Postcolonial asylum seeking sanctuary before the law

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Postcolonial Asylum Seeking Sanctuary Before the Law Postcolonialism across the Disciplines Farrier_PostcolAsylum_Final.indd 21/01/2011 15:25 Postcolonialism across the Disciplines Series Editors Graham Huggan, University of Leeds Andrew Thompson, University of Leeds Postcolonialism across the Disciplines showcases alternative directions for postÂ�colonial studies It is in part an attempt to counteract the dominance in colonial and postcolonial studies of one particular discipline – English literary/ cultural studies – and to make the case for a combination of disciplinary knowÂ�­ ledges as the basis for contemporary postcolonial critique Edited by leading scholars, the series aims to be a seminal contribution to the field, spanning the traditional range of disciplines represented in postcolonial studies but also those less acknowlÂ�edged It will also embrace new critical paradigms and examine the relationÂ�ship between the transnational/cultural, the global and the Â�postcolonial Farrier_PostcolAsylum_Final.indd 21/01/2011 15:25 Postcolonial Asylum Seeking Sanctuary Before the Law David Farrier Liverpool University Press Farrier_PostcolAsylum_Final.indd 21/01/2011 15:25 First published 2011 by Liverpool University Press Cambridge Street Liverpool L69 7ZU Copyright © 2011 David Farrier The right of David Farrier to be identified as the author of this book has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication data A British Library CIP record is available Web PDF eISBN 978-1-84631-563-3 Print ISBN 978-1-84631-480-3 cased Typeset in Amerigo by Koinonia, Manchester Printed and bound by CPI Antony Rowe, Chippenham & Eastbourne Contents Acknowledgements Note to the Reader List of Figures vii ix xi Introduction: Before the Law A scandal for postcolonial studies The camp dispositif Overview 1 15 Nothing Outside the Law The colonization of the in-between Kenomatic fetish The heritage of colonial infrahumanity Necropolitics and national narcissism 24 24 34 38 49 Horizons of Perception In/visible relations Gorgoneion Horizon of perception 1: the camp in the city Horizon of perception 2: the camp and the dispersal system Horizon of perception 3: the camp and asylum destitution 57 57 61 73 77 85 Be/held: Ban and Iteration Be/held Bogus women Re/producing ‘home’ Continua 92 92 95 106 114 v Farrier_PostcolAsylum_Final.indd 21/01/2011 15:25 Contents Allow Me My Destitution Parasitic reading and reading parasites Dead letters Kalumnia and formula ‘Let me become the echo of a name to you’ Preference and assumption 124 124 130 135 140 147 Terms of Hospitality The receding refugee Asylos/Asylao The transgressive step The necessary other 153 153 156 166 174 The Politics of Proximity Response-ability Metaxis The journey is the film is the journey The limits of dignity 181 181 187 193 201 Afterword209 Bibliography212 Index 228 vi Farrier_PostcolAsylum_Final.indd 21/01/2011 15:25 Acknowledgements I am grateful to the following people for granting permission to reproduce the images in this book: Neil Burgess, for the image from Sebastião Salgado’s Migrations; Melanie Friend, for the image from her collection, Border Country; John Perivolaris, for the images from Walking with Thaer (including the image on the cover); and Heidrun Lohr, for her photograph of Shahin Shafaei In particular, I greatly appreciate the generosity of John and Heidrun for allowing me to repro­ duce their work free of charge Every effort has been made to contact the rights holders of the images repro­ duced here Where it has not been possible to gain permission, any necessary corrections will be made in subsequent editions A version of Chapter has appeared as ‘Terms of Hospitality: Abdulrazak Gurnah’s By the Sea’, Journal of Commonwealth Literature, 43/3 (2008), pp 121–139 Parts