 Self-emptying nothingness, 81, 139 Selfishness, 119 Semiotics, 7, 118, 138, 148, 161–163 Semitic, 37, 39 Seperatio, 37 Septuagint, 37 Sermon, 36, 41 Shih, C.-Q., 67–68 Siderits, M., 10, 23, 29, 30, 31, 45, 54, 55, 57, 60–64, 66–68, 70–73, 109, 111, 114, 119, 140–141, 144, 145, 147, 162 Śīla, 115 Silence, 6, 22, 33, 34, 36, 40, 52, 69–74, 80, 83–85, 94, 97–103, 113, 117–119, 139, 143, 148, 152, 161–164 Silent music, 98, 101, 102, 123 Similarity, 14, 85, 110, 113, 115, 117, 119, 121, 122, 124, 130, 149, 163 Sinai, 38, 151, 152 Śivaṁ, 66, 118 Skandha, 53, 65, 111 Skeptics, 37, 141, 145 Sloth, 121 Smith, M., 35 Solitude, 33, 81, 83, 97–102, 118, 123, 139, 158 Sorrow, 89, 101, 153 Soul, 7, 11, 13, 35, 39–44, 80, 81, 83, 84, 86, 89–102, 104, 112, 114, 118–121, 124, 125, 127–129, 147, 148, 150, 153–158, 160, 162, 163, 164 Spidlik, T., 35–37 Spirit, 45, 72, 83, 84, 90, 92, 94, 101, 102, 113, 114, 120, 122, 147, 150, 153–155 Spiritual, 7, 11, 14, 35, 37–39, 43, 81, 84, 88, 89, 91, 92, 95, 96, 98, 99, 101, 102, 113, 116–118, 120, 121, 123–124, 126, 129, 149–151, 156, 158, 164 Spiritual betrothal, 129 Spiritual Canticle, the, 11, 79–80, 90, 102, 103, 112, 116, 127, 154, 157, 159, 160 Spiritual union, 156 Śrāvaka, 65 Stein, S. E., 7, 129 Stewart, E.-A., 120 Sthavira, 24 Stillness, 33, 97, 101, 147, 164 Stoics, 37 Stratagem, 20, 22, 28, 45, 74, 120, 130 Stūpas, 25 179 Sublime, 10, 38, 84, 89, 91, 97, 99, 112, 125, 127, 152, 165 Suffering, 60, 113, 115, 155, 157 Suhṛllekha, 9, 115 Summit, 94, 152, 153, 156, 157 Śūnya, 7, 10, 27–29, 53, 59, 60, 68, 74, 111, 121, 126, 129, 142, 143, 145 Śūnyatā, 5, 20, 28–33, 51–75, 107–130, 135–169 Śūnyatāsaptati, 9, 26, 74 Śūnyatāśūnyatā, xii Superimposition, 53 Supernatural, 87–91, 102, 118, 153, 162, 164 Svabhāva, 27, 53–55, 57, 58, 59, 61, 64, 70, 72, 74, 111, 116, 119, 143, 163 Svabhāvatā, 58, 143 Svārthānumāna, 23 Svātantrika Mādhyamika, 27 Syllogistic, 71 Symbiosis, 138 Symbol, 11, 36, 60, 70, 73, 82–85, 98, 121, 138, 152, 158, 161 Symbolism, 6, 11, 36, 70, 80, 82, 85, 145–146, 161 Syncretism, 37 Syntax, 72, 73 Synthesis, 4, 97 Syria, 20, 36 Syriac, 36 Syriac Church, 36 Syrian, 20, 35, 37, 38 T Tabor, 151, 152 Tathāgata, 22–23, 26, 29, 67, 68, 111 Tathāgatagarbha, 25, 26 Tathatā, 29 Tattva, 12, 64, 72, 73 Tattvasaṁgraha, 23 Taylor, M.C., 2, 33, 34, 148 Tetralemma, 67, 71, 111, 126, 140 Theist (theistic), 6–8, 15, 42, 45, 107, 108, 123, 125 Theological epiphany, 7, 127–130 Theological incompleteness, 32 Theology, 2, 3, 11, 20, 21, 22, 28, 32, 33, 37–39, 42, 85, 95, 103, 122, 123, 125, 126, 138–140, 143, 146, 150, 153, 165 Thing-in-itself, 10, 56 Thomas, R.S, 32, 34 Index 180 Tibetan, 27, 65, 114 Tillemans, T., 23 Tillich, P., 37, 138 Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, 70 Tranquil, 81, 94, 97, 101, 102, 123, 139 See also Tranquillity Tranquillity, 83, 101 Transcendence, 3–5, 21, 33, 36, 38, 42, 84, 91, 110, 111, 123, 126, 146, 147, 149 Transformation, 3, 7, 34, 93, 116, 118, 129, 155, 156, 161 Trinitarian, 42, 123 Trinity, 38 Truth, 6, 10, 12–15, 25, 27, 29–32, 41, 52, 55, 57–65, 68–71, 74, 87, 89, 98, 109–111, 114, 115, 118, 119, 122, 124, 141, 145, 146, 153 Turkey, 20, 36 Turner, D., 2, 19, 20, 22, 32, 33, 38, 39, 42, 93, 120, 128 Two truths, 6, 12, 25, 27, 31, 52, 58, 60–67, 69, 73, 74, 108, 118, 146, 162 Tyler, P. M., 10, 147–149 Typology, 36 U Uccheda, 67 Ultimate, 4, 8, 15, 27, 29, 40, 44, 52–53, 55, 58, 61–66, 69, 70, 73, 74, 113, 114, 115, 117, 119, 126, 