The development of coping

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Ellen A. Skinner Melanie J. Zimmer-Gembeck The Development of Coping Stress, Neurophysiology, Social Relationships, and Resilience During Childhood and Adolescence The Development of Coping Ellen A Skinner Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck • The Development of Coping Stress, Neurophysiology, Social Relationships, and Resilience During Childhood and Adolescence 123 Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck School of Applied Psychology Griffith University Southport, QLD Australia Ellen A Skinner Psychology Department Portland State University Portland, OR USA ISBN 978-3-319-41738-7 DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-41740-0 ISBN 978-3-319-41740-0 (eBook) Library of Congress Control Number: 2016943795 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland To our remarkable daughter, Leona, who has taught me so much about coping, resilience, and the magic of development —Ellen A Skinner To Tony, my love, who has traveled alongside me since before, and always makes me think hard and laugh harder Also, to my family who know so much about coping and resilience —Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck Preface It’s funny: I always imagined when I was a kid that adults had some kind of inner toolbox full of shiny tools: the saw of discernment, the hammer of wisdom, the sandpaper of patience But then when I grew up I found that life handed you these rusty bent old tools friendships, prayer, conscience, honesty - and said “do the best you can with these, they will have to do.” And mostly, against all odds, they Annie Lamott, Travelling Mercies Despite the idyllic picture of childhood sometimes painted in books and films, the lives of children and adolescents are filled with problems, challenges, and demands Some are seemingly minor daily hassles, such as teasing in the lunchroom about the choice of sandwich, an argument between sisters over a television show, or disappointment at not making the soccer team Some challenges represent normative demands, like waiting for a turn on the slide, cleaning up one’s room, or studying for an algebra examination Children and adolescents are also faced with more challenging life stresses, such as when their parents argue or divorce, or when they enter a new school without any friends Chronic stressors often stem from a child’s or adolescent’s larger family circumstances, for example, when a parent drinks too much, a sibling is diagnosed with cancer, or the extended family lives in a dangerous neighborhood Children and youth also have a hand in creating their own stressors— by picking fights, skipping school, or drinking and driving Children are also the victims of traumatic insults, when parents die or are abusive, when gang violence kills a friend, or when natural disaster wipes out a neighborhood or village As pointed out by Garmezy (1983), “Children are not strangers to stress” (p 49) Stress, Risk, and Resilience The study of coping during childhood and adolescence, which is the focus of this book, is one of many rich traditions that explore how profiles of stressors, both acute and chronic, cumulatively shape children’s pathways through life At the vii viii Preface highest level, work on risk and resilience contrasts stress-affected children, who show the typical long-term negative effects of significant life adversity, with children who are resilient, who show positive adaptation in the face of negative life events (Cicchetti and Rogosch 2009; Masten 2001) Starting in the 1960s, resilience researchers have painted a compelling big picture, expanding on psychological frameworks that emphasized individual-level characteristics, to their current focus on multi-level systems perspectives that include larger societal forces, like poverty and privilege, as well as factors from the neighborhood, family, school, and peer group (Masten 2006; Werner 1993), and, most recently, that incorporate factors from multiple levels of physiology and genetics as well (Luthar 2006; Lynch and Cicchetti 1998; Rutter 2002) Of special interest is the identification of protective factors that can buffer children’s long-term mental and physical health and functioning when they are exposed to potentially harmful conditions The effects of stress are also studied in more detail by researchers who use observational and psychophysiological techniques in the laboratory to capture children’s reactions to a wide variety of mild stressors Researchers examine infants’ and toddlers’ responses to gentle arm restraint, short separations from caregivers, or exposure to novel objects like turning mobiles or walking toys Young children are asked to clean up, to refrain from playing with attractive toys, or to wait as long as possible before eating marshmallows Children are asked to work on unsolvable mazes and puzzles, to listen as a child in the next room ostensibly knocks down their block creations, or to tell interviewers how they make themselves feel better when they are feeling sad Adolescents play computer games with uncooperative peers, discuss controversial potentially conflictual topics with their parents, or are observed interacting with their friends during competition Some of these same kinds of stressors are followed outside of the laboratory in children’s daily lives, for example, by examining reactions to inoculations, provocations on the playground, failure on tests, or parents’ requests for help with household chores Adolescents are asked to complete daily diaries about the stressful events they encounter and their responses to them For many researchers, a