The meaning of form in contemporary innovative poetry

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Modern and Contemporary Poetry and Poetics The Meaning of Form in Contemporary Innovative Poetry Robert Sheppard Modern and Contemporary Poetry and Poetics Series Editor Rachel Blau DuPlessis 954 Anderson Hall Temple University Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA Modern and Contemporary Poetry and Poetics promotes and pursues topics in the burgeoning field of 20th and 21st century poetics Critical and scholarly work on poetry and poetics of interest to the series includes social location in its relationships to subjectivity, to the construction of authorship, to oeuvres, and to careers; poetic reception and dissemination (groups, movements, formations, institutions); the intersection of poetry and theory; questions about language, poetic authority, and the goals of writing; claims in poetics, impacts of social life, and the dynamics of the poetic career as these are staged and debated by poets and inside poems More information about this series at Robert Sheppard The Meaning of Form in Contemporary Innovative Poetry Robert Sheppard Department of English, History and Creative Writing, Edge Hill University, St Helens Road, Ormskirk, L39 4QP Lancashire, UK Modern and Contemporary Poetry and Poetics ISBN 978-3-319-34044-9 ISBN 978-3-319-34045-6 DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-34045-6 (eBook) Library of Congress Control Number: 2016946189 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by thePublisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights oftranslation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction onmicrofilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval,electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology nowknown or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Cover illustration: © Heritage Image Partnership Ltd / Alamy Stock Photo Printed on acid-free paper This Palgrave Macmillan imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland PREFACE I gratefully acknowledge funds from the Edge Hill University REF Development Fund which assisted in the writing of parts of this work, and for travel to conferences and talks Early thinking on formal matters informed conference appearances and talks at the Universities of Amsterdam, London (Innovative Poetry Seminar), Edinburgh, Salford, Edge Hill, Northumbria, and for CONTEMPO (the Universities of Aberystwyth, Bangor, and Brighton) ‘The Innovative Sonnet Sequence’ was the title of the annual lecture at Hay Poetry Jamboree, 2011, a playful pre-version of Chap I thank the organizers of these events for encouragement and opportunities Working notes often appeared on my blogzine, Pages ( I am particularly pleased to be able to republish, with permission, two pieces which were published elsewhere in earlier forms: a version of Chap 2, ‘Linguistically Wounded: The Poetical Scholarship of Veronica ForrestThomson’ in ed Turley, Richard Margraf, The Writer in the Academy: Creative Interfrictions, Essays and Studies 2011 Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, for the English Association; and a version of Chap 9, ‘Stefan Themerson and the Theatre of Semantic Poetry’ in eds Blaim, Ludmiły Gruszewskiej, and David Malcolm, Eseje o Współczesnej Poezji Brytyjskiej i Irlandzkiej, Volume 5: Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, Ludmi, 2011 The author and publisher are also grateful for the permission to reproduce work from the following sources: Atkins, Tim Collected Petrarch London: Crater, 2014 Permission granted by Tim Atkins and The Crater Press v vi PREFACE Bergvall, Caroline ‘Shorter Chaucer Tales’ in Meddle English Callicoon (NY): Nightboat Books, 2011 By kind permission of Caroline Bergvall Reprinted by permission of the author and Nightboat Books Bonney, Sean Happiness: Poems After Rimbaud London: Ukant Publications, 2012 Permission granted by Unkant Publications Fisher, Allen Proposals Hereford: Spanner, 2010 Permission granted from Allen Fisher and Spanner Forrest-Thomson, Veronica Poetic Artifice Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1978 Permission granted by Professor Jonathan Culler Griffiths, Bill eds Halsey, Alan, and Ken Edwards Collected Earlier Poems (1966–80) Hastings: Reality Street (with West House Books), 2010 Griffiths, Bill ed Halsey, Alan Collected Poems & Sequences (1981–91) Hastings: Reality Street, 2014 Permission granted by Reality Street and the Estate of Bill Griffiths Hilson, Jeff In the Assarts London: Veer Books, 2010 Permission granted by Jeff Hilson and Veer