Presidential healthcare reform rhetoric

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RHETORIC, POLITICS AND SOCIETY GENERAL EDITORS: A Finlayson; J Martin; K Phillips PRESIDENTIAL HEALTHCARE REFORM RHETORIC Continuity, Change & Contested Values from Truman to Obama Noam Schimmel Rhetoric, Politics and Society Series Editors Alan Finlayson University of East Anglia, UK James Martin Goldsmiths, University of London, UK Kendall Phillips University of Syracuse, USA Aim of the Series Rhetoric lies at the intersection of a variety of disciplinary approaches and methods, drawing upon the study of language, history, culture and philosophy to understand the persuasive aspects of communication in all its modes: spoken, written, argued, depicted and performed This series presents the best international research in rhetoric that develops and exemplifies the multifaceted and cross-disciplinary exploration of practices of persuasion and communication It seeks to publish texts that openly explore and expand rhetorical knowledge and enquiry, be it in the form of historical scholarship, theoretical analysis or contemporary cultural and political critique The editors welcome proposals for monographs that explore contemporary rhetorical forms, rhetorical theories and thinkers, and rhetorical themes inside and across disciplinary boundaries For informal enquiries, questions, as well as submitting proposals, please contact the editors: Alan Finlayson: a.finlayson@uea.ac.uk James Martin: j.martin@gold.ac.uk Kendall Phillips: kphillip@syr.edu More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/14497 Noam Schimmel Presidential Healthcare Reform Rhetoric Continuity, Change & Contested Values from Truman to Obama Noam Schimmel Kellogg College University of Oxford UK Rhetoric, Politics and Society ISBN 978-3-319-32959-8 ISBN 978-3-319-32960-4 DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-32960-4 (eBook) Library of Congress Control Number: 2016948748 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Cover illustration © Tetra Images / Getty Printed on acid-free paper This Palgrave Macmillan imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland PRAISE FOR THIS BOOK ‘Contrasting the broader, more organic conception of the state as articulated by Presidents Truman and Johnson, with a more limited version espoused by Presidents Clinton and Obama, Schimmel uses health reform as an able foil to get at deeper skirmishes in a divided society We would all well to listen as carefully to our elected leaders as Dr Schimmel does.’ —Professor Jonathan Engel, CUNY, USA ‘Noam Schimmel shows how the way we talk about American social policy has changed dramatically over the last 70 years from talk of rights and moral obligation to talk of efficiency and individual responsibility Through the prism of health care policy, we see vividly how profoundly the conservatism of the 1970s and 1980s has affected Americans’ view of themselves and their society.’ —Professor Emeritus David Zarefsky, Northwestern University, USA ‘Noam Schimmel has written a genuinely innovative book on the history of American disputes over what used to be known as national health insurance Combining the scholarship of rhetoric with political portraiture of the moral and practical presumptions of reformers and their critics, Schimmel has informed our understanding by exposing the assumptions of Presidents from Truman to Obama.’ —Professor Emeritus Theodore Marmor, Yale University, USA v vi PRAISE FOR THIS BOOK ‘Noam Schimmel’s cogently argued and elegantly written monograph casts important light on the rhetorical strategies liberal Democratic presidents have employed to justify healthcare reform against conservative critiques of big government A must read book for students of the presidency and an important contribution to political science.’ —Professor Iwan Morgan, University College London, UK ‘This is a milestone in rhetoric analysis and healthcare policy studies It is the first of its kind to examine historical change in presidential discourse on healthcare It is also the first to trace down and map out how historical change in healthcare discourse is associated with broader change in American political culture, moral norms, and social imaginaries And it does so in a rhetorical style that is itself eloquent, precise, and persuasive A must-read.’ —Professor Lilie Chouliaraki, London School of Economics, UK To the Teachers of Newton North High School and the Newton Public Schools with Love and Gratitude for an Extraordinary Education ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Kellogg College, at Oxford University, has been an ideal research environment for developing and revising this manuscript and undertaking further research I am grateful for the Visiting Fellowship Kellogg College has provided me during the 2015–2017 academic years, and for the care and friendly and receptive way in which they have welcomed me to Oxford and to life in college, and the opportunity they have given me to participate in the incredibly diverse and energizing seminars, lectures, and cultural programs on offer at Oxford It is a great pleasure to be a part of the Kellogg community Thank you to Professor Nazila Ghanea, of Kellogg College and Oxford’s Masters in International Human Rights Law program, for helping make this visiting fellowship possible with her characteristic kindness, warmth, and goodness Thank you also to Professor Andrew Shacknove, co-director of Oxford’s Masters in International Human Rights Law with Nazila, whose teaching, leadership, and conversations have taught me so much and have given form and direction to my human rights research, and whose gentle smile, wisdom, and humane and humble manner make him the best ambassador Oxford could have I am honored to be your student and grateful for your sensitivity toward the needs and perspectives of students and your receptiveness to us The Masters program was a superlative experience in so many ways— educational, social, and experiential—and the beauty and magic of Oxford permeated it throughout The program enriched my understanding of human rights enormously and was a great pleasure that will continue to influence my research, writing, and teaching My cohort was extraordinarily inspiring in their commitment to human rights, as well as their ix BIBLIOGRAPHY 299 Robin, Toner, and Janet Elder 2007 Most support guarantee of health care The New  York Times, March “http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/02/ washington/02poll.html?pagewanted=all Robinson, Dean 2007 US health and health care: Does political inequality make us sick? 