particular focus is the analysis of subsystems (e.g., neuroanatomical, hormonal, attentional, and cognitive) that are directly affected by stress and that also potentially shape the effects of stress exposure on children’s subsequent functioning The Study of Coping The study of children’s coping resides directly in the middle of this rich and fascinating work At the most general level, coping focuses on how people detect, appraise, react to, and deal with the actual demands, stressors, and obstacles they encounter in their daily lives The goal of research on coping is to provide detailed descriptions of these processes and to specify how they work together to shape each other reciprocally over the course of a coping episode, and cumulatively how they contribute to physical and psychological health or disorder For example, research Preface ix analyzes how the characteristics of a stressor, such as its severity, chronicity, and controllability, influence how people react to, perceive, and cope with it Studies target people’s appraisals of a stressful event, that is, their take on whether it is a challenge or threat, and whether they can anything to evade or counteract it, and then examine how such appraisals influence individuals’ physiological and psychological reactions to it and constrain their choices about how to cope with it Good empirical work also considers how the social and personal resources available to people, and the higher-order social contexts in which they live, play a role in the number and kinds of stressors that reach them, how they perceive those events, and the ways they can cope with them Interventionists are especially interested in examining the consequences of different ways of coping, that is, whether problem-solving, support-seeking, escape, rumination, and so on are effective in ameliorating emotional distress and resolving the stressor, or whether they make things worse, either today or in the future Rare process-oriented studies scrutinize the unfolding of coping episodes (with their feedback loops) over days and weeks, sometimes even marking transition points that punctuate this process, such as diagnosis, treatment, and relapse when dealing with a stressful medical condition For those interested in the effects of stress and adversity on human functioning and adaptation, the study of coping takes researchers into the heart of the struggle, right on the ground, where stressors enter the “envelope” of daily life, and focuses attention on how people actually resist, accommodate, or succumb to their effects In studying people under stress, coping represents a marker for how the entire stress reactivity system is functioning, including social and contextual factors At the same time, coping can also be considered an active player, akin to the concept of “host resistance” in the study of whether exposure to germs leads to illness, potentially influencing whether stress “infects” or “inoculates” the organism it contacts Coping depicts one of the processes that mediate between adversity and adaptation, and because it is distinguished by its focus on actual stressful encounters and “everyday resilience,” it provides researchers with a possible mechanism that can help to explain how, why, and for whom adversity translates into adaptive or maladaptive short- and long-term sequelae As such, coping also represents a possible intervention lever to improve developmental outcomes Development and Coping No one would argue with the assertion that development shapes every part of the coping process It delineates the kinds of stressors that enter a person’s life: Preschoolers are not tasked with moving out on their own, and adolescents are not typically pressured into taking naps Development influences how stressors are appraised: A mother packing a suitcase does not worry a newborn, and a whirling top does not worry a 10-year-old It decisively constrains the ways that people can cope: The prototypical way of escaping, that is, by leaving the stressful encounter, x Preface cannot be accomplished until an infant can locomote, and the prototypical way of seeking information, that is, by asking a question, cannot be accomplished until an infant can talk The way that social partners participate in coping episodes also differs across development: Parents not help their college-age children with a demanding school project the same way they help their first graders, and an eight-year-old best friend does not provide a shoulder to cry on after hearing stories of family discord in the same way as a sixteen-year-old best friend Given this consensus, it may be surprising to discover that no coherent body of research on the development of coping exists today Instead, the field as a whole has responded to the tacit recognition that development shapes everything about coping by dividing theories and research into narrow age-graded bands One group of researchers studies the coping of preschoolers, another studies the coping of “middle-aged” children, yet another studies adolescents Researchers focusing on how infants and young children react to and deal with stressful encounters rarely refer to their topic as “coping”; they are studying emotion regulation, stress reactivity, or temperament In fact, each of the ways of responding to stress, such as problem-solving, rumination, helplessness, help-seeking, or opposition, has its own research tradition, largely focused on the specific ages when that particular way of coping is most salient Researchers studying children and adolescents have generally adopted conceptualizations of coping from work on adults, and at each age, they focus largely on individual differences, looking