Publications Hughes, Peter Quite Frankly: After Petrarch’s Sonnets Hastings: Reality Street, 2015 Permission granted by Peter Hughes and Reality Street MacSweeney, Barry Wolf Tongue: Selected Poems 1965–2000 Tarset: Bloodaxe, 2003 By kind permission of the publisher on behalf of the Barry MacSweeney Estate Monk, Geraldine 2003 Selected Poems Cambridge: Salt, 2003 Monk, Geraldine Ghost & Other Sonnets Cambridge: Salt, 2008 Permission granted by Geraldine Monk and Salt Publishing Monk, Geraldine 2001 Noctivagations Sheffield: West House Books Permission granted from Geraldine Monk and West House Books Moure, Erín O Cadoiro Toronto: House of Anansi, copyright 2007 Reproduced with permission form House of Anansi Press, Toronto Perril, Simon Archilochus on the Moon Bristol: Shearsman, 2013 Permission granted by Simon Perril and Shearsman Books Place, Vanessa: extract from ‘Statement of Facts’ from, Dworkin, Craig, and Kenneth Goldsmith, Kenneth eds Against Expression: An Anthology of Conceptual Writing Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2011 Permission granted by Vanessa Place, with the approval of Northwestern University Press Robinson, Sophie.‘Geometries’ from Hilson, Jeff ed The Reality Street Book of Sonnets Hastings: Reality Street, 2008 Permission granted by Sophie Robinson and Reality Street PREFACE vii Seed, John New and Collected Poems Exeter: Shearsman, 2005.Seed, John Pictures from Mayhew Exeter: Shearsman, 2005 Seed, John That Barrikins – Pictures from Mayhew II Exeter: Shearsman, 2007 Permission granted by John Seed and Shearsman Books Terry, Philip Shakespeare’s Sonnets Manchester: Carcanet, 2010 Permission kindly granted by Carcanet Press Limited Themerson, Stefan Collected Poems Amsterdam: Gaberbocchus Press, 1997 Themerson, Stefan Bayamus and the Theatre of Semantic Poetry London: Gaberbocchus Press, 1965 Permission kindly granted by the Estate of Stefan Themerson By Rosmarie Waldrop, from BLINDSIGHT, copyright © 2003 by Rosmarie Waldrop Reprinted by permission of New Directions Publishing Corp By Rosmarie Waldrop, from CURVES TO THE APPLE, copyright © 1993 by Rosmarie Waldrop Reprinted by permission of New Directions Publishing Corp CONTENTS Introduction: Form, Forms, and Forming Veronica Forrest-Thomson: Poetic Artifice and Naturalization in Theory and Practice 29 Convention and Constraint: Form in the Innovative Sonnet Sequence 47 Translation as Transformation: Tim Atkins’ and Peter Hughes’ Petrarch 71 Meddling the Medieval: Caroline Bergvall and Erín Moure 85 Translation as Occupation: Simon Perril and Sean Bonney 101 Rosmarie Waldrop: Poetics, Wild Forms, and Palimpsest Prose 119 The Trace of Poetry and the Non-Poetic: Conceptual Writing and Appropriation in Kenneth Goldsmith, Vanessa Place, and John Seed 135 ix FORM AND THE ANTAGONISMS OF REALITY: BARRY MACSWEENEY’S SIN SIGNS 233 images of abjection (Rowe 2009: 102) In Robert Kaufman’s terms, already encountered in the  chapter “Meddling the Medieval: Caroline  Bergvall and Erín Moure”, we can say that the singing of lyric confounds the abject conceptual content, even while a poem is obliged to submit itself to be formed out of, and by, conceptual language, ‘to make thought sing and to make song think’ (Kaufman 2005: 212) Rowe is also close to the mark when he says of ‘Jury Vet’ as a whole that it engages the reader to undertake acts of forming that operate as invitations to perceive the moment of poesis (although he couches it in Deleuzoguattarian language): Its real concern is power … A reader is enmeshed in the desiring machine as it assembles itself, its glistening appurtenances of fashion become flesh: an erotic body that embodies the gaze of power—what you are looking at is yourself-in-subjection By entering right there, the poem risks losing itself in the endless proliferation of objects of desire, secret of consumerism Its tactic is to take them and write with them (Rowe 2009: 99–100) Those part-objects (often represented by part-phrases, portmanteau words, neologistic collocations or crypt words) become the text’s materials with which form may begin, from which forming may proceed MacSweeney does not criticize the avaricious greed of Thatcherism by naming its architect His poems—critical in their forms and forming— participate and criticize the materials of the social world instigated by the ogress Form operates as transfiguration and guilt: the choice of certain materials (the fashion magazines that MacSweeney literally ‘writes with’ to make novel forms) and the rejection of others (such as the abandoned titles of the sequence) are evident ‘Form inevitably limits what is formed’, as