Tennessee williams and italy a transcultural perspective

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Tennessee Williams & Italy A Transcultural Perspective Alessandro Clericuzio Tennessee Williams and Italy Alessandro Clericuzio Tennessee Williams and Italy A Transcultural Perspective Alessandro Clericuzio University of Perugia Perugia, Italy ISBN 978-3-319-31926-1 ISBN 978-3-319-31927-8 DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-31927-8 (eBook) Library of Congress Control Number: 2016947047 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Cover illustration: © Cultura RM / Alamy Stock Photo Printed on acid-free paper This Palgrave Macmillan imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland FOREWORD The importance of Italy on Tennessee Williams’ life and literary aesthetic is unfathomable And yet, strangely enough, not until now has that influence ever been discussed to any great length in Williams studies, and certainly never by an Italian-born Williams scholar For this reason alone, Alessandro Clericuzio’s Tennessee Williams and Italy is a regalo di Dio Arguably, Italy shaped the second half of Williams’ life as much as Mississippi and the South had shaped the first half Of course, a good deal is owed to his relationship with Frank Merlo, but the New Jerseyborn Sicilian was not the only Italian influence on Williams’ life It should be recalled that Williams first visited Italy in the summer of 1928, when he joined his grandfather and parishioners of the pastor’s Episcopal church in Clarksdale on their Grand Tour, which included stops in Rome, Naples, Florence, Venice and Milan In his travelogues, he described the “parched” tongues and “glazed” eyes of US tourists as they stumbled their way through the ruins of Pompeii under the oppressive August sun; the “grinning skeleton“ in Rome’s old Capuchin church; or the impatience of Italian drivers along the Amalfi drive, between Naples and Sorrento, as his party’s chauffeurs “fought over the narrow road, swerving from side to side, honking furiously and howling at each other in terms which probably would have scalded our ears if we had been able to understand the Italian language.” He even returned to Italy in January 1948, a year before he and Merlo became long-term partners (they had met once, briefly, at the Atlantic House Bar in Provincetown in the summer of 1947) Williams used his recent celebrity status with A Streetcar Named Desire to engage with some v vi FOREWORD of the country’s literati, including Luchino Visconti, whose production work on the neo-realist film La terra trema had drawn Williams to Sicily for a visit to the set Williams also spent time with US expat Gore Vidal, with whom he travelled around Italy to Sorrento and Amalfi in an unsilenced US army jeep that Williams had bought off a returning GI World War II had succeeded in liberating Italy from its Fascist grip, but Williams feared the country would soon fall into the hands of the Communists, who were posed to upset the Liberal Democrats during the country’s first democratic election In a 1948 letter to Brooks Atkinson, Williams wrote: Nothing at all has apparently been done by the native government, as it now exists, to relieve the really appalling social conditions It honestly looks as if seventy percent of the Italian population are mendicants and prostitutes, families are living in the roofless shells of buildings in the bombed cities such as Naples I feel that if we had made real sacrificial efforts to relieve the