of Chapter have previously appeared as ‘The Journey is the Film is the Journey: Michael Winterbottom’s In This World’, Research in Drama Education, 13/2 (2008), pp 223–232, and ‘“The Other is the Neighbour”: The Limits of Dignity in Caryl Phillips’s A Distant Shore’, Journal of Postcolonial Writing, 44/4 (2008), pp 403–413 I owe grateful thanks to the University of Leicester and the Arts and Humani­ ties Research Council for providing me with consecutive periods of research leave, in 2009, in which to write this book Thanks also to Anthony Cond and Alison Welsby at Liverpool University Press, for their assiduous editorship, and to Graham Huggan and Stuart Murray for suggesting I approach Liverpool University Press in the first place The process of researching and writing this book was helped inordinately by many good people I am grateful to Alwyn Jones, Campbell Jones, Â�Margareta Kern, John McLeod, Maggie O’Neill, John Perivolaris (who showed me the route of his walk with Thaer Ali), Alex Rotas and Shahin Shafaei, who discussed aspects of the research with me, or simply for remarks that have made a vii Farrier_PostcolAsylum_Final.indd 21/01/2011 15:25 Acknowledgements telling difference Alwyn Jones also very kindly agreed to look at the work in draft and gave invaluable feedback, as did Mark Rawlinson, Phil Shaw, Abigail Ward and Andrew Warnes Ros Horin was exceedingly generous in sharing her unpublished manuscript for Through the Wire with me I hope that what I have produced does justice to their goodwill Needless to say, any errors are solely down to me A much earlier debt of inspiration is owed to the Allen, Kayij, Nyantou and Qadir families, to Mr Aziz, and to everyone else who helped create a community of and for refugees as part of Welcome to Leeds Most of all, for everything else I owe overwhelming thanks to Rachel, Isaac and Annie (whose arrival made a year of writing even more special); it is to them that Postcolonial Asylum is dedicated viii Farrier_PostcolAsylum_Final.indd 21/01/2011 15:25 Note to the Reader Readers should observe that most of this book was written in 2009, and thus cannot comment on subsequent events in the asylum regimes discussed below Dispiritingly, however, advances in the treatment of asylum seekers – such as the UK supreme court ruling, in July 2010, that an asylum claim based on fear of homophobic persecution is valid – have been offset by overwhelming negative developments: despite the acknowledgement of the British deputy Prime Minister, Nick Clegg, that the detention of children for immigration purposes constitutes a ‘moral outrage’, at the time of writing the practice continues, while the UNHCR reports increasing numbers of unaccompanied minors travelling to Europe; the deaths of Jimmy Mubenga, who died during a forced removal in October 2010 (the first such death since that of Joy Gardner in 1993) and Osman Rasul, who leapt from a tower block in Nottingham following the forced closure of Refugee and Migrant Justice (a charity which provided free legal advice to asylum seekers), indicate the persistence of necropower in the UK asylum system Beyond Britain a similar picture emerges Despite evicting the UNHCR from its offices in Tripoli, without explanation, in July 2010, Libya and the European Commission concluded a deal reportedly worth €50bn over three years to cooperate over control of North Africa immigration (and curtail, in Muammar Gaddafi’s words, a ‘black Europe’); in September of the same year, 13 African migrants drowned in the Gulf of Aden during a failed rescue attempt by the US Navy What I have tried to do, in Postcolonial Asylum, is analyse those trends, evident throughout Western asylum regimes, which frame asylum seekers as contemporary figures of the infrahuman; trends that, with depressing reliability, seem to exceed any 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Desire: Hybridity in Theory, Culture and Race (London and New York: Routledge, 1995) Zephaniah, Benjamin, Propa Propaganda (Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Bloodaxe Books, 1996) Zetter, Roger, ‘Refugees and Refugee Studies: A Valedictory Editorial’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 13/4 (2000), pp 349–355 —— ‘More Labels, Fewer Refugees: Remaking the Refugee Label in an Era of Globaliza­ tion’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 20/2 (2007), pp 172–192 Žižek, Slavoj, The Parallax View (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2006) 227 Farrier_PostcolAsylum_Final.indd 227 21/01/2011 15:25 Index The letter n refers to a footnote Aboulela, Leila Minaret 22, 94, 111–114 Adshead, Kate The Bogus Woman 22, 94, 102–104, 106, 117–118, 182 affectivity 119, 155–156, 182–184, 200 Agamben, Giorgio and Arendt the ban 12–13, 37, 48–49, 85, 93 on ‘Bartleby’ 125, 132, 138–139, 149 and Bhabha 94–95, 116–117, 123 biopolitics 9, 14, 34, 38, 107, 121 the camp 13–15, 34, 38, 40, 50, 61–73, 76, 85 the camp dispositif 13–15, 198 criticism of 9–10, 35, 61–63, 140–141, 146, 176–177 deconstruction 128 and Derrida 128–129, 146 the exception 25, 29–30, 35, 61, 63–64, 127–128, 138, 171, 175 ‘form-of-life’ 146–148 the gorgoneion 68, 72–73 homo sacer 10, 21, 38, 40, 116–117, 127, 151 and Isin and Rygiel 9, 35, 59, 61–64, 85 on Kafka 128, 136–137 kalumnia 136–137, 140, 142, 151, 170 language 10, 41, 138 law 36–37, 41, 124, 128–129, 136–138, 141, 158, 176 and Mbembe 38, 40 potentiality 138–141, 148–149, 151 race 39–40 and Rancière 9, 15, 23, 59, 61–62, 64 the refugee 9–10, 23, 137 resistance to sovereignty 125, 134, 147–152 responsibility 176 singularity 135, 139–141 sovereign 10–11, 29, 36–37 testimony 72–73, 174, 193 writings ‘Bartleby’ 125, 138–139, 149 The Coming Community 135, 139–140 Homo Sacer 10, 12, 25, 29–30, 35n, 37– 38, 41, 49, 61, 93, 124, 128–129, 136, 138, 141, 148–149, 170 ‘K’ 136–37, 170 Means Without End 63, 129, 147–148 Remnants of Auschwitz 65–68, 72–73, 174, 176, 193 State of Exception 10, 29, 34, 36, 44, 127, 138, 171, 175 Agier, Michel 209, 211 and deterritorialization 27, 48 Ahmad, Aijaz Ahmed, Sara 4, 84, 107, 182, 186, 200 Al-Assad, Mehmet 150–152 Al-Jezairy, Zuhair 139–140 Al-Qady, Towfiq Nothing but Nothing 183 Allen, Steve 79 Ali, Mahzer 2, 4, 7–8, 14–15, 29, 73 Amini, Abas 14–15, 18, 119n Arendt, Hannah 129, 137 The Human Condition 180n The Origins of Totalitarianism 12–13, 153 ‘We refugees’ 153 Appadurai, Arjun 228 Farrier_PostcolAsylum_Final.indd 228 21/01/2011 15:25 Index Aspden, Kester 87, 89–90 Aston, Elaine 117–118 asylum claim as paradox 6–7, 95, 138, 140, 159 and decidability 11–12, 125–126, 129–130 asylum seeker and aboriginal Australians 48–56 authors see Mehmet Al-Assad, Zuhair Al-Jezairy, Abas Amini, Angel Bou­ jbiha, Â�Exiled Writers Ink, Dieudonnée-Â� Marcelle Makenga, Shahin Shafaei, Himzo Skorpan, Mohsen Soltany-Zand and citizen 2, 7, 11, 13, 18, 21–22, 48–50, 52–55, 57–63, 67, 73–77, 90–91, 101, 107–111, 113, 118, 121–123, 130, 135, 142–148, 150, 152, 210–211 credibility determinations 101–102, 104–106, 131–133, 156–165, 167 decidability 12, 127, 135–136, 142–143, 147, 149–150, 152, 163, 167 destitution among 86–91, 97–98, 124–125, 131–134 as deterritorialized border 29, 48 dispersal system 77–78, 85 DNA testing 105n and family 98–102, 105–106 as fetish 33–37, 45–46, 98 gender 94, 98–107, 109–114 illegality 12–14, 93, 97– 98, 114, 131 labelling 32–33n, 41, 60–61, 102–106, 153–156, 167–169, 175, 178, 180, 190 as limit-concept 13, 23, 37, 65–66, 93–94, 137–138 lip-sewing 2, 14–15, 150–152 narratives 118, 125–127, 129–136, 139–141, 152, 156–163, 165–166, 169, 176–180, 211 necropolitics as parasite 126–128, 135–136, 141–143, 147, 150–151 sexuality 99, 101 social reproduction 22, 94–98, 106–114 Athiwal, Harmit 38–39 Auerbach, Eric 179 Australia Aboriginal internment 40, 49–50 