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http://www.theguardian.com/us-ews/2016/ jan/25/barack-obama-interview-us-election-2016-republicans-bernie-sandershillary-clinton Yuravlivker, Dror 2006 Peace without conquest: Lyndon Johnson’s speech of April 7, 1965 Presidential Studies Quarterly 36: 457–481 Zarefsky, David 1986 President Johnson’s war on poverty: Rhetoric and history Birmingham: University of Alabama Press Zarefsky, David 2004 Presidential rhetoric and the power of definition Presidential Studies Quarterly 34: 607–619 Zeleny, Jeff 2010 Obama plans bipartisan summit on healthcare The New  York Times, February http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/08/us/ politics/08webobama.html INDEX A Affordable Care Act, 3, 19–22, 27n40, 32n86, 51, 53–8, 62n31, 248n8, 249n15, 255–9, 263–71, 272n5, 273n14, 274n18, 275n31–4, 277n37 African-Americans, 49, 54, 55, 66n73, 80, 144, 149, 158, 170n7, 226, 256–7 American Chamber of Commerce, 43, 62n37, 69n107, 204 American Enterprise Institute, 249n11 American Federation of Labor, 47 American Medical Association (AMA), 37, 44–7, 54, 58, 59n2, 63n52, 64n56, 68n92, 204, 256 Anderson, Benedict, 86, 87, 105n73 anticipatory rhetoric, 137, 221, 246 appropriation of conservative rhetoric, 181, 188 Aristotle, 71, 72, 82, 99, 100n6, 104n52 Asad, Talal, 30n67, 103n44 authoritarianism, 45 B bankruptcy, 43, 197, 200, 219, 231, 232 Bill of Rights, 12, 17, 18, 59n2, 80, 116–18, 120, 122, 139n11, 187, 241 bipartisanship, 75n7, 187, 189, 199–200, 210, 219, 220, 224, 232, 235–7, 241, 246, 262 Bismarck, 17, 31n77 Blair, Tony, 182–3 Burke, Kenneth, 71–3, 82, 85, 99n2, 100n8–10, 100n13, 100n15, 104n55, 105n66, 105n68 Bush, George W., 5, 24n12, 43 business, 6, 19, 27n40, 37, 42, 44, 46–8, 51, 61n20, 63n48, 63n54, 64n56, 67n85, 69n107, 115, 123, 183, 184, 188–91, 197, 202–5, 207, 209, 215n33, 226, 227, 229, 230, 250n26, 256, 270–1 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016 Noam Schimmel, Presidential Healthcare Reform Rhetoric, Rhetoric, Politics and Society, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-32960-4 305 306 INDEX C Calhoun, Craig, 94–7, 109n100, 109n102, 110n106 California, 37, 205, 268 Carter, Jimmy, 36, 60n7 Chapman, Audrey, 15, 28n54, 29n59, 30n68, 30n71 Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), 39, 52, 53, 57, 61n22, 140n28 civil and political rights, 13, 14, 18, 116, 117, 136 Civil Rights Act, 80, 157–8, 168, 170n8, 173n34 Civil Rights movement, 23n6, 80, 86 classicism, 72 Clinton, Bill, 1, 4, 8, 10, 11, 14, 15, 21, 22, 24n10, 37–9, 41–4, 47, 54, 55, 58, 69n107, 90, 96, 100n3, 123, 127, 134, 137, 138, 141n38, 143, 153, 154, 157, 162, 168, 177–85, 187–210, 212n14, 212n16, 213n20, 218, 231, 247, 258, 260–63, 265 Clinton, Hilary, 265, 272n8 Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 81 communism, 42, 45, 57, 59n2, 62n31, 130 communitarianism, 15, 16, 138n6, 147, 171n18, 210, 244, 245 community, 9, 45, 50, 51, 60n5, 69n107, 79–83, 85–7, 89, 93, 94, 102n29, 103n38, 103n46, 105n66, 113, 121, 132, 143, 145, 147–50, 154, 156, 160, 168, 171n18, 178, 218, 219, 237, 250n29 compassion, 163, 166, 175n52, 220, 225, 240–2, 246, 251n34 conciliation, 75n7, 85, 187, 219, 220, 224, 225, 231–46, 248n9 Congress, 4, 8, 9, 12, 15, 17, 21–2, 35, 37–9, 46, 55, 56, 58, 61n20, 65n60, 67n87, 68n92, 68n93, 111–44, 152, 155, 159, 160, 164, 165, 177–254, 256, 263, 266–8, 275n31 conservative, 2, 4–7, 10, 11, 16, 17, 21, 23n3, 23n4, 26n35, 27n36, 27n41, 34n95, 35–69, 74, 77, 80, 89, 94, 97, 104n56, 109n56, 109n97, 113, 115, 124, 125, 127–30, 137, 159–61, 174n43, 178–86, 188, 192, 195, 196, 203–10, 211n2, 211n5, 213n21, 214n25, 215n33, 220–2, 224–7, 233–5, 237–41, 244–7, 251n43, 252n60, 255, 257, 259–61, 