Adorno puts it (Adorno 2003: 144) One poem’s dates demonstrate larger guilt: ‘Started September 1979’, Wolf Tongue declares of ‘Jury Vet’, ‘Abandoned 1981’ (MacSweeney 2003: 131) Form may be ‘sedimented content’, as Adorno said, but it is not readable as content any longer This is not to be confused with the overt content (or paraphrasable meaning), nor with the forms and forming open to a subtle formalist reading, as identifiable elements of poetic artifice, such as the novel lineation and section divisions of ‘Jury Vet’ This sedimented content also is to be distinguished from the material or materials, MacSweeney’s fashion magazines as well as his visceral revulsion against Thatcher, for example However, MacSweeney’s ideolectic linguistic 234 R SHEPPARD inheritance, such as his Chattertonian medievalism, McClure’s ransacked centered page prosody, and the borrowings of headlines from the conventions of news (as used by MacSweeney professionally) show us a glimpse of personal sedimentation (Adorno, of course, had in mind more social contents, such as how the form of the sonnet carries with it the dialectic argumentative structure of the courtly love tradition and the witty display of the life at court, and how it carries them into present formal manifestations, as outlined in the chapter ‘Convention and Constraint: Form in the Innovative Sonnet Sequence’) A larger claim, that form is cognitive, runs throughout this study, and it must be recognized that, despite the strength of assertion in aphoristic concision in a phrase like ‘Form thinks’ and the more specific ‘Forms think’, there is a sly conjecturality about the claim (which is indeed partly its power), even when it is couched in as ponderously rehearsed an aesthetic theory as Adorno’s As with form itself, it is less a case of pointing to examples—say, to propositions that embody knowledge—than acknowledging that cognition is embedded in the sedimentation and in the critical function that is itself called into being by form (and its autonomy); this is a specific example of the more general theory of material engagement that argues for the recognition of the cognitive agency of artifacts external to the human mind The cognitive content is not a paraphrase; ‘JURY VET LOVE BULLET/IN’ cannot be reduced to a summary as a scenario involving bedroom, wedding, and vixen-haired woman, without inflicting interpretational violence (though this is inevitable to some extent, as long as one recognizes that ‘reduction’ is quite simply what it is) The thick artifice of the poem, linguistic, sonic, and visual, militates against paraphrase: naturalization is delayed under these conditions to allow the ‘knowledge’ encoded in the formal apparatus of the poem to be perceived and received In MacSweeney’s poem, each enjambment across the flow (if that is the right word for the costive heavy syllables caused by the frequent omission of articles and function words) ‘knows the society which it lives off and on which it is irreducibly dependent … by assembling and organizing materials which … contain historical experience sedimented within themselves’, to repeat a point made by Jarvis (Jarvis 1998b: 107) The mere separation of ‘sin’ from ‘sign’ in ‘sin/sign’ encodes the slippage of a single letter from the ‘singing’ of the ‘signs’ of society ‘The effect of … mobilization of meaning by formal properties’, as Attridge puts it, ‘is that the text can never close down on a represented world … outside language’ (Attridge 2004a: 118–119) Naturalization is a haunting, FORM AND THE ANTAGONISMS OF REALITY: BARRY MACSWEENEY’S SIN SIGNS 235 halting, but unavoidable, process that occurs within poetic language, and negotiates with formal artifice to release its cognitive content, as ForrestThomson argues The autonomy of art (and of any art object) facilitates all of the above, but is itself predicated on the heteronomy of the work of art: the signs of art are forever twinned with the sins of reality Its materials (rather than its content) derive from the latter, bequeathing its sedimented content as critical form to autonomy The autonomous and heteronomous interface results in artists restlessly displaying and playing with their Schilleresque formal impulse between three scenarios, as identified by Rancière: that art becomes life, that life becomes art, and that life and art exchange their properties Like the notion of cognitive form, there is a conjectural dimension to the identification of these scenarios in action They are partly derived from the intentions of artists and, while intentions are often revealing (as they appear in poetics, e.g.), they have been ruled