the beach 42, 54 ‘children overboard’ case 54 Cornelia Rau 25, 52–54, 67 culture jamming 54–55 Derrida on 146 Howard government immigration detention in 2, 16–20, 29, 49–59, 62, 66–67 Mabo 51, 54 Migration Act 1992 17, 49n Pacific Solution 17, 32–34, 36, 45, 61 Rudd, Kevin 32 SIEV-X 19 Sydney Olympics 55 Tampa, MV 17, 32–32, 49, 51, 55, 99 Vivien Solen Young 25, 52–54, 67 ‘white Australia’ policy see also immigration detention centres, legislation Auschwitz 65–67, 76 Back, Les 78, 92 Badran, Alice 80 Bal, Mieke 186, 199–201 Balibar, Étienne the border 28, 32, 48 illegality 93 sans papiers 60–61 Bakhtin, Mikhail 6, 27, 93, 142, 145 ban, the Agamben on 12–13, 37, 48–49, 85, 93, 128–129 the camp 77, 82, 210 gender 101, 114 iteration 93–94, 121 and responsibility 181–182 Bartmann, Sarah 102–103 Bashir, Abu-Manneh 28 Bauman, Zygmunt 8–9 concentration camp 34–35 and Derrida 11 hierarchy of mobility 70, 198–199 ‘waste humanity’ 96–97, 106 writings Life in Fragments 35 Liquid Times 181–182 Globalization 1, 70, 198–199 Wasted Lives 9, 96–97 Bayley, Claire The Container 183–184, 187 beach, the 42, 54, 77–79, 81, 84 Benhabib, Seyla 113 Benveniste, Emile 158–159 Bhabha, Homi and Agamben 94–95, 116–117, 123 and Balibar continua 88, 114–116, 118, 142, 210 criticism of 27–28, 96 dissensus 8, 60, 95, 116–117 and Fanon 94–96 on Rich 116 writings The Location of Culture 2–3, 6–9, 60, 94–96, 116, 140 ‘Notes on vernacular cosmopolitanism’ 88, 115–116, 142 Bhabha, Jacqueline 100, 104–105 Bigo, Didier and the dispositif 13, 48, 50, 63–64 Billings, Peter and Richard A Edwards 132–133, 161 biopolitics 64–65 229 Farrier_PostcolAsylum_Final.indd 229 21/01/2011 15:25 Postcolonial Asylum Agamben on 9, 14, 34, 38, 82, 107, 121 asylum seeker 7, 9, 85, 125 gender 100–103, 106 homo sacer 38, 40 Birch, Tony 50 Blair, Tony 30, 48 Boal, Augusto 23, 187–193 Boer war 40 Boire, Gary 209 border, the and postcolonial studies 2–4, 26–28, 42 deterritorialized 28–34, 48–49, 62 as colonial fetish 42 frontiers, zones and camps 62, 74 Boujbiha, Angel 55–56, 66–67, 71, 143–144, 150–151 Broomfield, Nick and Marc Hoerferlin 124 Brown, Dave 88 Burke, Paul and Tony McEnery 168n Burnside, Julian 17, 32n, 33 Burville, Tom 190 Butler, Judith 45–48, 182, 194, 210 and the asylum claim on Levinas 207–208 Calais ‘jungle’ camp 209–211 camp, the as apotropaic 68, 71–73, 137 colonial origins of 40–42, 49–50 concentration camps 34, 40–41, 65–68, 72–73, 76, 85, 202 and the exception 13, 35, 40, 63–64, 66, 68 Guantanamo Bay 34, 62, 76 immigration detention in the UK 34–36, 38–39, 66, 68–73 in Australia 2, 16–20, 29, 49–59, 62, 66–67 see immigration detention centres Sangatte Red Cross transit camp 76–77 as spectacle 74, 79 camp dispositif aesthetics of 58–59, 61–73, 77, 191–192 and Agamben 13–15, 198 the ban 12–13, 37, 64, 77, 82, 85, 93, 210 and Bigo 13, 28 deterritorialization 26–34, 41–42, 47, 63, 77, 79, 85, 158, 202, 211 disappearance in 58–73, 91, 187–193 the epistolarium 18 and Foucault 13, 20–21 indistinction within 11, 43, 48, 82, 114, 129 and Isin and Rygiel, 61–64, 85 and the law 37, 158 resistance to 56–61, 63, 90–91, 93, 95–96, 125, 134, 136–152, 171–180, 186–193, 210–211 social reproduction 22, 94–98 Cavarero, Adriana 22, 176–180 chiasmus 194–195, 197, 199 Chowdhury, Arjun 64 Clayton, Gina 157 Coetzee, J M Waiting for the Barbarians 21, 25, 43–48 communitas 57, 79–80, 82, 84 Conrad, Joseph 186 Cooke, Alexander 141 Critchley, Simon 127, 145, 205, 207 Cwerner, Saulo B 163–163, 175 Daly, Francis 155 De Genova, Nicholas 11–12 De Giorgio, Alessandro 30 Deleuze, Gilles 125, 131, 136–137, 149, 175 Dening, Greg 42 Derrida, Jacques and Agamben 128–129, 146 criticism of 109–110, 128, 146 decidability 131, 147, 150, 167, 171–172, 180 hospitality 22, 108–110, 114, 122–123, 146–147, 150, 158–159, 166–167, 169–172, 178 iteration 94 on Kafka 128 the law 36, 128–131, 158 on Levinas 109–110 paper 130–131 