263, 265, 267–8, 274n18 constitution, 1, 12, 13, 16–19, 31n78, 31n83, 80, 187 corporations, 36, 47–8, 53, 54, 57–9, 64n56, 85, 197, 204, 207 critical discourse analysis (CDA), 91–3, 102n27, 103n45, 105n61, 109n99 Cruz, Tez, D Daschle, Tom, 26n26, 47, 48, 60n9, 63n47, 63n48, 63n51, 64n59, 68n90 Declaration of Independence, 1, 12–13, 28n55, 80, 171n16, 187, 188, 193, 194 deductibles, 41, 268–9, 275n32, 276n32–4 defensive rhetoric, 113, 125–9, 162, 188, 203–7, 210, 220, 224, 229, 233–5, 237–40 INDEX democrat, 1, 3–5, 14, 16, 19, 26n35, 35, 36, 38, 43, 53–6, 58, 60n5, 62n31, 62n41, 82, 86, 183–5, 199, 211n2, 211n5, 213n21, 222, 227, 232, 238, 239, 251n43, 260, 261, 263 depoliticization, 222, 245 The Depression, 112, 115, 117 Derickson, Alan, 62n39, 63n50, 63n52, 64n60, 68n93, 116, 139n10, 141n58, 180, 212n11 Dijk, Van, 75n6, 81, 84, 103n45, 105n61, 109n99, 110n108 Disch, Lisa, 180, 212n10 discourse, 2, 3, 5, 9, 10, 14, 37–48, 55, 73, 80–7, 90–8, 109n99, 135, 180, 183, 225–6, 244, 247, 250n21, 260, 270 Discourse Analysis, 104n47 doctors, 3, 37, 41, 42, 46, 47, 54, 59, 59n2, 67n85, 113, 124–8, 134, 162, 163, 166, 190, 193, 202, 203, 205, 206, 208, 209, 258, 262, 263, 276n32 E economics, 3, 5, 7, 10, 11, 13–15, 18, 22, 27n40, 32n86, 38–40, 48–51, 59, 76, 81, 88, 89, 91–4, 98, 104n46, 107n82, 109n97, 111–20, 122–4, 130, 133–7, 138, 139n6, 139n7, 141n59, 144, 147, 150, 153, 156–8, 160, 164, 166, 167, 169n3, 180–2, 186–8, 192, 195, 196, 201, 207, 209–21, 223, 226, 227, 232, 234, 240, 256–62, 265, 269, 271 efficiency, 21, 42, 75n5, 108n87, 130, 138, 160, 175n46, 182, 192, 196, 210, 223 egalitarianism, 23n4, 27n41, 90, 182 307 elderly, 57, 155, 166, 185, 188, 190, 192, 197, 258 emotions, 6, 9, 10, 57, 71, 79, 82–4, 91, 95, 112, 185, 194, 198, 220, 228, 237, 240–42, 246 empathy, 82, 94–6, 163, 221, 224, 240–2, 244, 248n2 employer based health insurance, 64n60 Engel, Jonathan, 52, 66n76 enthymematic, 74, 236, 251n46 epideictic, 219, 227 equality, 1, 2, 22, 23n4, 27n40, 37, 38, 40, 46, 59, 77–81, 86, 95, 96, 98, 103n43, 104n46, 115–17, 121, 122, 148–50, 153–8, 162, 163, 168, 173n34, 178–9, 186, 194–6, 209, 210, 224, 244, 256, 257, 259–62 equality of opportunity, 2, 22, 37, 78, 109n87, 115, 121, 162, 168, 178–9, 186, 195, 209, 210, 256, 257, 259–62 ethos, 71–3, 75, 82, 98, 99n1, 100n13, 105n66, 112–24, 126, 130, 135–7, 145–50, 152–4, 162–6, 168, 185–94, 196–201, 209, 210, 218–21, 223–5, 227, 230, 232, 235–47, 251n34, 262 Europe, 14, 16, 17, 29n62, 31n77, 47, 48, 68n91, 114, 258 European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights, 17, 18 F Fairclough, Norman, 90–3, 104n49, 105n62, 105n71, 109n92 Fair Deal, 35, 50, 63n52, 115, 117, 144, 147, 148, 160, 162, 164, 168, 180, 260, 261 308 INDEX families, 3, 33n95, 38, 43, 45, 88–90, 103n46, 118, 123, 124, 146, 151–5, 163, 179, 190, 191, 197, 215n33, 222, 226, 227, 242, 255, 267, 268 fear, 42, 43, 46, 47, 54, 57, 58, 79, 118, 120, 152, 153, 162, 166, 185, 190–2, 240, 245, 246, 256–7 Finlayson, Alan, 8, 11, 23n4, 28n50, 28n53, 94, 105n65, 105n66, 109n89, 109n98 Ford, Gerald, 36, 64n56 Fortunato, Mary, 85 Foucault, Michel, 90–3 France, 29n63, 29n64, 31n83, 114 freedom, 3, 12, 13, 20, 21, 42, 44, 45, 50, 57, 58, 63n46, 76, 82, 87, 94, 96, 103n43, 103n46, 117–20, 125–8, 135, 148, 152–4, 166, 178, 183, 189, 190, 192–4, 224, 235, 238, 244, 262 G Gaonkar, Dilip, 76, 102n30 Germany, 16–18, 29n63, 29n64, 44 Gillespie, Ed, 266 Gompers, Samuel, 47 Gordon, Colin, 54, 64n57, 68n94 