out of formalist methodology for at least a century, from Russian Formalism and the New Criticism to Post-Structuralism and beyond Critics and theorists—in this case Rancière—work hard to establish neat unequivocal categorizations, even when they allow for the equivocal, ambiguous, ambivalent, and contradictory acts of poesis (such as the multiform diversity of MacSweeney’s oeuvre), or are open to acts of forming as form, as artistic materials develop toward making the artwork, in this case the ‘Jury Vet’ poems MacSweeney’s poems have art enough in their artifice, as I have shown; life as mediated through the smooth surfaces of fashion magazines, through both their images and the restricted code of fashion writers and pundits, is ironically only the representation of another mediation, that of raw sexuality and its collision with capitalism, but this reveals the deep structures of society, yet only reveals them (in the poem) through an artificial and critical engagement Art becoming life, as Rowe says of these poems, means ‘fashion becomes flesh’ (Rowe 2009: 99) Life becoming art, already present in the mediated world of fashion, is demonstrated in the strange way Thatcher and Deneuve merge into one another and into other characters (perhaps even into the shoulder-padded Liz Hard) Life becomes art because the opposite happens, yet the third scenario, in which they exchange their properties, which we have already seen as a trap for conceptual writing’s ambitions, is the site of the objections to abjection found in Peter Riley’s critique of MacSweeney’s work of the ‘Jury Vet’ period The confusion of, fusion of, art and life, life and art, allows the fashion model to become a presentation rather than a representation, 236 R SHEPPARD and is the most real person in the poem Abjection becomes social realism; individual fetishism becomes communal behavior That catalogues of sexual perversions and abject excess abound is evidence of art attempting to change places with life but this is resisted by the thickness of artifice, by autonomy’s tensions with the ‘sin signs’ of heteronomy, which preserves and enables the poems’ critical function The similar tension between the three scenarios identified by Rancière, the ‘undecidability’ that results, drives artistic practice, and is therefore not simply negative in that respect (Rancière 2010: 133) Dissensus (rather than consensus, both socially and artistically, in relation to heteronomy as well as autonomy) produces the manifold and broadly translational devices of formally investigative poetry (including that poetry now called linguistically innovative), but varieties of montage and de-montage emphasizing disruption, interruption, imperfect fit, and unfinish, as well as transformation and transposition—creative linkage in other words—put disorder at the heart of art’s order, while simultaneously putting order at the heart of its disruptive practices Resisting signification within signification is the formal splinter at, and in, the heart of the poem MacSweeney’s ‘Jury Vet’ is probably the most egregious example of this in his multiform body of work, where even the single device of putting some strings of words in capitals can stand for all the formidable formal operations analyzed in this chapter as repeated instances of defamiliarizing interference The critical function of art is born in the instant its form de-forms and re-forms in front of us, in our forming activities, as precisely the prefiguring of freedom that Adorno describes Political formally investigative poetry will both say and not say, modified by formal resistance and interruption, as Rancière argues If form knows—if forms know anything, they know at least to these things NOTES Sheppard 2012 re-articulates many of the terms in the first and last sections of this chapter in a ‘forming action’ that drags ideas in the wake of its forward poetic trajectory; I have called it a ‘manyfesto’ and it is dedicated to Sean Bonney Rancière realizes the subtlety of Adorno’s use of the terms when he comments: ‘The autonomy of Schönberg’s music, as conceptualised by Adorno, FORM AND THE ANTAGONISMS OF REALITY: BARRY MACSWEENEY’S SIN SIGNS 237 is a double heteronomy: in order to denounce the capitalist division of labour and the adornments of commodification, it has to take that division of labour yet further, to be still more technical, more “inhuman” than the products of capitalist mass production But this inhumanity, in turn, makes the stain of what has been repressed appear and disappear and disrupt the work’s perfect technical arrangement’ (Rancière 2010: 129) This is a complex example