responsibility 146–147, 150 writings Adieu to Levinas 109–110, 171 ‘Before the law’ 128–131, 153 For What Tomorrow 166 ‘Force of law’ 36 128, 131 ‘Hospitality, justice and responsibility’ 167, 180 ‘Hospitality, perfectibility, respon­ sibility’ 51, 112–113, 146–147, 167, 169 ‘Hostipitality’ 109, 159 Margins of Philosophy 94 Negotiations 171–172 Of Hospitality 108, 167, 170–171, 179 The Other Heading 109n Paper Machine 130–131, 149–150 Devadas, Vijay and Chris Prentice 27–28 Diamond, Elin 181 Dillon, Michael 7, 23, 145 Diprose, Rosalyn response-ability 23, 182 Dirlik, Arf and Hardt and Negri 26 Dostoyevsky, Fyodor 184 Douglass, Frederick 194 Drewe, Robert Grace 50 Dyer, Richard 83–85 Eastmond, Marita 158, 161 Edkins, Jenny 142 230 Farrier_PostcolAsylum_Final.indd 230 21/01/2011 15:25 Index Edkins, Jenny and Veronique Pin-Fat 148–149, 151 Ehrenreich, Barbara and Arlie Russell Hochs­ child 111 Eliot, T S 186 epistolarium, the and camp dispositif 18 Nauru epistolarium 16–20 and Levinas 19 EU directive on minimum standards of recep­ tion 97 European Convention on Human Rights 86, 98, 131, 161 exception, the Agamben on 25, 34–37, 171 and the camp 13, 35–36, 61, 63, 65 colonial origins of 38–49 and commandement 44 and the law 36–37, 45, 64, 127–130, 132, 136, 211 and necropolitics 38 and race 39–43, 46 Schmitt on 10–11, 162 and sovereignty 10–11, 25, 127–129, 146, 157 and visibility 68 Exiled Writers Ink 134n, 139n, 144n extra-territorial processing Italy and Lampudesa 28 Pacific Solution 17, 32–34, 36, 45, 63 Sangatte Agreement 30, 63 and the UK 30–31, 71 and the USA 28n Fanon, Frantz 181, 185 Bhabha and 94–97 writings Black Skin, White Masks 95, 104, 127 The Wretched of the Earth 96 Fassin, Didier 76–77, 105, 161n Féher, Ferenc and Agnes Heller 172 Fekete, Liz 42n, 70, 79 Felman, Shoshana, and Dori Laub 160 fetish 33–37, 42, 45–48, 66, 98 Foster, Kevin 108 Foucault, Michel the dispositif 13, 20–21, 49 panoptic systems 66 writings ‘The confession of the flesh’ 13, 21, 49 ‘The Subject and power’ 148n France L’affaire du foulard 113 Bresson, Eric 209 Calais ‘jungle’ camp 209–211 Sangatte Red Cross transit camp 76–77, 202, 207–208 Sans papiers 60–61, 130, 175–176 Sarkozy, Nicolas 76 see also legislation Frears, Stephen Dirty Pretty Things 22, 94, 107–110 Friend, Melanie Border Country 21, 58 Fryer, Peter Gabriel, Teshome 195 Gardner, Joy as homo sacer 10, 103 Garner, Steve 83–84 Gates, Henry Louis 194 Gedalof, Irene 94, 107, 113 Gell, Alfred 68 Gharavi, Tina Asylum Carwash 115 Gianncopoulos, Maria 51 Gibney, Matthew 1, 30, 32, 155, 211 Gibson, Sarah 71, 108, 172–173 Gikandi, Simon Gilbert, Helen and Jacqueline Lo 192–193 Gilroy, Paul and Agamben 40 concentration camp 35 and Mbembe 21, 39–43 racism 40–42, 84, 173 post-imperial melancholia 78, 85, 202 slave plantations 41 writings After Empire 40, 47, 78, 84, 173, 202 Between Camps 10, 35, 41–42, 101 Gombrich, E H Gorgon myth 68 Good, Anthony 19, 160–161 Goodwin-Gill, Guy and Rachel Adams 32–33, 36–37 Gormley, Anthony 78 Gurnah, Abdulrazak 211 By the Sea 22, 158, 167–176, 178–180, 185 Hage, Ghassan ethnic caging 56 paranoid nationalism 52–53, 76–77 racism 42 whiteness 77 worrying 54, 76 writings Against Paranoid Nationalism 52–55, 76 White Nation 54–56, 77, 143, 155–156 Haider, Jörg 73, 75 Hall, Alex 72 Hall, Stuart 2, 174 and identity 140, 160–161 Hardt, Michael and Antonio Negri asylum 26 ‘Bartleby’ 125, 176 the camp dispositif 28 the deterritorialized border 25–29, 32, 48–49 231 Farrier_PostcolAsylum_Final.indd 231 21/01/2011 15:25 Postcolonial Asylum postcolonial studies 27 writings Empire 25–26, 30, 37, 48–49, 176 Multitude 25–26 Harris, Wilson 2, 175, 186, 194–195 Hayden, Bridget 155–156 Hayter, Teresa 61, 168n Hazou, Rand 190 Hegel, G F W 40 hijab 113 Hill Maher, Kristen 111 Hintjens, Helen 39 homo sacer, the 10, 21, 29, 38, 40, 82, 103, 116–117, 126–127, 151, 205 Honig, Bonnie 88 Horin, Ros