Gottweis, Herbert, 82, 104n53 governors, 20, 265, 267, 268, 273n14, 274n18 Gramsci, 83, 84 Great Society, 7, 12, 39, 50, 118, 138, 144–62, 167, 168, 169n3, 170n7, 171n12, 171n14, 171n18, 173n34, 174n43, 174n44, 180, 194, 261 H Hawaii, 52, 205 health insurance, 2, 35–6, 78, 111–12, 155, 180, 219, 256 health policy, 23n5, 29n62 hedging, 236 hegemony, 81, 83, 84, 86, 94, 105n72 Heritage Foundation, 21 historical temporality, 113, 116, 119–22, 129, 136–7, 144, 162–5, 168, 175n52, 187, 191–4, 210, 220, 221, 223, 224, 229–33, 237–40, 262 human capabilities, 168, 245 Hutchinson, Asa, 268 I ideology, 5, 9, 17, 20, 23n4, 27n41, 42, 49, 50, 83, 84, 90, 91, 93, 97, 99, 102n29, 110n108, 138, 160, 187, 195, 222, 229, 237, 238, 240, 241, 245, 256, 257, 260–1, 263–6, 267, 270 images, 39, 42, 72, 76, 77, 81, 82, 90, 163, 186, 197, 198, 203, 232, 238 imagined community, 9, 80, 86, 87, 103n38 implicit rhetoric, 74 Indian Health Service, 52 individualism, 12–16, 235, 243 insurers, 19, 21, 32n87, 34n100, 36, 41, 44, 47, 54, 57–9, 61n20, 63n54, 67n85, 126, 127, 183–5, 196, 197, 201, 206, 208, 211n5, 214n25, 234–5, 242, 243, 250n26, 256, 258, 262, 264–6, 270, 275n31 International Human Rights Law, 153 INDEX J Jacobs, Lawrence, 23n5, 33n92, 33n94, 61n20, 69n104, 270, 274n18, 278n40 Johnson, Lyndon Baines, 1, 3, 10, 12, 14–15, 21, 22, 36, 44, 85, 173n41, 218, 257 justice, 5, 6, 9, 13, 17, 19, 27n40, 39, 48, 77, 79, 81, 86, 103n43, 108n87, 147, 149, 152–6, 162–3, 168, 175n52, 180, 182, 186, 195, 196, 210, 224, 232, 238, 239, 242, 244, 247, 260, 261 K Kennedy, Edward, 36, 140n28, 240 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 80, 103n44, 264 Kresnick, Jon, 56 Kristol, William, 65n69, 186 L labor, 36, 37, 44, 53, 54, 57, 69n103, 123, 145, 148, 152, 157, 163, 165, 178, 184, 215n33, 258 Laclau, Ernesto, 83, 104n57, 105n60, 105n64 Latinos and Hispanics, 53, 54, 67n82 liberal, 1, 5–7, 10, 11, 13, 23n4, 35–69, 77, 79, 94, 98, 109n97, 120, 125, 127, 138, 147, 159, 174n43, 178, 179, 181–4, 186, 195, 200, 204, 207, 209, 210, 211n2, 213n21, 222, 224, 227, 233, 238, 239, 241, 246, 251n43, 255–65, 269 liberty, 1, 6, 11–16, 22, 23n4, 27n40, 45–50, 77, 79, 115–18, 120, 137, 144, 148, 153–7, 160, 168, 309 182, 188, 192–4, 200, 219, 238, 239, 241, 244, 247, 256–8, 270 limited government, 1, 2, 5, 17, 20, 22, 23n4, 27n40, 27n41, 40, 49, 50, 54, 77, 98, 99, 115, 118, 124, 138, 159, 160, 177–9, 181, 182, 192, 195, 209, 235, 237, 238, 244, 247, 256, 257, 260, 263–5, 270 linkage, 129–31, 133–5, 137, 144, 148, 150, 156, 157, 192, 196–7, 237, 242, 244, 262 logos, 71–3, 75, 82, 98, 100n13, 112, 113, 119, 120, 122–34, 145, 153, 154, 159–62, 166–8, 186–90, 192, 196–8, 200–10, 219–21, 223–36, 243–5, 261–2 low income, 38, 52, 88, 107n82, 108n87, 124, 151, 156, 158, 166, 266, 270, 274n18, 276n33 M Marshall, T.H., 14, 30n66 Marxism, 102n31 Marxoriadis, Massachusetts, 52, 66n80, 169n4 media, 2, 6, 9, 55, 87, 94, 95, 103n40, 178, 184, 218, 257 Medicaid, 3, 12, 20, 26n34, 33n95, 36, 44, 49, 51–2, 57, 66n78, 68, 111, 125, 138, 141n40, 143–6, 150, 151, 155, 162, 164–8, 170n9, 176n61, 180, 192, 194, 224, 249n10, 251n39, 262, 265–8, 274n18, 276n33 Medicare, 3, 12, 34n100, 36, 39, 44, 51–3, 57, 68n91, 111, 125, 138, 143–76, 192, 194, 210, 221, 224, 235, 239, 240, 245, 262 310 INDEX middle class, 6, 10–11, 51, 88–90, 96, 97, 99, 106n78, 107n82, 108n87, 112, 119, 123, 134–7, 153, 155, 179–81, 185, 196, 203, 209, 214n25, 215n33, 218–21, 225–35, 239, 240, 243–7, 249n10, 