distress of Europe the Communists would have no appeal As it is, the people in their real dire circumstances, bewildered by the vacillating and make-shift puppet governments headed by weak and blandly opportunistic figures, rooted in no defined party or policy or philosophy, are a natural and easy prey to extremists It was Merlo, of course, who introduced Williams to an Italy, and in particular to a Rome, that he would never have had access to alone Williams did not speak Italian, and only learned fragments of it during his time and travels with Merlo Now, he had access to all kinds of places, parties and people in Rome, and one Roman in particular had transfixed him like no other—Anna Magnani Williams wrote frequently about his time with Magnani, but in an essay entitled “The Evenings of Magnani,” a short piece that eventually found its way into his Memoirs, he pays her a homage not found elsewhere in his work: I often wonder how consciously Anna Magnani managed to live within society and yet to remain so free of its conventions She was as unconventional a woman as I have known in or out of my professional world; and if you understand me at all, you must know that in this statement I am making my personal estimate of her honesty which I feel was complete Of course I also existed outside of conventional society while contriving somewhat precariously to remain in contact with it For me this was not only FOREWORD vii precarious but a matter of dark unconscious disturbance For Anna what was it? Since she has written no memoirs of the sort I’m writing, or any sort at all, that question is going to remain a question I can only say that she never exhibited any lack of self-assurance, any timidity in her relations with that society outside of whose conventions she quite publicly existed She looked absolutely straight into the eyes of whomever she confronted and during that golden time in which we were dear friends, I never heard a false word from her mouth… She was beyond convention as no one I’ve known in my life, and I suspect that was our great bond and that it was the root of her proud assurance, as much as it was the root of my own lack of it and the sense of guilt that must always shadow my own life These were Tennessee Williams’ recollections of Magnani—and of Italy— and I cite them here to whet the appetite of this volume’s readers Perhaps it takes an Italian to really understand Williams’ love-affair with the country and its people, and Alessandro Clericuzio has undertaken the task to examine and explain that admiration for us In doing so, he provides other rich stories about Williams’ time not just with Magnani but with all of Italy, from its dark days just after World War II to its renewed love-affair with the US playwright We have waited a long time for a book like this to appear We will all savor it, as Williams did his Chianti John S. Bak, Université de Lorraine, France SOURCES Archival documents are cited as ACS (from Archivio Centrale dello Stato) and MBC (Ministero Beni Culturali) followed by call number In-text quotations from newspaper and magazine articles that are on a single page are given without the page number (which is provided in the chapter bibliographies) because there is no need for disambiguation All translations from the Italian, unless noted otherwise, are mine I have chosen to give all criticism only in English, while quotations from literary texts (and, in one instance, from a Williams interview) are provided along the original Italian text Due to its