of the self-interrogation of art works and demonstrates how form has a vital function to play in these maneuvers or out-maneuvers The result of this, according to Bürger, is that under postmodernism, the concept of the avant-garde, strictly speaking, becomes inoperative, since any ‘advanced’ style is only a style and is available to all, on a level playing field, for purposes of pastiche and parody Guattari also uses the term to contrast ‘a stupefying and infantalizing consensus’ with ‘the singular production of existence’ from micropolitical groups operating in short-term autonomous activism (Guattari 2000: 50) I use this identification in my  chapters ‘Meddling the Medieval: Caroline Bergvall and Erín Moure’ and ‘The Making of the Book: Bill Griffiths and Allen Fisher’ William Rowe prefers the word ‘disjunction’ to ‘interruption’, explaining: ‘The act of interruption does not bring a new ground to meaning into the frame, but on the contrary allows itself eventually to be subsumed’ (Rowe 2014: 105) I read ‘rupture’ in the term, as my use here emphasizes, not intermission, as a synonym for disjunction I have used Rancière’s appeal to disordered de-montaging as part of a description of the ethics, if not the politics, of form in Tom Raworth, in  ‘Poetry and Ethics: the saying and the said’, in Sheppard 2011: 141–155 See Sheppard 2005: 68–70 for a brief account of Odes See an earlier piece that this was the basis for this, ‘Far Language’ (1981) in Sheppard 1999: 13–15 Other figures include Veronica Lake and Lady (later Princess) Diana, who is present under her press sobriquet (‘Di’) See endnote of my ‘Introduction’ In Sheppard 2005, the ‘saying’ is contrasted to the ‘said’ as a positive quality of eternal utterance as against the fixity of saidness, not in a simple and judgmental binary but in the full acknowledgment that a formally investigative poem (though I did not then use that term) would need to concretize its eternality in fixed readings Reading for form rather neatly works to allow the saying to sound eternally while any particular forming of the text for an occasion is necessarily acknowledged as a provisional realization, a product of the process, a said 238 R SHEPPARD BIBLIOGRAPHY Adorno, T.W 2002 Aesthetic Theory Eds G. Adorno and R. Tiedemann, Trans R. Hullot-Kentor London: Continuum Attridge, Derek 2004a The Singularity of Literature London: Routledge ——— 2004b J.M.  Coetzee & The Ethics of Reading: Literature in the Event Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press Benjamin, Walter 1970 Illuminations London: Fontana Berrebi, Sophie 2008 Jacques Rancière: Aesthetics is Politics Art & Research (1) Accessed 25 Mar 2014 Bürger, Peter 1984 Theory of the Avant-Garde Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press Bush, Clive 1997 Out of Dissent: A Study of Five Contemporary British Poets London: Talus Editions Dworkin, Craig, and Kenneth Goldsmith, eds 2011 Against Expression: An Anthology of Conceptual Writing Evanston: Northwestern University Press Guattari, Félix 2000 The Three Ecologies London: The Athlone Press Jarvis, Simon 1998b Adorno: A Critical Introduction Cambridge: Polity Press ——— 2006 The Truth in Verse: Adorno, Wordsworth, Prosody In Adorno and Literature, eds David Cunningham and Nigel Mapp, 84–98 London: Continuum Kaufman, Robert 2005 Lyric’s Constellation, Poetry’s Radical Privilege Modernist Cultures 1: asp?article=issue2_kaufman.pdf Accessed 12 Aug 2013 Lyotard, Jean-Francois 1984 Driftworks New York: Semiotexte MacSweeney, Barry 2003 Wolf Tongue: Selected Poems 1965–2000 Tarset: Bloodaxe MacSweeney, Joyelle 2013 Kamau Brathwiate/Ancestors/New Directions/2001 Octopus Magazine project/McSweeney_on_Brathwaite.htm Accessed 20 Jan 2015 Marcuse, Herbert 1978 The Aesthetic Dimension London and Basingstoke: Macmillan Milton, John, ed 1988 Davies, Tony Selected Shorter Poems and Prose London: Routledge Morris, Marianne 2004 The Abused Become the Abusers Quid 14(October): 4–21 Rancière, Jacques 2004 The Politics of Aesthetics London: Continuum ——— 2007 The Future of the Image London: Verso ——— 2010 Dissensus: On Politics and Aesthetics London: Continuum Riley, Peter 2013 Thoughts on Barry MacSweeney In Reading Barry MacSweeney, ed Paul Batchelor, 131–140 Newcastle: Bloodaxe Books FORM AND THE ANTAGONISMS OF REALITY: BARRY MACSWEENEY’S SIN SIGNS 239 Rowe, William 2014 Violence and Form in Bill Griffiths’s Cycles Journal of British and Irish Innovative Poetry 6(1): 100–112 Rowe, William Walton 2009 Three Lyric Poets: Harwood, Torrance, MacSweeney Tavistock: Northcote House ——— 2013 Barry MacSweeney: Pain, Anger, Politics In Reading Barry MacSweeney, ed Paul Batchelor, 76–86 Newcastle: Bloodaxe Books Schiller, Friedrich 2004 On the Aesthetic Education of Man Trans Reginald Snell Mineola: Dover Publications Sheppard, Robert 1999 Far Language: Linguistically Innovative Poetry and Its Poetics 1978–1997 Exeter: Stride Research Documents ——— 2005 The Poetry of Saying: British Poetry and Its Discontents, 1950–2000 Liverpool: Liverpool University Press ——— 2011 Poetry and Ethics: The Saying and the Said in Tom Raworth’s Eternal Sections In When Bad Times Made for Good Poetry, ed Robert Sheppard, 141–155 Exeter: Shearsman ——— 2012 ‘Bad Poetry for Bad People!’ on Intercapillary Space Accessed Mar 2014 Stewart, Susan 2011 The Poet’s Freedom Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press Wilkinson, John 2013 The Iron Lady and the Pearl: Male Panic in Barry MacSweeney’s “Jury Vet” In Reading Barry MacSweeney, ed Paul Batchelor, 87–106 Newcastle: Bloodaxe Books Wolfson, Susan J., and Marshall Brown, eds 2006 Reading for Form Seattle: University of Washington Press BIBLIOGRAPHY Batchelor, Paul, ed 2013 Reading Barry MacSweeney Newcastle: Bloodaxe Books Bonney, Sean 2011 Interview with … Accessed 18 Feb 2014 Fisher, Allen 2005 Place Hastings: Reality Street ——— 2009 Proposals 16–25: 10 Pages from a Sequence of Emblems Norfolk: Oystercatcher Goldsmith, Kenneth 2003 Day Great Barrington, MA: The Figures Hughes, Peter 2013 Quite Frankly: After Petrarch Canzoniere Manchester: Like This Press Jenks, Tom 2008 archive.html Accessed 28 Feb 2010 Keery, James 2002 “Jacob’s Ladder” and the Levels of Artifice: Veronica ForrestThomson on J H Prynne Jacket 20 Accessed Dec 2009 Logue, Christopher 2001 War Music London: Faber Melnick, David 1985 Men in Aida In In the American Tree, ed Ron Silliman, 94–97 Orono, ME: National Poetry Foundation Monk, Geraldine 2002 Insubstantial Thoughts on the Transubstantiation of the Text Sheffield: West House Books & The Paper Morris, Simon 2009 Getting Inside Jack Kerouac’s Head Accessed 31 Jan 2014 Nemoianu, Virgil 2006 Hating and Loving Aesthetic Formalism In Reading for Form, eds Susan J Wolfson, and Marshall Brown, 49–65 Seattle and London: University of Washington Press © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016 R Sheppard, The Meaning of Form in Contemporary Innovative Poetry, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-34045-6 241 242 BIBLIOGRAPHY Petrarch, Francesco n.d Canzoniere Poem canzoniere.html?poem=3 Accessed May 2014 Raban, Jonathan 1971 The Society of the Poem London: Harrap Retallack, Joan 2003 The Poethical Wager Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press Rifkin, Libbie 2000 Career Moves: Olson, Creeley, Zukofsky, Berrigan and the American Avant-Garde Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press Rothenberg, Jerome 1981 Pre-Faces and Other Writings New  York: New Directions Stefans, Brian Kim 2001 Veronica Forrest Thomson and High Artifice Jacket 14 Accessed Dec 2009 Themerson, Stefan 1983 [1977] “Theatre of Semantic Poetry”….2 “Semantic Sonata” Supranormal Cassettes, No 3, side Cassette tape Wolfson, Susan J 2007 Afterword Romanticism’s Forms Ed A Rawes Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 213–224 Wolfson, Susan J., and Marshall Brown, eds 2006 Reading for Form Seattle and London: University of Washington Press INDEX A Adorno, T.W., 3–4, 14, 48, 51, 116, 120, 121, 145, 214–19, 221–3, 236 Anguissola, Sofonisba, 126, 130 Apollinaire, Guillaume, 73, 162–3, 170, 171, 224 Archer, Martin, 205–10 Archilochus, 101–8 Armstrong, Isobel, Arp, Hans, 54 Ashbery, John, 52 Ashton, Dore, 126–7 Atkins, Tim, 48, 73–6, 79–83, 101, 158, 221, 224 Atkinson, Tiffany, 73 Attridge, Derek, 2–3, 7–8, 10–12, 14–21, 53, 65, 71–2, 76, 91, 119, 140, 144–5, 156–7, 161, 196, 199, 202, 206, 213, 234–5 Augustine, St., 188 autonomy, 3, 5, 17, 30, 120, 121, 179, 205, 216–19, 222, 235–6 Ayler, Albert, 209 B Bach, J.S., 12, 53 Badiou, Alain, 186 Baker, Tony, 178, 180 Barry, Peter, 2–3, 5, 182 Barthes, Roland, 8, 139–42, 147 Batchelor, Paul, 223 Bate, Jonathan, 48–50 Baudelaire, Charles, 73, 80 Bell, Clive, 17 Bellos, David, 71–4, 82, 101 Benjamin, Walter, 97, 191, 222 Berge, Claude, 58 Bergvall, Caroline, 72, 85–92, 95, 99, 101, 174, 198, 200–1, 221, 224, 233 Berribi, Sophie, 218 Berrigan, Ted, 52–6, 73, 81, 223 Bersenbrugge, Mei-mei, 124 Bervin, Jen, 64 Boleyn, Anne, 56 Bonney, Sean, 73, 101, 108–16, 175, 215, 220 Borges, J.L., 173 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016 R Sheppard, The Meaning of Form in Contemporary Innovative Poetry, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-34045-6 243 244 INDEX Bourdieu, Pierre, 