127, 129, 149 Ultimate reality, 2, 3, 6, 7, 13, 20, 30, 31, 55, 62, 63, 65, 72, 74, 83, 111, 124, 147 Union with God, 12, 13, 22, 32, 80, 86–90, 92, 93, 103, 109, 113, 123, 127, 130, 153, 156, 157, 163, 165 Unity, 29, 38, 64, 66, 85, 97, 123 Universal, 3, 4, 23, 57, 82 Universality, 91 Unknowable, 33, 38, 40, 42, 96, 148 Unknowing, 6, 14, 21, 38, 42–44, 80, 81, 91, 93–97, 99, 100, 103, 124, 128, 139, 148, 149, 155 Unnamable, 30, 42 Unreal, 10, 21, 28–31, 45, 53, 116, 120, 140, 142 Unsayable, 2, 33–34, 38, 42, 110, 151, 152 Unspeakable, 30, 33, 69, 71, 110, 112, 126–127, 136–137, 139, 147, 156 Upaniṣadic, 1–2, 20 Upaśama, 66 V Vaidalyaprakarana, Vaiśāli, 24 Vasubandhu, 22–23 Vedāntic, 1–2, 7, 55–57, 165 Vedic, 14 Via negativa, 2, 3, 5, 14, 20–23, 26, 28, 30, 32–36, 40, 41, 45, 95, 102, 125, 126, 138, 146, 148, 150, 165 Viejo, 116 Views, 8–10, 12, 15, 30, 31, 55, 60, 65, 67, 68, 71, 73, 86, 119, 120, 124, 126, 130, 147, 163, 164 Vigrahavyāvartanī, 9, 26, 29–30, 71 Vikalpa, 63, 64, 67, 73 Virtue, 31, 34, 58, 65, 66, 83, 91, 92, 100, 114, 116, 117, 125, 146, 155 Virtuous, 65, 116, 117 Void, 10, 25, 28–30, 44, 45, 54, 62, 81, 83, 88, 89, 91, 95, 103, 118, 143, 145, 164 Voidness, 29, 30, 60 Volition, x Vyavahāra, 27, 60, 62, 63, 65, 115, 116 Vyavahārasiddhi, W Walser, J., 8, 24–27, 159 Way, 1–8, 10–15, 20–45, 52–62, 64, 66–68, 70, 72–74, 80–99, 101–103, 108, 109, 111–131, 136–141, 143–155, 158, 159, 161–165 Werblowsky, R J Z., 80 West, 3, 19–20, 27, 35, 36, 38, 39, 52, 148 Westerhoff, J., 53, 56 Wetlesen, J., 65 Wilderness, 157, 158 Wilhelmsen, E., 79, 90, 102, 103, 113, 122, 123, 154 Wilkinson, M.B., 36 Williams, P., 9, 12, 24–27, 29, 38, 52, 53, 54, 61, 65, 125, 135, 149 Will, M.J., 43 Wisdom, 4, 7, 11, 13, 25, 37, 43, 72, 84, 86, 90, 92, 94–96, 99, 100, 114, 125, 127, 129, 145, 155, 158, 163, 164 Wittgenstein, L., 7, 33, 42, 56, 57, 70, 71, 45, 165 Index 181 Wojtyla, K., 91, 92, 125 Wolosky, S., 81 Word, 12, 21, 25, 30, 32, 37, 40, 41, 54, 58, 60, 68, 84, 85, 99, 104, 117, 122–124, 138, 157, 159, 165 Wright, P., 41 Y Yathābhūtadarśana, x Yijing, 24 Yogācāra, 10, 20, 28, 58, 65 Yogācāra–Vijñānavāda, 8, 28, 52 Yuktiṣaṣṭikā, 9, 26 X Xuanzang, 24 Z Zhang, E.Y., 29 ... rephrasing the title of the book from the initial the idea of nothingness to the cloud of nothingness I have benefited from his suggestions I am also thankful to the learned reviewers of the manuscript... darkening, while in the fourth part we take up the key idea of the ‘unknowing’ in the thought of John of the Cross In the fifth and last part of the chapter, we consider the import of ‘silence’ that... focus is on the negative way found in the notion of nothingness in Nāgārjuna and John of the Cross 1.1 Why This Study? In the light of the present day exploit of the negative way, the present
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Xem thêm: The cloud of nothingness , The cloud of nothingness , 2 Significance, Scope and Subject Matter of the Study, 6 The Negative Way: Different Objectives in Nāgārjuna and John of the Cross, 2 Śūnyatā and Nāgārjuna’s Philosophy of Language, 3 Śūnyatā and the Doctrine of Two Truths, 4 Śūnyatā and the ‘Eight Negations’ of Nāgārjuna, 2 Nada and John of the Cross’s Paradox of Language, 1 Apophasis, Metaphor and the Negative Way, 2 Apophasis and Metaphor in Nāgārjuna and John of the Cross, 4 Semiotics, Apophasis and Metaphor in Nāgārjuna and John of the Cross

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