aim, namely that of assessing Williams’ reputation in Italy, Chap (more than the following chapters) contains many quotations from Italian critics and journalists, which I have not rephrased because I find that literal translations are more revealing of the intellectual milieu that lay behind such reviews and are quite effective in giving the twentyfirst-century reader a taste both of the text and of the possible subtext they entailed when they were first published And, as a critic assessing Williams’ reputation in the US maintained, “judgments sometimes reveal as much about the judges as what’s being judged” (Kaplan 2011a, x) ix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The book is the outcome of a research that led me to unearth hundreds of articles in the Italian press covering about 70 years and many other unpublished documents, all of which have given me the chance to learn a great deal not only about Tennessee Williams, but about my own country as well I hope I have been able to transmit all this through the pages of my book Any completed book is a milestone on the road of life, the result of old and new choices, routes taken or abandoned, intellectual passions and, at the same time, a starting point for future developments My first encounters with theater took place, when I was a child, thanks to my parents, who brought me to see Eduardo De Filippo at the Eliseo in Rome or Valeria Moriconi (who would later play Serafina delle Rose) performing in The Taming of the Shrew in the magnificent Teatro Romano in Verona, where we would spend our summers I can never thank them enough for these early—forced—but very fruitful experiences My second, meaningful confrontation with dramatic literature already had the imprint of US stages, when I attended Annalisa Goldoni’s classes at the university of Rome La Sapienza in the mid and late 1980s Apart from this “historical” background, the book wouldn’t exist without the long talks and intellectual exchanges it was my pleasure to have with friends and colleagues John S.  Bak, Djelal Kadir, Andrea Mariani, Salvatore Mura, Giuliana Muscio, and Brenda Murphy The book also owes a lot to my colleagues in Perugia, working with whom has enabled me to pursue my research, and to my students, who have been fed with Tennessee Williams’ extravaganzas over the years xi xii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Special thanks to Albert Bell in Perugia, Silvanus Slaughter in Oxford, North Carolina, and Stephen Clifford Wilson in Rome, who were always ready to check on my English To Colleen Boggs for her precious lastminute suggestions To Pavao Zitko, without whose help my time for research would have been much less Earlier, shorter versions of Chap were published in A Streetcar Named Desire From Pen to Prop, edited by Marie Liénard-Yeterian and Aliki Diaz-Kostakis, Paris, Éditions de l’École Polytechnique, 2012 and in the Italian journal RSA 25, 2014 APPENDIX: LIST OF MAIN ITALIAN PRODUCTIONS 1996, Teatro Ghione, Rome Director: Alvaro Piccardi Scene design: Lorenzo Ghiglia Amanda Wingfield: Ileana Ghione Tom Wingfield: Thomas Trabacchi Laura Wingfield: Marina Lorenzi Jim O’Connor: Mimo Manni  1999, Teatro Eliseo, Rome Director: Werner Schroeter Scene design: Alberte Barsacq Amanda Wingfield: Marina Malfatti Tom Wingfield: Luca Lazzareschi Laura Wingfield: Valeria Milillo Jim O’Connor: Luigi Saravo  2001, Teatro dell’Elfo, Milan Director: Ferdinando Bruni Scene design: Ferdinando Bruni Amanda Wingfield: Ida Marinelli Tom Wingfield: Andrea Gattinoni Laura Wingfield: Elena Russo Jim O’Connor: Orlando Cinque  2006, Teatro Eliseo, Rome Director: Andrea Liberovici Scene design: Lucia Goj Amanda Wingfield: Claudia Cardinale Tom Wingfield: Ivan Castiglione Laura Wingfield: Olga Rossi Jim O’Connor: Orlando Cinque  2014, Teatro Menotti, Milan Director: Arturo Cirillo Scene design: Dario Gessati Amanda Wingfield: Milvia Marigliano Tom Wingfield: Arturo Cirillo 211 212 APPENDIX: LIST OF MAIN ITALIAN PRODUCTIONS Laura Wingfield: Monica Piseddu Jim O’Connor: Edoardo Ribatto UN TRAM CHE SI CHIAMA DESIDERIO ( A STREETCAR NAMED DESIRE ) 1949, Teatro Eliseo, Rome Director: Luchino Visconti Scene design: Franco Zeffirelli Blanche DuBois: Rina Morelli Stella Kowalski: Vivi Gioi Stanley Kowalski: Vittorio Gassman Harold Mitchell: Marcello Mastroianni  1951, Teatro Nuovo, Milan Director: Luchino Visconti Scene design: Franco Zeffirelli Blanche DuBois: Rina Morelli Stella Kowalski: Rossella Falk Stanley Kowalski: Marcello Mastroianni Harold Mitchell: Giorgio De Lullo  1955, Teatro Olimpia, Milan Director: Diana Torrieri Blanche DuBois: Diana Torrieri Stella Kowalski: Laura Rizzoli Stanley Kowalski: Paolo Carlini Harold Mitchell: Giuseppe Caldani  1972, Teatro San Babila, Milan Director: Pier Antonio Barbieri Scene design: Eugenio Guglielminetti Blanche DuBois: Anna Miserocchi Stella Kowalski: Graziella Granata Stanley Kowalski: Paolo Carlini Harold Mitchell: Ivano Staccioli  1978, Teatro Quirino, Rome Director: Marco Gagliardo APPENDIX: LIST OF MAIN ITALIAN PRODUCTIONS Scene design: Gianni Quaranta Blanche DuBois: Francesca Benedetti Stella Kowalski: Paola Tanziani Stanley Kowalski: Philippe Leroy Harold Mitchell: Fernando Cajati  1993, Teatro San Nicolò, Spoleto (Perugia) Director: Elio De Capitani Scene and costume design: Ferdinando Bruni Blanche DuBois: Mariangela Melato Stella Kowalski: Ester Galazzi Stanley Kowalski: Alexander Cvjetkovic Harold Mitchell: Giancarlo Previati  2000, Teatro La Versiliana, Pietrasanta (Lucca) Director: Lorenzo Salveti Scene design: Massimo Marafante Blanche DuBois: Paola Quattrini Stella Kowalski: Carla Ferraro Stanley Kowalski: Enrico Lo Verso Harold Mitchell: Alessandro Luci  2012, Teatro Storchi, Modena Director: Antonio Latella Scene design: Annelisa Zaccheria Blanche DuBois: Laura Marinoni Stella Kowalski: Elisabetta Valgoi Stanley Kowalski: Vinicio Marchioni Harold Mitchell: Giuseppe Lanino RITRATTO DI MADONNA ( PORTRAIT OF A MADONNA ) As Il misterioso intruso 1949, Piccolo Teatro, Florence Scene Design: Angelo Maria Landi Director: Luciano Lucignani Lucretia Collins: Adriana Sivieri Porter: Giorgio Albertazzi 213 214 APPENDIX: LIST OF MAIN ITALIAN PRODUCTIONS AS PART OF AMERICAN BLUES 1954, Teatro Manzoni, Milano Director: Enzo Ferrieri Scene Design: Enzo Convalli Lucretia Collins: Enrica Corti Porter: Giuseppe Caldani AS RITRATTO DI MADONNA 1958, Teatro Gerolamo, Milano Director: Virginio Puecher Lucretia Collins: Lilla Brignone Porter: Armando Anzelmo ESTATE E FUMO ( SUMMER AND SMOKE ) 1950, Piccolo Teatro, Milan Director: Giorgio Strehler Scene design: Gianni Ratto John Buchanan: Gianni Santuccio Alma Winemiller: Lilla Brignone  1959, Teatro della Cometa, Roma Director: Virginio Puecher Scene design: Luciano Damiani John Buchanan: Gianni Santuccio Alma Winemiller: Lilla Brignone  1997, Teatro Sociale, Trento Director: Armando Pugliese Scene design: Andrea Taddei John Buchanan: Pino Quartullo Alma Winemiller: Elena Sofia Ricci LA GATTA SUL TETTO CHE SCOTTA ( CAT ON A HOT TIN ROOF ) 