261, 262, 266, 276n33 moderation, 160, 187, 204–7, 210, 220, 223, 233–5, 237, 241, 246, 265 moralization, 113, 116, 119–22, 144, 148, 149, 153, 162–4, 224, 229, 230, 240–4, 246, 261–2 moral muting, 75, 187, 192, 220, 221, 229–46 moral order, 1–5, 7–12, 15, 49, 71–110, 113, 114, 116, 118, 120, 135, 136, 144–5, 148, 154, 157–8, 163, 167, 178, 194, 210, 218–20, 222, 224, 230, 244, 246, 255, 257–63, 269, 271 Morgan, Iwan, 23n3, 27n36, 49, 65n64, 186, 215n35, 249n11 Morone, James, 7, 23n5, 29n62, 60n2, 67n88, 68n102, 106n76, 138n1, 251n38 Mouffe, Chantal, 83, 85–7, 104n57, 105n58, 105n60, 105n64, 105n70, 106n74 N National Health Service, 18 negative liberty, 6, 11, 13, 16, 23n4, 45, 153, 257, 270 Netherlands, 16, 18, 29n63, 30n75 New Deal, 7, 35, 49, 50, 59n2, 111–16, 136, 138, 147, 148, 160, 164, 262 New York, 37, 47–8, 172n26 Nixon, Richard, 4, 21, 23n6, 36, 39–42, 47, 58, 61n21, 161, 182, 183 normalized, 115, 165, 257, 260 Nussbaum, Martha, 94, 96, 97, 109n101, 110n104 O Obama, Barack, 1, 4, 10–12, 14, 15, 19, 21–2, 23n6, 24n16, 27n40, 29n56, 34n95, 37–9, 41, 42, 44, 47, 55, 56, 58, 61n19, 61n20, 61n26, 72, 89, 90, 96, 103n38, 108n87, 123, 127, 134, 137, 138, 141n38, 143, 153, 154, 162, 166, 168, 182, 209, 210, 218, 220–47, 248n8, 250n22, 250n29, 251n34, 252n60, 260–6, 268–71 P path dependency, 56, 258 pathos, 71–3, 75, 82, 98, 100n13, 112, 145, 149, 162–6, 168, 185, 187–90, 196–200, 209, 210, 220, 221, 223–5, 234, 240–4, 246, 251n34, 261–2 patriotism, 38, 74, 146–50, 191, 194, 235, 246, 257 personalization, 75, 166, 187, 196–204, 210, 221, 223, 224, 240–4 political culture, 8, 89, 116, 184, 258, 264 poor/poverty, 6, 22, 26n33, 33n95, 39, 41, 43, 50–2, 58, 89–91, 98, 104n46, 106n77, 109n97, 110n108, 115, 118–22, 124, 130, 132–8, 144–8, 150, 151, 153–65, 167, 168, 169n2, 170n7, 174n43, 176n61, 180, 191, 192, 196, 197, 221, 222, 225, 226, 232, 233, 247, 251n38, 255, 257, 261–3, 267 INDEX positive liberty, 11, 13, 14, 16, 22, 23n4, 45, 115, 116, 118, 120, 137, 144, 153–7, 160, 168, 182, 192, 200, 219, 238, 247, 257, 258 Posner, Richard, 182, 213n18 power, 2, 4, 5, 7–10, 36, 53, 57–9, 64n60, 67n88, 75n6, 81–6, 88, 91–4, 96–8, 105n67, 107n82, 109n99, 113, 115, 117, 130, 137, 149, 198, 204, 210, 215n33, 220, 230, 232, 234, 238, 240, 250n26, 250n29, 258, 264, 273n14 pragmatism, 9, 39, 98, 108n87, 129, 192, 223, 236, 244, 245, 267, 268 prejudice, private health insurance, 29n64, 33n95, 34n100, 56, 211n5, 266, 276n32 public attitudes, 55, 184 public health, 32n89, 42, 113, 119, 121, 131–3, 137, 145, 208 public realm, 9, 79, 85, 94–8 Q Quadagno, Jill, 3, 26n27, 59n2, 60n5, 60n13, 61n26, 62n30, 62n36–8, 62n41, 63n45, 63n52, 63n53, 64n56, 64n58, 64n60, 65n61, 67n85, 68n91, 68n93, 68n99, 68n101, 69n105, 141n57 R racism, 39–40, 54, 55, 121, 140n26, 148–9, 158, 173n34 Reagan, Ronald, 5, 7, 23n6, 43, 48, 49, 65n66, 98, 159, 178, 211n5, 226, 252n56, 257, 259 311 Republican, 1–10, 14, 17, 19–22, 23n3, 26n34, 36–41, 45, 48–51, 53, 58, 60n5, 62n41, 74, 77, 82, 83, 86, 94, 98, 99, 117, 145, 159, 160, 166, 179, 181, 183, 184, 199, 200, 204, 211n5, 214n25, 218, 222, 225–7, 231–2, 234, 238–40, 244, 245, 251n43, 256, 259, 260, 263, 265–8, 270, 273n14, 274n18 rhetorical strategies, 11, 20, 39, 46, 73–6, 101n18, 113, 119–20, 125–34, 137, 144, 148, 153, 162, 167, 175n52, 184, 187, 190–4, 196, 200–7, 209, 220–2, 224–6, 229–31, 235–46, 261, 262 Romney, Mitt, 89, 108n87, 259–61, 271n1–3 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 3, 