Through the Wire 182–183, 186, 188–193 hospitality discourse asylum hotel debate 71, 172 in ‘Bartleby’ 135, 142 decidability 171–172 Derrida on 103, 108–110, 114, 122–123, 146–147, 150, 166–167, 169–172, 178–180 and gender 103, 106–114 Levinas on 109–110 and postcolonial studies 108, 171 reading 124–127 hybridity 2–3, 8, 27, 93–94, 142, 145 immigration detention centres Baxter Immigration Removal and Process­ ing Centre [Australia] 50 Campsfield House Immigration Removal Centre [UK] 69, 102, 103 Christmas Island Immigration Detention Centre [Australia] 32, 50n Colnbrook Immigration Removal Centre [UK] 35–36n, 69, 71 Curtin Immigration Detention Centre [Australia] 188 Dover Immigration Removal Centre [UK] 35–36n, 69 Haslar Immigration Removal Centre [UK] 35–36n, 69 Harmondsworth Immigration Removal Centre [UK] 69 Lindholme Immigration Removal Centre [UK] 35–36n, 69 Manus Islands Immigration Detention Centre [Australia] 32 Maribyrnong Immigration Detention Centre [Australia] 50n Nauru Immigration Detention Centre [Aus­ tralia] 17, 32 Northern Immigration Detention Centre [Australia] 50 Tinsley House Immigration Removal Centre [UK] 69 Yarl’s Wood Immigration Removal Centre [UK] 69, 71, 165 Woomera Immigration Removal and Processing Centre [Australia] 2, 29, 57–59, 61 Villawood Immigration Detention Centre [Australia] 50, 142–143 Independent Asylum Commission 101, 157, 165–166 Isin, Engin ‘Theorizing acts of citizenship’ 90–91 Isin, Engin, and Kim Rygiel 9, 35, 58, 61–64, 77–78 ‘Abject spaces: frontiers, zones and camps’ 9, 35, 62–64, 74 ‘Of other global cities: frontiers, zones and camps’ 62 iteration camp dispositif 22, 93 hospitality discourse 94–98, 106–114 and resistance 99–100, 114–123 Jacquemet, Marco 162 Jamieson, Nigel 55 In Our Name 183 Jestovic, Slvija 75 Kafka, Franz The Trial 128–129, 136–137 Keneally, Thomas The Tyrant’s Novel 53 Kevin, Tony A Certain Maritime Incident 183 Klein, Naomi 24 Kneebone, Susan 105–106 Kristeva, Julia 117–118, 211 Kureishi, Hanif 2, Kushner, Tony 168 Lange, Dorothea 103 law Agamben on 36–37, 41, 124, 128–129 and anthropology 19 asylum seeker narratives 127, 135–140 Derrida on 128–131 the exception 36–37, 44, 46, 64, 66, 128–130, 132, 136–137, 211 and literature 125, 130–131, 158 and narrative 153, 156–163, 165 as parasitic 128–129 sovereignty 24, 33, 36–37, 41, 93 Lazarus, Neil Ledent, Bénédicte 202 Leeds, history of immigration to 87–88 legislation 29 1906 Aliens Act [UK] 1958 Migration Act [Australia] 33n 1962 Commonwealth Immigrants Act [UK] 1971 Immigration Act [UK] 5, 34 232 Farrier_PostcolAsylum_Final.indd 232 21/01/2011 15:25 Index 1987 Immigration (Carrier’s Liability) Act [UK] 30 1989 Children’s Act [UK] 99 1992 Migration Act [Australia] 17, 49n 1993 Asylum and Immigration Appeals Act [UK] 33n 1993 Pasqua Laws (France) 60 1997 Debré Laws (France) 61 1999 Immigration and Asylum Act [UK] 12, 29, 31, 77–79, 163–164 Section 12, 86, 97–98, 124 Section 97 Section 95 86 2001 Border Protection Bill [Australia] 33 2002 Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act [UK] 70, 86, 97, 164 Section 55 131–133 2004 Asylum and Immigration (Treatment of Claimants, etc.) Act [UK] 86 Section 88, 98, 104, 108 2006 Immigration, Asylum and Nationality Act [UK] Section 44 99 2009 Borders, Citizenship and Immigration Act [UK] Sections 39 and 44 154 Levi, Primo 72–73, 116 Levinas, Emmanuel criticism of 146, 184–185, 204 Derrida on 109–110 ethics 90, 145, 193, 204–205 the face 67, 184, 198, 200, 203–207 and hospitality 109–110 representation 185, 190, 205, 207 responsibility 22–23, 67, 126, 145–146, 181, 184–185, 187, 201, 204, 206 the said and the saying 127, 187, 191 substitution 184–186, 188, 199–200, 205, 207 the third 19, 91, 145, 204–207 writings Ethics and Infinity 67, 145, 184, 205 ‘Ethics and politics’ 201 ‘Ethics as first philosophy’ 200, 205 Otherwise than Being 145, 184–185, 204, 206 Totality and Infinity 