1958, Teatro Manzoni, Milan Director: Raymond Rouleau APPENDIX: LIST OF MAIN ITALIAN PRODUCTIONS Scene Design: Piero Tosi Big Daddy: Gino Cervi Maggie: Lea Padovani Brick: Gabriele Ferzetti  1983, Teatro La Pergola, Florence Director: Giancarlo Sbragia Scene Design: Vittorio Rossi Big Daddy: Mario Carotenuto Maggie: Carla Gravina Brick: Roberto Alpi  2005, Teatro Quirino, Roma Director: Francesco Tavassi Scene Design: Alessandro Chiti Big Daddy: Luigi Diberti Maggie: Mariangela D’Abbraccio Brick: Paolo Giovannucci  2015, Teatro La Pergola, Florence Director: Arturo Cirillo Scene Design: Dario Gessati Big Daddy: Paolo Musio Maggie: Vittoria Puccini Brick: Vinicio Marchioni IL TRENO DEL LATTE NON SI FERMA PIÙ QUI ( THE MILK TRAIN DOESN’T STOP HERE ANYMORE ) World Premiere in English: 1962, Teatro Nuovo, Spoleto Director: Herbert Machiz Scene design: Ben Schecter Flora Goforth: Hermione Baddeley Chris Flanders: Paul Roebling  1992, Teatro Piccolo Eliseo, Rome Director: Teodoro Cassano Scene design: Uberto Bertacca Flora Goforth: Rossella Falk Chris Flanders: Stefano Madìa 215 216 APPENDIX: LIST OF MAIN ITALIAN PRODUCTIONS GIOCO A DUE ( THE TWO CHARACTER PLAY ) 1988, Festival di Todi (Perugia) Director: Paolo Emilio Landi Scene Design: Jack Frankfurter Felice: Piero di Iorio Claire: Benedetta Buccellato LA DOLCE ALA DELLA GIOVINEZZA ( SWEET BIRD OF YOUTH ) 1989, Teatro Manzoni, Pistoia Director: Giuseppe Patroni Griffi Scene design: Aldo Terlizzi Alexandra del Lago: Rossella Falk Chance Wayne: Lino Capolicchio  1998, Teatro dell’Elfo, Milan Director: Lorenzo Loris Alexandra del Lago: Ida Marinelli Chance Wayne: Gigio Alberti LA ROSA TATUATA ( THE ROSE TATTOO ) 1996, Teatro Comunale, Benevento Director: Gabriele Vacis Scene design: Lucio Diana and Roberto Tarasco Serafina Delle Rose: Valeria Moriconi Alvaro Mangiacavallo: Massimo Venturini  2008, Teatro Comunale, Mesagne (Brindisi) Director: Francesco Tavassi Scene design: Francesco Tavassi Serafina Delle Rose: Mariangela D’Abbraccio Alvaro Mangiacavallo: Paolo Giovannucci APPENDIX: LIST OF MAIN ITALIAN PRODUCTIONS IMPROVVISAMENTE L’ESTATE SCORSA ( SUDDENLY LAST SUMMER ) 1991, Teatro Testoni, Bologna Director: Chérif Scene design: Tobia Ercolino Violet Venable: Alida Valli Catherine Holly: Raffaella Azim Doctor Cukrowicz: Giovanni Visentin  2005, Teatro Eliseo, Roma Director: Giuseppe Patroni Griffi Scene design: Aldo Terlizzi Violet Venable: Rossella Falk Catherine Holly: Laura Marinoni Doctor Cukrowicz: Roberto Zibetti UNA BELLISSIMA DOMENICA A CRÈVE COEUR ( A LOVELY SUNDAY AT CRÈVE COEUR ) 1996, Teatro Out Off, Milan Director: Lorenzo Loris Scene design: Sonia Peng Dorothea: Laura Ferrari Bodey: Tatiana Winteler NEL BAR DI UN ALBERGO A TOKIO ( IN THE BAR OF A TOKYO HOTEL ) 2000, Teatro Out Off, Milan Director: Lorenzo Loris Scene design: Emanuela Pischedda Mark: Lorenzo Loris Miriam: Laura Ferrari 217 218 APPENDIX: LIST OF MAIN ITALIAN PRODUCTIONS BABY DOLL (ADAPTED FROM THE FILM SCRIPT) 2004, Teatro Gobetti, Turin Director: Paola Rota Archie Lee: Alessandro Genovesi Baby Doll: Elena Russo Arman Silva Vacarro: Francesco Rossini RODAGGIO MATRIMONIALE ( PERIOD OF ADJUSTMENT ) 2012, Teatro Gobetti, Turin Director: Jurij Ferrini Scene Design: Jurij Ferrini With: Fulvio Pepe, Carlo Orlando, Eva Cambiale, Isabella Macchi LA DISCESA DI ORFEO ( ORPHEUS DESCENDING ) 2012, Teatro dell’Elfo, Milan Director: Elio De Capitani Scene Design: Carlo Sala Lady Torrance: Cristina Crippa Val: Edoardo Ribatto Carole Cutrere: Elena Russo Arman INDEX A