4, 7, 14, 59n2, 64n60, 112, 114–18, 120, 138, 146, 186, 210, 226 Roosevelt, Theodore, 8, 23n6, 24n10, 35, 231 Rubio, Marc, 266, 268, 274n20, 275n31 Rwanda, 18 Ryan, Paul, 50, 66n70–2, 260 S Sanders, Bernard, 264 Scott, A.O., 90, 108n86 security, 3, 18, 35, 36, 53, 77, 116–18, 120, 122, 130, 146, 150, 152, 153, 155, 160, 162–7, 171n18, 180, 186–90, 192, 193, 201, 209, 221, 223–7, 233, 238–40, 243–5, 250n22, 255, 261, 265 Shapiro, Ian, 13 single payer system, 17, 27n40, 34n100, 223, 264 312 INDEX Skocpol, Theda, 33n92, 33n94, 43, 60n3, 60n8, 60n12, 61n18, 61n20, 62n32, 62n35, 63n44, 64n54, 68n91, 115, 138n3, 139n9, 211n2, 211n3, 215n30, 215n32, 215n34 social and economic rights, 10, 14, 15, 18, 22, 48–51, 111–17, 135–7, 139n7, 147, 160, 180, 207, 209, 219, 257–61 social democracy, 213n19 social imaginary, 1–11, 15, 49, 71–110, 112, 113, 117, 120, 134, 136, 137, 144–50, 157, 163, 167, 168, 171n12, 178, 199–200, 210, 218–20, 224, 237, 246, 255–69, 271 socialism, 42–7, 57, 59n2, 62n31, 115, 128, 239, 258 socialized medicine, 20, 38, 42–6, 58, 64n56, 126, 128, 135, 183 Social Security, 3, 18, 35, 56, 59n2, 115, 125, 146, 167, 179, 186, 187, 191, 210, 221, 224, 226, 233, 239, 245, 249n10, 262 social solidarity, 2, 11, 22, 46, 57, 76, 79, 81, 86, 96, 97, 99, 109n87, 122, 129–31, 147, 152, 162, 178, 187, 194, 196, 209, 210, 220, 221, 224, 225, 233, 237–40, 245, 256, 262, 270 solidarity, 2, 11, 13, 15, 29n62, 37, 54, 57, 75, 78, 81, 83, 94, 95, 112, 113, 115, 116, 121, 122, 126, 131, 137, 150, 157, 161, 165, 166, 168, 185, 187–9, 191, 192, 194–6, 200, 210, 218, 220, 232, 235, 240–4, 246, 247, 248n2, 250n29, 251n34 State of the Union, 2, 38, 49, 60n2, 116, 144, 153, 160, 161, 169n7, 171n18, 175n46 states, 2, 7, 13, 14, 18, 26n35, 43, 49, 50, 52–4, 60n5, 83, 96, 98, 103n43, 114, 124, 126–7, 139n7, 145, 161, 168, 176n61, 182, 194, 195, 201, 215n33, 243, 265–8, 267, 273n14, 274n18 Supreme Court, 19, 20, 29n57, 173n34, 263, 265 surveys, 2, 13, 55–6, 184, 253n67 Switzerland, 30n74 T Taylor, Charles, 77, 97, 102n33, 102n34, 102n36 totalitarianism, 44, 45 Truman, Harry, 1, 3, 5, 8, 10–12, 14, 21, 22, 23n6, 25n17, 35, 37, 38, 43, 45–7, 51, 55, 58, 60n2, 85, 90, 96, 111–38, 138n5, 139n7, 140n15, 140n27, 140n29, 141n34, 141n55, 143–6, 152, 158, 162–8, 170n9, 178, 180, 183, 186, 200, 206, 208–10, 218, 226, 234, 247, 255–62, 264, 269 Tulis, Jeffrey, 8–10, 28n51, 91 U underinsurance, 40, 268, 275n32, 276n32, 276n33 unions, 2, 46–9, 54, 57, 64n57, 64n60, 67n85, 68n91, 144, 194, 202, 211n2, 258 United Kingdom, 17, 18, 29n63, 30n74 universal health insurance, 3, 10, 11, 18, 19, 21, 22, 22n2, 27n40, 29n62, 35–8, 42–4, 46–8, 51–60, 64, 65n60, 68n91, 114, 117, INDEX 120, 126–30, 136, 180, 183, 184, 186, 189, 201, 204, 220, 225, 232, 236, 244–6, 252n60, 256–8, 260, 267 US Department of Health and Human Services, 270, 277n37 V Veterans Health Administration, 52 Vogler, Candace, 78, 103n37, 103n39 Voting Rights Act, 158, 168, 170, 173n34 W War on Poverty, 12, 39, 50, 118, 144–7, 150, 153, 155–7, 159–62, 168, 169n3–5, 169n7, 170n8, 180, 194, 261 313 welfare, 2, 3, 5, 13, 14, 16, 20, 22, 23n4, 35, 43, 45–9, 54, 77, 89, 98, 113–15, 118–22, 127, 129–34, 136–8, 139n7, 144, 146, 150, 157, 160, 167, 168, 178–82, 195, 207, 208, 215n33, 221, 226, 228, 231, 232, 239, 245, 247, 257, 259 welfare reform, 114, 180–2, 195, 196 Whitaker, Clem, 46, 63n52 Wilsford, David, 56, 68n100 working class, 10, 66n74, 88, 90, 96, 106n76, 108n87, 123, 135, 141n59, 145, 