185 Lewis, Hannah 86 Linden, Sonja Asylum Dialogues 182 Asylum Monologues 182 Linds, Warren 188 Luibhéid, Eithne 101–102 McLeod, John 210 Macklin, Audrey 156, 162 Makenga, Dieudonnée-Marcelle 134–135 Malkki, Liisa 9, 15, 35, 72, 82, 158, 169, 197–198 Mamouney, Don Citizen X 182 Manne, Robert 17 Mapanje, Jack 115, 117, 159–160 Marfleet, Phil 168 Margree, Liz Trodden 119, 121 Maryns, Katrijn 163 Mazierska, Ewa and Laura Rascaroli 79 Mbembe, Achille the colonial frontier 42–43 commandement 44–49 and Gilroy 21, 39–43 necropower 9, 38–39, 48, 114 racism 40, 46 slave plantations 41, 43 writings ‘Necropolitics’ 14, 38–43, 46 On the Postcolony 40–41, 44 ‘On the postcolony: a brief response’ 45, 47, 49 ‘Provisional notes on the postcolony’ 45–48, 114 Melville, Herman ‘Bartleby, the Scrivener’ 22, 125–127, 131–136, 138–143, 149–152, 175–176, 178–179, 185, 211 Mignolo, Walter 4n migrant labour 106–115, 123 Millar, Graeme Beheld 92–94 Millbank, Jenny 156, 162 Miller, J Hillis on ‘Bartleby’ 125–126, 134–135, 139, 141, 151 criticism of 127 parasite 126–127, 134 reading and ethics 125–127, 147, 151 writings ‘The critic as host’ 125–126, 147 Versions of Pygmalion 125, 127, 150, 152 Mills, Catherine 38, 146, 176 Mirzoeff, Nicholas 29–34 Morrison, Toni 92 multiculturalism 112 muselmann, the 65–68, 116–117, 207 Myers, Misha and Perivolaris 119, 121 Vocalatitude 118 Way from Home 22, 95, 118–119, 121–123, 186 Nazhad, Gaylan Welcome to England 130 necropolitics 9, 38–39, 68 and biopolitics 41n, 121 New Asylum Model 88, 104, 144, 160, 164–166, 168 233 Farrier_PostcolAsylum_Final.indd 233 21/01/2011 15:25 Postcolonial Asylum non-refoulement 32–33 Nyers, Peter 64n and the border 28, 48 Obama, Barack 34 Oluwale, David 5, 58, 64, 87–91, 185, 211 O’Neill, Maggie 119 Orr, John 80 Pacific Solution 17, 32–34, 36, 45, 61 Parry, Benita 3, 26–27 Pawlikowski, Pawel Last Resort 21, 58, 64, 77–85 Perera, Suvendrini 2, 41n, 49–50, 57 performance theory 75, 182–184, 187–193 Perivolaris, John Walking with Thaer 119–122 Peutz, Natalie 140 Phelan, Peggy 186 Phillips, Caryl 211 and Agamben 202 Sangatte 202, 207–208 writings A Distant Shore 23, 186, 201–207 The European Tribe 202 Foreigners: Three English Lives 21, 58, 64, 87–91, 185 Higher Ground 202 The Nature of Blood 202 A New World Order 186, 201 Plaut, W Gunther 159 Polzer, Tara and Laura Hammond 57 Powell, Enoch 41 postcolonial studies 160 and asylum 6–23, 49, 95, 141, 181, 210 the ban 94 cosmopolitanism criticism of 3–5, 27 and hospitality 108, 171 globalization 4–5 Puttick, Keith 133 racism Agamben and 39–40 and colonialism 40–42, 46 and the homo sacer 40, 103 and gender 101–102 Gilroy on 40–42, 84 Hage on 42, 76–77 whiteness 53–54, 77, 82–85 xeno-racism 42, 84 Rajaram, Prem Kumar 17, 32, 138, 143–144 Rancière, Jacques consensus 74–75, 82, 90 disappearance 15, 21, 58–59, 122 dissensus 64, 82, 85, 122–123, 145 heterologies 20–21, 211 politics and police 59–61, 64, 77, 81–82, 87, 89–90, 95, 190 postcolonial studies 8, 23 visibility and speech 59, 72, 74, 88–89, 190 writings Disagreement 58–59, 64, 74–75, 81–82, 88–89 The Politics of Aesthetics 20 ‘Who is the Subject of the Rights of Man?’ 8–9, 15, 145 Rau, Cornelia 25, 52–54, 67 reading contrapuntal reading 125–126 and ethics 22, 125–130, 140–147, 150–152 and J Hillis Miller 125–127 refugee Agamben on 9–10, 23 Arendt on 129, 137, 153 origins of 12–13, 35, 106, 137, 153–155 as speechless 9, 15, 72, 169, 174–176, 198 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees [United Nations] 32–33n, 99, 129, 137, 154, 156, 164 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees [United Nations] 154 Reynolds, Sile and Helen Muggeridge 30–31 Rich, Adrienne 115 Rigo, Enrica 47, 144, 164, 186 Roberts, Les 79 Rosello, Mireille sans papiers 60 Rushdie, Salman 4–5 and Sebastião Salgado 1–2, 15 writings The Satanic Verses 92–93 Step Across This Line 1–2 Said, Edward ‘Reflections