Achard, Marcel, 76, 156 Albee, Edward, 36 Aliprandi, Marcello, 193 Allégret, Yves, 93 Anderson, Robert, 156, 177n2 Andreotti, Giulio, 87, 156 Anouilh, Jean, 62 Antonioni, Michelangelo, 144n12 Appia, Adolphe, 72 Arbasino, Alberto, 33 Ardisson, Giorgio, 204n2 Aristotle, 152 Arletty (Léonie Bathiat), 111, 166 Aronson, Boris, 72 Atkinson, Brooks, 114 B Baddeley, Hermione, 43 Bak, John S., 27 Baker, Carrol, 152, 154 Baldini, Antonio, 104 Bankhead, Tallulah, 43 Baring, Maurice, 132 Barton Palmer, R., Bataille, Henry, 164 Beatty, Warren, 135 Beckett, Samuel, 187, 188 Bene, Carmelo, 186 Benedetti, Francesca, 96 Bergman, Ingmar, 15 Bergman, Ingrid, 111, 112 Berlusconi, Silvio, 193 Bernstein, Henri, 56, 164 Betti, Ugo, 18, 19, 24, 165 Bigelow, Paul, 114 Blasetti, Alessandro, 144n12 Boccaccio, Giovanni, 115, 154 Bodkin, William, 73 Boito, Camillo, 80 Boothe, Clare, 12 Bosco, Don (aka John), 159 Bourdet, Edouard, 76, 156 Bowles, Paul, 80, 143n2 Bradham Thornton, Margaret, 27 Bragaglia, Anton Giulio, 8, 26, 31 Brancati, Vitaliano, 92, 184 Note: Page numbers followed by ‘n’ refer Footnotes © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016 A Clericuzio, Tennessee Williams and Italy, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-31927-8 219 220 INDEX Brando, Marlon, 22, 28, 33, 46, 80, 103, 172 Bray, William Robert, Brecht, Bertolt, 124 Brignone, Lilla, 31, 168, 189 Brooks, Richard, 163, 173 Brusati, Franco, 105n5 Burstyn, Joseph, 111 Buttafava, Mino, 38 Byron, George Gordon, 132 C Caimi, Gino, 22, 47n2 Cain, James, 55 Caldwell, Erskine, 62, 154 Calvino, Italo, 72 Camerini, Mario, 110 Campanile, Achille, 18 Camus, Albert, 165 Cardinale, Claudia, 191 Carlini, Paolo, 82n3 Carminati, Tullio, 59 Cartier-Bresson, Henri, 56 Caruso, Enrico, 14 Cassidy, Claudia, 144n5 Castorf, Frank, 100 Cataldo, Gaspare, 18 Cecchi D’Amico, Suso, 112, 144n12 Cervi, Gino, 155, 162 Chanel, Coco, 56, 161 Chaucer, Geoffrey, 115 Chekhov, Anton, 19 Chiesa, Ivo, 78 Cirillo, Arturo, 198–9 Clayton, Jack, 171 Cocteau, Jean, 15, 56, 62 Cohn, Ruby, 121 Colacchia, Letizia, 48n9 Colantuoni, Alberto, 18 Comencini, Luigi, 128 Contini, Ermanno, 104n1 Cooper, Gary, 153 Corsaro, Frank, 168 Corsicato, Pappi, 140, 142 Cottafavi, Vittorio, 36, 192 Coward, Noel, 18, 48n4 Craig, Edward Gordon, 72 Crane, Hart, 97 Crawford, Cheryl, 80, 113 Crawfrod, Joan, 127 D D’Alessandro, Franco, 27, 136 Dalì, Salvador, 73 D’Amico, Masolino, 124, 144n12 D’Amico, Silvio, 17, 57, 68, 117 Dandini, Cesare, 59 Danesi Murray, Natalia, 78 d’Annunzio, Gabriele, 68 de Beaumarchais, Pierre-Augustin, 62 De Benedetti, Aldo, 18 De Capitani, Elio, 97 De Feo, Sandro, 32, 33, 158 De Filippo, Eduardo, 1, 18, 112, 115–7, 120, 204 De Filippo, Titina, 117 De Lion, Biancamaria, 28 De Lullo, Giorgio, 58, 62, 72 De Nobili, Lila, 168 de Pirro, Nicola, 88–9 de Rochemont, Louis, 133 De Sica, Vittorio, 8, 26, 109, 173, 192 de Tommasi, Gianni, 88 Dentice, Fabrizio, 104n1 Di Giacomo, Salvatore, 1, 118–20, 144n8, 204 di San Secondo, Piermaria Rosso, 66 Dostoyevsky, Fyodor, 62 Downes, Donald, 63 Dumas, Alexandre, 80 Duse, Eleonora, 143n4 INDEX E Eliot, Thomas Stearns, 97 Epstein, Jean, 192 Euripides, 195 F Fabrizi, Aldo, 109 Falk, Rossella, 72, 193–5 Fanfani, Amintore, 134 Fassbinder, Rainer Werner, 97 Faulkner, William, 46, 154 Fellini, Federico, 8, 72, 110, 184, 189 Ferrati, Sarah, 192, 193 Ferroni, Giorgio, 32 Fiocco, Achille, 21, 65, 66, 82n2 Fo, Dario, 97 Folchi, Alberto, 134 Freud, Sigmund, 141 G Gadda Conti, Piero, 104n1 Gagliardo, Marco, 96 Gantillon, Simon, 12 