10 Brainard, Joe, 52, 54 Brathwaite, Kamau, 174 Brecht, Bertolt, 120, 121 Breslin, James, 18 British Poetry Revival, 47, 51–2, 156, 168 Brooks, Cleanth, Brown, Marshall, 3, 7, 17–19, 232 Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, 61 Bruns, Gerald, 158, 163 Bunting, Basil, 72–, 77, 146, 165, 223 Bürger, Peter, 218–19 Bush, Clive, 178–80, 225 Butcher, John, 209 Byron, (Lord), C Caddel, Richard, 146 Cage, John, 54, 205 Cameron, David, 80 Carroll, Lewis, 156, 163, 173 Catling, Brian, 200 Chatterton, Thomas, 224, 227, 234 Chaucer, Geoffrey, 86–92, 99 Chew, Ada Neal, 189 Cobbing, Bob, 63–4, 156, 176 cognition, 14–16, 49, 165, 181, 217, 234, 236 Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 9, 16-17, 185 conceptual writing, 7, 64, 85, 135–45, 147, 161, 163, 221, 235 Cooke, Jennifer, 111 Coolidge, Clark, Cornell, Joseph, 126–31 Coward, Noel, 56 Creeley, Robert, 1, 122 critical function of the work of art, 3, 213–15, 217, 232, 236 Culler, Jonathan, 38, 45n1 D Daniels, Chris, 72, 92 Dante Alighieri, 60, 73, 85 Davenport, Guy, 104, 106 Davidson, Ian, 112, 115 de Bolla, Peter, 12–13, 15–19, 217 Deleuze, Gilles, 97 Denby, Edwin, 51–2 Deneuve, Catherine, 226–8, 229, 235 Derrida, Jacques, 94–9 Donne, John, 6, 48–9, 50 Doughery, Carol, 102–4 Dowland, John, 59, 74 Drummond, Diane K., 184, 186, 189–90 Dryden, John, 72, 78 Duchamp, Marcel, 127 Duffy, Nikolai, 127–9, 131 DuPlessis, Rachel Blau, 61, 23n11, 25n17 Dutton, Paul, 64 Dworkin, Craig, 137, 221 E Eaglestone, Robert, 13 Eagleton, Terry, 37–8 Edmond, Jacob, 86 Edwards, Ken, 55, 181 Eliot, T.S., 44, 164 Empson, William, 33, 34, 39, 42 Engels, Friedrich, 148 Ernst, Max, 127 Essex, Earl of, 50 F Fisher, Allen, vi, 156, 175, 181–91, 192n4, 222, 223, 237n5 Fisher, Roy, 16 Fitterman, Robert, 135, 139, 141, 221 INDEX 245 flarf, 138 Focillon, Henri, 17 form, 1–22, 38, 45n2, 47–66, 71, 74, 82, 90, 92–4, 97, 107–10, 112–13, 115, 119–31, 138–41, 143–6, 149–51, 157, 162–3, 174–5, 181, 187–8, 191, 195210, 213–22, 232–6 form and politics, 120, 213-36 formalism, 4–11, 22n4, 31, 36, 54, 215, 235 formalists, 3, 4, 6, 37 formally investigative poetry, 47, 121, 145, 236 Forrest-Thomson, v, 4, 10–11, 16, 20, 21, 29–44, 45n1, 182, 217, 235 Foucault, Michel, 139 Fraser, G.S., 34 Fraser, Kathleen, 61, 65 Freud, Sigmund, 95, 129 Fry, Roger, 17 Harwood, Lee, 51–2 Hawkes, John, 125 Heidegger, Martin, 13, 25n16, 217 Heissenbüttel, Helmut, 119, 120, 123, 131n1 Hemans, Felicia, 56 Henry VIII, 56 Hill, Geoffrey, 16 Hilson, Jeff 47, 55–7, 66, 145, 215 Hitler, Adolf, 224, 228 Hofmann, Hans, 52, 67n6 Hopkins, Gerard Manley, 122 Horace, 71–3, 79 Houédard, (Dom) Sylvester, 156 Howe, Susan, 124 Hughes, Peter, 48, 74–5, 77–9, 81, 101, 158, 183, 221, 224 G Gibbens, John, 64 Gilonis, Harry, 74–5 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 121 Goldsmith, Kenneth, 7, 86, 135–9, 141–5, 161, 221 Goodby, John, 52 Goode, Chris, 204–5 Görschacher, Wolfgang, 174 Gould, Glenn, 12 Graham, W.S., 16 Greene, Graham, 160 Griffiths, Bill, 175–81, 188, 190, 223 J Jabès, Edmond, 119 James, John, 73 Jarvis, Simon, 13–16, 217–18, 225, 234 Jebb, Keith, 64 JLIAT (James Whitehead), 206 Johnson, Robert, 224 Johnson, Ronald, 64 Joughin, John J., Joyce, James, 159 H Hall, John, 198 Halsey, Alan, 175–6, 181, 210n5 Harryman, Carla, 124 I image-complex, 32–6, 42 K Kant, Immanuel, 6, 16 Kaufman, Robert, 66, 94–5, 233 Keats, John, 6, 9, 62, 185–6, 187 Keery, James, 38 Kennedy, Bill, 138 Kerouac, Jack, 136 246 INDEX L Lacan, Jacques, 94 Ladkin, Sam, 50 Langer, Suzanne, 17 Lattimore, Richmond, 104, 108 Lee, Vernon, 16 Leighton, Angela, 8, 16–18, 21, 25n16, 65, 218 Levertov, Denise, 122–3 LeWitt, Sol, 135 Linguistically Innovative Poetry, 4, 16, 47 Logue, Christopher, 72 Lopez, Tony, 55 Lotman, Yuri, 6, 37–8, 40, 205, 209, 222 Lyotard, Jean-Franỗois, 21314 M MacSweeney, Barry, 4, 73, 77, 174, 223–36 Magritte, René, 129 Malafouris, Lambros, 14–15, 21, 24n14, 216–17 Mallarmé, Stéphane, 73, 220 Malpas, Simon, Manson, Peter, 73 Marcuse, Herbert, 3, 217 Mark, Alison, 33, 35–6, 39–42 Marvell, Andrew, 71 Marx, Karl, 67n4, 108, 110, 146, 148, 219 Massey, Doreen, 201 Mathews, Harry, 59, 74 Mayer, Bernadette, 61, 63 Mayhew, Henry, 147–51, 152n5, 153n10 McClure, Michael, 226, 234 McGann, Jerome, McHugh, Heather, 16 McLennan, Rob, 93–4 McLuhan, Marshall, McSweeney, Joyelle, 174 Melnick, David, 73 Miller, David, 64, 174 Milton, John, 61, 67n8, 71–2, 219 Modernism, 48, 141, 155–6, 219 Monk, Geraldine, 38, 61–2, 175, 195–210, 215 Morris, Marianne, 225–6 Morris, Simon, 136 Mossin, Andrew, 131 Motherwell, Robert, 54 Mottram, Eric, 156 Moure, Erín (also Mouré), 72, 91–6, 98–9, 101–2, 224, 233 