155, 179–81, 196, 203, 215n33, 228, 233, 247, 259, 261–3 World War 2, 38, 46 Z Zerelli, Linda, 84 ... justification for their healthcare reform plans to expand access to healthcare2 in the US irrespective of income It is a temporal study of Democratic presidential healthcare reform rhetoric between... to advocate for healthcare reform has remained constant As such, this study centers upon each of these rhetorical presidential moments of public address to Congress on healthcare reform As Beatriz... rhetoric between 1945 and 2013 It analyzes the rhetoric of these four presidents comparatively and examines how Democratic presidential healthcare reform rhetoric has evolved In so doing, it also
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Xem thêm: Presidential healthcare reform rhetoric , Presidential healthcare reform rhetoric , 1 The Significance of Healthcare in Contestation of the American Moral Order and Social Imaginary, 2 Democratic and Republican Conceptualizations of the American Social Imaginary, 6 Rights, Liberty, and Individualism in US Law and Politics, 7 The US in Comparative Perspective: Healthcare as a Legally Guaranteed Right in European and Other Nations, 9 The Evolution of Democratic Healthcare Reform Rhetoric, 2 Policy and Discourse of Proponents of Health Insurance Coverage Expansion, 3 Discourse of Opponents of Health Insurance Coverage Expansion, 4 Republicans Reject Social and Economic Rights: The Reagan Era and Beyond, 6 American Exceptionalism: Why the US Did Not Guarantee Near-Universal Health Insurance Until the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, 2 Rhetoric Analysis in Practice: Mapping Rhetorical Strategies and Their Rhetorical Effects, 5 Discourse and Hegemonic Constructions of the Social Imaginary, 7 Discourse: An Evolving Theory from Foucault to Fairclough, 5 Rhetoric Analysis of Truman’s Special Message to Congress Concerning Healthcare Reform, 6 Logos: Illustrating Deprivation with Data and Presenting Truman’s Healthcare Reforms, 7 Truman in a Comparative Perspective: The Uniqueness of His Rhetoric and the Place of the Poor Within It, 3 Patriotism and Possibility: Moral Idealism in Johnson’s Social Imaginary and the Ethos of the Great Society, 5 Defending Positive Liberty and Championing the Disadvantaged in the Great Society, 7 The Logos of the Great Society and the War on Poverty: Prioritizing Social Needs While Reducing Overall Government Spending, 8 Rhetoric Analysis of Johnson’s Remarks with President Truman at the Signing of the Medicare/Medicaid Bill, July 30, 1965, 1 Introduction and Political Context: Healthcare Reform as Limited Government Conservatism Is Hegemonic, 2 The Working Class and Economically Disadvantaged: Increasing Invisibility, 4 Clinton’s Healthcare Reforms: Policy History and Causes of Reform Failure, 8 Ethos and the Rhetorical Strategies of Historical Temporality and Moralization to Convey the Urgency of Change, 10 Pathos in Support of Ethos: The Strategy of Personalization, 5 The Logos of Healthcare Reform: Protecting the “Middle Class” and Promoting the Principle of Universality, 6 Ethos: Communicating Conciliation through Moral Muting and Conveying Leadership and Integrity by Moralizing, 1 How Liberal Arguments for Healthcare Expansion Have Evolved from Truman to Obama and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Rhetorical and Policy Battles Now and in the Future

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