Garbo, Greta, 127 García Lorca, Federico, 38 Gardner, Ava, 176 Gassman, Vittorio, 70, 71, 78 Gassner, John, Genet, Jean, 95, 130, 139, 187 Ghione, Ileana, 193 Giannini, Ettore, 76 Gibson, William, 36 Gindt, Dirk, 8n1 Gioi, Vivi, 70, 72 Glenville, Peter, 35, 42, 173 Gobetti, Piero, 48n8 Goldoni, Carlo, 15, 124 Gordin, Jacob, 15 Granger, Farley, 80 Grassi, Paolo, 48n7 221 Gravina, Carla, 189 Graziosi, Paolo, 204n2 Greppi, Antonio, 18 Gromo, Mario, 104n1 Guerra, Maximiliano, 100 Guerrieri, Gerardo, 23, 25, 47n3, 48n7, 57, 59, 144n12 Guttuso, Renato, 73 Gwenn, Edmund, 12 H Harris, Sidney, 144n5 Hellman, Lillian, 36 Hemingway, Ernest, 6, 62 Hepburn, Katherine, 171 Hill, George Roy, 43, 175, 176 Hopper, Edward, 198 Hugo, Victor, 18 Huston, John, 40, 176 I Ibsen, Henrik, 124 Inge, William, 36 Ionesco, Eugène, 174, 187 J James, Henry, 132 Jones, Margo, 111 Jones, Robert Edmond, 72 Jung, Carl Gustav, 32 K Kafka, Franz, 20 Kanter, Hal, 126 Kaufman, Boris, 154 Käutner, Helmut, 167 Kazan, Elia, 2, 6, 25, 45, 65, 79, 87, 93, 94, 112, 113, 153, 155, 189 222 INDEX Kemp, Lindsay, 197 Kerouac, Jack, 185 Kirkland, James, 62 Kosleck, Martin, 143n4 L Lancaster, Burt, 125 Latella, Antonio, 101 Lawrence, David Herbert, 12, 170 Leigh, Vivien, 25, 45, 87, 92, 135 Lenya, Lotte, 135 Leroy, Philippe, 96 Levi, Pilade, 126 Lizzani, Carlo, 93 Lo Verso, Enrico, 100 Lodovici, Cesare Vico, 75, 76 Loren, Sophia, 173 Loris, Lorenzo, 195, 196 Losey, Joseph, 183 Lumet, Sidney, 33, 172, 183 M Macario, Erminio, 18 Macchi, Eros, 192 Magnani, Anna, 1, 8, 12, 26, 27, 33, 41, 78, 81, 109–14, 118, 119, 123, 125–7, 129, 136, 143n2, 144n9, 146n19, 166, 169, 171, 172, 201, 202 Maione, Italo, 37 Malden, Karl, 177n1 Manckiewicz, Joseph, 33, 170–1 Mann, Daniel, 113, 126, 129 Mann, Delbert, 29 Mann, Thomas, 136, 201 Marchioni, Vinicio, 102 Marinoni, Laura, 102, 103 Marinucci, Vinicio, 104n1 Markell, Jodi, 193 Marx, Karl, 171 Mascagni, Pietro, 28 Mattioli, Mario, 144n7 Mayo, Archie, 153 McCarey, Leo, 167 McPartland, John, 167 Melato, Mariangela, 96, 97 Merlini, Elsa, 17 Merlo, Frank, 1, 63, 114, 118, 143n2, 201 Milian, Tomas, 170 Miller, Arthur, 29, 36, 67, 78, 162, 165, 174, 186, 198 Miranda, Isa, 165 Mishima, Yukio, 130 Mitchell, Margaret, 101 Monicelli, Mario, 143n1 Monroe, Marilyn, 101, 125, 127 Morandini, Morando, 4, 128 Moravia, Alberto, 4, 8, 34, 42, 128, 131, 135, 174, 176 Moreau, Jeanne, 161, 165, 179n2 Morelli, Rina, 58, 60–2, 66, 69–71, 78, 81 Moresca, Salvatore, 63, 118 Moriconi, Valeria, 123–5, 168 Moro, Aldo, 134 Mosca, Giovanni, 18, 66 Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 41 Murphy, Brenda, 115 Mussolini, Benito, 47n3 N Napolitano, Giangaspare, 104n1 Newman, Paul, 166, 175, 194 O Olivier, Laurence, 15 O’Neill, Eugene, 11, 19, 109, 198 O’Neill, Eugene jr., 11, 47n1 Orlando, Orazio, 204n2 Orsini, Umberto, 204n2 INDEX Osborne, John, 36 Osiris, Wanda, 18, 132 Quattrini, Paola, 99 Quintero, José, 2, 130, 133, 134 P Padovani, Lea, 31, 112, 162, 165, 193 Page, Geraldine, 175 Pagnol, Marcel, 111 Pandolfi, Vito, 47n3, 70 Paone, Corona, 100 Parker, Brian, 114 Pasolini, Pier Paolo, 8, 17, 33, 103, 130, 139, 184 Patroni Griffi, Giuseppe, 8, 141, 142 Pavan, Marisa, 126 Pavese, Cesare, 57, 72 Pavlova, Tatiana, 58–60, 69, 72, 191 Perilli, Ivo, 32 Petri, Elio, 105n5 Peynet, Raymond, 135 Phillips, Gene D., Piazza, Mario, 197 Piccardi, Alvaro, 191 Pike, James A., 152 Pinelli, Tullio, 110 Pinter, Harold, 187 Pirandello, Luigi, 18, 68, 95, 113, 114, 124 Pivano, Fernanda, 30, 45 Pope Pius XI (Ambrogio D. Achille Ratti), 93, 