Mullen, Harryette, 59, 61 N naturalization, 4, 20, 30–6, 42–3, 234–5 Nemerov, Alexandra, 221 Nemoianu, Virgil, New Criticism, 5–6, 9, 235 New Historicism, 5–6, 8–9 Newman, Barrett, 12 O Ogden, C.K., 166 O’Hara, Frank, 54, 63 Oliver, Douglas, 16 Olson, Charles, 1, 122 Oppen, George, 146–7 Orwell, George, 160 Oulipo (Ouvroir de Littérature Potentielle), The, 51, 58–60, 125, 156 Ovid, 102 P Padgett, Ron, 53 Palmer, Michael, 66 INDEX Pater, Walter, 16 performance writing, 38, 85, 198 Perloff, Marjorie, 124, 138 Perril, Simon, 92–3, 98, 101–8, 116, 116n1 Pessoa, Fernando, 91–2 Peterloo Massacre, Petrarch, Francesco, 48–50, 64, 67n8, 74–82, 92, 101, 158, 224 Phillips, Tom, 64 Pickard, Tom, 146 Place, Vanessa, 7, 139–49, 221 Plato, 187 poetic artifice, 4–5, 20–2, 29–30, 32, 36–40, 43, 73, 123, 141, 143, 164, 195, 213, 217, 229, 233 poetics, 2–3, 8–9, 18, 22n1, 29, 36–9, 43–4, 45n1, 47, 72, 87, 102, 108–11, 113, 119–20, 122, 138, 145, 146, 148, 152n4, 187, 195–205 Pollock, 55 Pope, Alexander, 72 Popper, Karl, 137 Portuguese-Galician cantigas, 92 Postmodernism, 156, 237n3 post-Structuralism, 235 Pound, Ezra, 33, 72, 77 Practical Criticism, Presley, Frances, 195–6, 201 Price, Richard, 174 Pritikin, Renny, 54 Propertius, Sextus, 72 Prynne, J.H., 33, 44, 45n9, 223 Pujol I Duran, Jèssica, 75 Puto, Chas, 91 Puttenham, George, 49 Q Quarles, Francis, 188, 192n11 Queneau, Raymond, 58–9 247 R Rancière, Jacques, 218–23, 235–6, 236n2 Rasula, Jed, 141 Rawes, Alan, 5–6, 151 Raworth, Tom, 52, 55, 67n5, 67n7, 67n8 Reed, Brian M., 139, 174 Retallack, Joan, 25n16 Reznikoff, Charles, 120–1, 146–9 Richards, I.A., 166 Rifkin, Libbie, 53–4 Riley, Denise, 199–200 Riley, Peter, 78–9, 106, 224–5, 235 Rimbaud, Arthur, 101, 108–15 Robb, Graham, 109, 114 Robinson, Sophie, 62–5, 126, 215 Rochester, John Wilmot, Earl of, 72 Romantic poetry, 4, 8–10, 81 Rooney, Ellen, 3–4, 121–2 Roubaud, Jacques, 124 Rova Saxophone Quartet, 206 Rowe, William, 230, 232–3, 235, 237n5 Royet-Journoud, Claude, 125 Rukeyser, Muriel, 19, 21, 232 Ruskin, John, 189 Russell, Bertrand, 168, 169n1 Russian Formalism, 3, 235 S Schiller, Friedrich, 16, 19, 25n15, 121, 123, 145, 214, 216, 218–20 Schmidt, Michael, 10, 102 Schubert, Franz, 205 Schwitters, Kurt, 159, 165, 167 Seed, John, 7, 17, 121, 146–51, 152n8, 152n9, 153n11, 220 Semantic Poetry (Translations), 155, 157–9, 161–6, 169 Sexton, Anne, 224 248 INDEX Shakespeare, William, 48, 49, 53, 57–61, 64, 73, 78, 208, 215 Shelley, P.B., 5, 9, 81, 224 Silliman, Ron, 57, 130, 187–8 small presses, 173-4 Smith, Charlotte, 61 Solt, Mary Ellen, 64 sonnet, 1, 9–10, 47–66, 67n4, 67n5, 67n8, 74–5, 78–81 Spicer, Jack, 51 Spiller, Michael, 49–50, 56, 61, 68n13 Stabler, Jane, 197 Stefans, Brian Kim, 29–30 Stein, Gertrude, 25n16 Stevenson, Anne, 16 Stevens, Wallace, 16, 21, 24n12 Stewart, Garrett, Stewart, Susan, 23n7, 216 Stockhausen, Karlheinz, 210 Storhaug, Glenn, 188 Surrey, Henry Howard, Duke of, 48–9 T Tennyson, Alfred, Lord, 16 Terry, Philip, 57–60, 68n11, 73–4, 77–8 Thatcher, Margaret, 225, 233, 235 Themerson, Franciszka, 169n1, 173 Themerson, Stefan, 155–69, 173 Thompson, E.P., 147 Tippets, Julie, 205, 207, 209–10, 211n6 Trakl, Georg, 52 translation, 71–82, 82n2, 85–7, 90–6, 101, 104, 108, 116, 156–64, 224 Tzara, Tristan, 54, 73, 120 U uncreative writing, 136–7, 142, 221 See conceptual writing V Valéry, Paul, 37 Verlaine, Paul, 108 villanelle, Virgil, 73 W Waldrop, Rosmarie, 73, 116, 11931, 146, 213, 215, 221 Wershler, Darren, 138 Wheelwright, John, 57 Whitehead, A.N., 55 Wilde, Oscar, 16 Wilkinson, John, 13, 225, 229, 231 Williams, Jane, 81 Williamson, Aaron, 200 Williams, William Carlos, 51, 54 Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 43, 124 Wolfson, Susan J., 3, 6–10, 20–2, 49, 81, 151, 213, 232 Wood, Michael, 23–4n12 Wootten, Henry, 50 Wordsworth, William, 8, World Saxophone Quartet, 206 Wyatt, Sir Thomas, 48–50, 56–7, 78 Wyndham-Lewis, Percy, 226 Z Zenith, Richard, 92–3 Ziarek, Krzysztof, 25n16 Zukofsky, Celia, 73 Zukosky, Louis, 67n4, 73, 146 ... a rich modeling of the operations of form in, and the constitution of form by, acts of reading and response I will elaborate on their operations via readings of the works of other formalist critics,... through the means (meanings) of form This conjecture guides the theoretical accounts of form and the readings of (mainly British) contemporary poetry that follow The pun upon ‘means’ is intended... to the event of singularity which is the irruption of an inventive otherness in our productive reading (Attridge 2004a: 118) Forms have to be formed INTRODUCTION: FORM, FORMS, AND FORMING 11 The
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