on Exile’ 24 Sales, Rosemary 79 Salgado, Sebastião 1–2, 4, 15 Salverson, Julie 187 Samura, Sorius Living with Illegals 198 San Juan, E 3, 96 Sangatte Red Cross transit camp 76–77, 202, 207–208 sans papiers 60–61, 130, 175–176 Schechner, Richard 183 Schengen Agreements 11 Schlingensief, Christophe 21, 73 Ausländer Raus! 58, 64, 73–77, 85, 185 Schlunke, Katrina 42, 49 Schmitt, Carl Political Theology 10–11, 29, 162 Schütz, Anton 137 securitisation 11, 14, 28n, 41 Seu, Bruna Irena 102 Shafaei, Shahin 211 influence of Boal 188–193 234 Farrier_PostcolAsylum_Final.indd 234 21/01/2011 15:25 Index performance in Through the Wire 186–193 Refugitive 23, 186, 188–191, 193 Shamshatoo refugee camp [Pakistan] 195, 197–198 Shields, Rob 78–79, 81 Simon, Roger and Claudia Eppert 191 Sivanandan, A 42 Skorpan, Himzo 144 Smith, Andrew Sofsky, Wolfgang 65 Soja, Edward 81 Solen Young, Vivien 25, 52–54, 67 Soltany-Zand, Mohsen 142–148, 150–151, 188 sovereignty Agamben on 10–11, 29, 36–37 and decidability 10–11, 49, 167, 170 deterritorialization 26–34, 155 exception 10–11, 25, 29, 34–37, 127–129, 141–142, 146, 157, 162 fetish 33, 36–37 homo sacer 128, 148, 151 and hospitality 167 indistinction 25–27, 33, 36–37, 43, 93, 117 law 24, 33, 36–37, 41, 93 speech act theory 7, 170 Spijkerboer, Thomas 105–106 Spivak, Gayatri Chaktravorty the new subaltern 5, 15–16, 100–101 on postcolonial studies 5, 95 responsibility 182, 202, 211 writings A Critique of Postcolonial Reason 16 In Other Worlds 16, 125–126 ‘The new Subaltern’ 5, 95 ‘Responsibility’ 182, 211 Squire, Vikki 9, 11, 14, 41, 43, 61, 63 Stanley, Liz 17–18 Starr, Pip Through the Wire 57–59 Steinbock, Daniel J 154 Sturke, James 43, 48 Szticki, Jerzy 154 Tampa, MV 17, 32–34, 49, 51, 55, 99 Taylor, Diane 86 testimony 73, 124–125, 129–130, 136, 160, 174, 182–184, 190–193, 208 Thomas, Robert 100, 1560157, 161–162, 165n, 166 Trollope, Anthony 51n Turner, Victor 79, 82 Tyler, Imogen 9, 66 Universal Declaration of Human Rights 127 UK Amini, Abas 14–15, 18, 119n Afghan hijackers 43, 48 asylum deaths 38–39, 43 asylum destitution 86–91, 97–98, 124–125, 131–134 asylum hotel debate 71, 172 the beach 77–79, 81, 84 Blair, Tony 30, 48 Blunkett, David 98, 133 ‘Campsfield Nine’ 102, 104 Cochrane, Kelso dispersal system 77–78, 85 extra-territorial processing in 30–31, 71 Gardner, Joy 5, 10, 103 Gatwick ‘No Borders’ camp 63 immigration detention in 34–36, 38–39, 66, 68–73 Hughes, Beverly 98 Lawrence, Stephen Oluwale, David 5, 58, 64, 87–91, 185, 211 Reid, John 43, 48 Woolas, Phil 209 see also immigration detention centres, legislation Van Gennep, Arnold 78–79 verbatim theatre 23, 182–184, 187–193 Wadiwel, Dinesh 49–50, 52 Wadjularbinna 55–56 Waldenfells, Bernard 126n Walter, Natasha 182 Walters, William 61, 91 Warner, Daniel 4, 153–154 Watson, Irene 51–52 Wertenbaker, Timberlake Credible Witness 182 whiteness 53–54, 77, 82–85 Whyte, Jessica 37, 128 Winterbottom, Michael In This World 23, 186, 193–200 Whitlock, Gillian 16–19, 129–130 Wood, David 204–205 Woodcock, Penny Exodus 78 Wright, Terence 82, 103, 196 Yakov, Perry 45 York, Sheona and Nancy Fancott 86 Young, Robert 93–94 Zephaniah, Benjamin 10 Zetter, Roger 22, 103, 168 Žižek, Slavoj, 44, 125 235 Farrier_PostcolAsylum_Final.indd 235 21/01/2011 15:25 .. .Postcolonial Asylum Seeking Sanctuary Before the Law Postcolonialism across the Disciplines Farrier_PostcolAsylum_Final.indd 21/01/2011 15:25 Postcolonialism across the Disciplines... relationÂ�ship between the transnational/cultural, the global and the  postcolonial Farrier_PostcolAsylum_Final.indd 21/01/2011 15:25 Postcolonial Asylum Seeking Sanctuary Before the Law David Farrier... of the asylum seeker before the law? To come before the law suggests several different things It can refer to the manner in which asylum seekers petition the host nation, to be admitted to sanctuary;
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