117 Pope Pius XII (Eugenio M. Giovanni Pacelli), 117 Pound, Ezra, 97 Prezzolini, Giuseppe, 4, 23 Puccini, Giacomo, 56 Puecher, Virginio, 169 R Raboni, Giovanni, 99 Rapper, Irving, 25 Rascel, Renato, 27 Renoir, Jean, 55, 56, 111, 127 Ricci, Elena Sofia, 199 Ricci, Mario, 186 Ricciardi, Caterina, 144n13 Rimbaud, Arthur, 97 Roberti, Roberto, 118 Rolfe, Frederick, 136 Rolo, Charles, 133 Ronconi, Luca, 97, 104 Rondi, Gianluigi, 104n1 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 171 Rosaspina, Carlo, 59 Rossellini, Roberto, 8, 32, 109–11, 201 Rouleau, Raymond, 162, 166 Ruccello, Annibale, 141, 142 Q Quadri, Franco, 99 Quasimodo, Salvatore, 4, 8, 23, 25, 68 S Saddik, Annette, 3, 187 Sagan, Franỗois, 171 Salvatores, Gabriele, 97 Salveti, Lorenzo, 99 Sano, Seki, 15 Santella, Maria Luisa, 143 Santuccio, Gianni, 168 Saroyan, William, 18, 26 Sartre, Jean Paul, 62, 67, 78 Sbragia, Giancarlo, 188 Schroeter, Werner, 191 Segni, Antonio, 134 Segre, Alfredo, 57 Selznick, Irene, 112, 114 Sepe, Giancarlo, 189 Serena, Gustavo, 118 223 224 INDEX Shahn, Ben, 196 Shakespeare, William, 15, 124, 140, 195 Shanley, John Patrick, 121 Shepard, Sam, 101 Sherwood, Robert, 109 Signoret, Simone, 171 Signoretti, Alfredo, 160 Silvestri, Francesco, 142 Siti, Walter, 45 Soldati, Mario, 4, 32, 187 Sorrentino, Paolo, 105n3, 199 Spalice, Giovanna, 100 Spark, Muriel, 141 Spoto, Donald, 145n17 St Just, Maria, 81, 144n9 Stanley, Kim, 161 Stapleton, Maureen, 113 Stoppa, Paolo, 58 Stoppard, Tom, 124 Storaro, Vittorio, 141 Strehler, Giorgio, 21, 24 Symonds, John Addington, 136 T Tambroni, Fernando, 134 Tandy, Jessica, 22 Tasso, Bruno, 132 Taylor, Elizabeth, 141, 171 Tedeschini Lalli, Biancamaria, Tellini, Piero, 26, 112, 143n2 Tenco, Luigi, 198 Terron, Carlo, 82n3, 159 Testori, Giovanni, 184 Togliatti, Palmiro, 28 Toscanini, Arturo, 56, 143n4 Toscanini, Wanda, 56 Tosi, Piero, 162 Totò (Antonio De Curtis), 109 Truffaut, Franỗois, 8, 153, 177n1 Tupini, Umberto, 134 U Ungaretti, Giuseppe, 88 V Vacis, Gabriele, 124, 125 Venturiello, Massimo, 125 Verdi, Giuseppe, 56 Verga, Giovanni, 114 Vidal, Gore, 118 Vigolo, Giorgio, 104n1 Villi, Olga, 189, 190 Villoresi, Pamela, 199 Visconti, Giuseppe, 55 Visconti, Guido, 55 Visconti, Luchino, 2, 5, 8, 11, 15, 19, 21, 22, 27, 45, 55–83, 97, 127, 134, 156, 162, 190, 201 Vittorini, Elio, 57, 72 von Gloeden, Wilhelm, 136, 140 von Mendelssohn, Eleonora, 113 von Mendelssohn, Robert, 143n4 W Wainrot, Mauricio, 100 Walesa, Lech, 101 Wallis, Hal B., 125 Waszynski, Michael, 110 Weill, Kurt, 56 Weiss, Jiří, 172 Wertmüller, Lina, 105n5 Wilder, Billy, 193, 194 Wilder, Thornton, 17, 26, 47n3 Windham, Donald, 118, 187 Wolter, Jürgen, 8n1, 16, 21 Wood, Audrey, 112, 113 Wood, Wally, 33 Wyman, Jane, 25 Y Yacowar, Maurice, 2, 130 INDEX Z Zama, Mario, 88 Zampa, Luigi, 110 Zareschi, Elena, 112 Zavattini, Cesare, 144n12 Zeffirelli, Franco, 6, 63, 72, 81 Zola, Emile, 67 225 .. .Tennessee Williams and Italy Alessandro Clericuzio Tennessee Williams and Italy A Transcultural Perspective Alessandro Clericuzio University of Perugia Perugia, Italy ISBN 978-3-319-31926-1... this reason alone, Alessandro Clericuzio’s Tennessee Williams and Italy is a regalo di Dio Arguably, Italy shaped the second half of Williams life as much as Mississippi and the South had shaped... censorship and started staging his plays (Shaland 1987, 5–20) in an approach that ranged from a denunciation of “America’s spiritual wasteland” (Slavova 2014, 220) to an actual fascination for
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