at the personal and social factors that contribute to stress responses, and examining how different responses are in turn connected to positive and negative consequences However, if studies focus only on individual differences, researchers can overemphasize individual-centric “coping-style” psychology—like some of the ego psychologists of the 1960s and 1970s or some of the personality psychologists and neuroscientists of today—who seem to assume that neurological factors, like high stress reactivity, and individual factors, like optimism, are immutable characteristics that determine coping now and will continue to so in the future Or, investigators can overemphasize the opposite side of the coin, as embodied by some of the work on coping in adulthood today, assuming that all coping is a temporary installation, created de novo on the basis of momentary circumstances and fleeting perceptions, to be expressed once and then to disappear forever A developmental perspective acknowledges the incomplete validity of both of these seemingly contradictory viewpoints and integrates them, using two key assumptions First, it holds that an organism always brings selected parts of its history with it into the present, and this developmental signature can help us understand essential things about what the organism finds stressful, how strongly it reacts, what it is capable of pulling together in response, and what it takes away from the encounter Second, a developmental perspective holds that this historical trace is brought to bear in a dynamic present What went before constrains and scaffolds future development, but is not deterministic: It is combined with current Preface xi conditions to create new integrations and reorganizations that can never be fully predicted by initial conditions In other words, although researchers can take a snapshot at any point, coping is part of an open, dynamic, and developing system Purpose of this Book The purpose of this book is to review what is known about the development of coping from infancy to emerging adulthood and to begin to build conceptual and empirical bridges between coping, on the one hand, and the development of regulation and resilience, on the other In order to integrate research on age differences and changes in coping, and to explain why this is such a challenging task, Part I lays out a “developmentally-friendly” framework for the study of coping Chapter provides a brief outline of the history of conceptualizations of coping, as well as a critique of the current state of the field, emphasizing recent work that defines coping as “action regulation under stress.” Chapter provides an overview of the “building blocks” of the field, or ways of coping, along with a critique of the current state of the field, and a summary of recent work on hierarchical families of coping, which have allowed developmentally-graded members of those families to be identified This chapter also analyzes the field’s struggles to agree on which ways of coping are “good news” and “bad news,” and to examine how a developmental perspective can suggest criteria for making this determination The foundational issues covered in this first section are prelude to the next three sections, which explore more deeply how coping develops normatively from birth through emerging adulthood and how problems in the subsystems that underlie or scaffold coping can predispose children to the development of psychological and behavioral difficulties More specifically, Part II reviews and integrates current research on the development of coping: Chapter summarizes studies on age differences and changes in ways of coping across childhood and adolescence and begins to integrate these age trends Chapter outlines the neurophysiological developments that likely underlie age changes in stress and coping Part III, in many ways the heart of the book, outlines a theory of the normative development of coping in the context of developing relationships, especially with caregivers Chapters through 10 each focus on a specific developmental period and borrow from research on the development of many different forms of regulation to sketch a picture of how these might work together as subsystems that accumulate developmentally to shape age-graded shifts in stress reactions and coping, as they unfold within the interpersonal relationships provided by caregivers Part IV, in Chaps 11 and 12, reviews research on how early 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International Journal of Behavioral Development (in press) doi:10.1177/0165025415618276 Zsolnai, A., Lesznyak, M., & Kasik, L (2013) Pre-school children's aggressive and pro-social behaviours in stressful situations Early Child Development and Care, 182, 1503–1522 doi:10 1080/03004430.2011.623779 Index A Action and action theories, 15 action components, 16–17 deliberation phase, 17 implementation phase, 17 as target of regulation, 15–16 Action regulation, 18–19, 21, 98, 119–120 constructive, 64 definition, 13 emotional, 130 to self-awareness in coping, 133–135 goal-directed action, 120–121 mental means of coping, 176–179 phases of, 17 targets, 13–14 voluntary action regulation, 155–156 Action tendencies, 18–19 coping built on, 19–20 species general, 19 Adaptive coping, 15–17, 230, 261 and action tendencies (see also Action tendencies), 20–21 Adolescent coping, 88–89, 268, 276 appraisal development (see also Appraisal), 189–192 brain development, 199 coping during, 185–187 meta-capacities (see also Meta-capacities in coping), 200–203 regulatory capacity, 192–199 social partners, changing role, 203–205 threat detection and stress reactivity, 187–189 Affective theory of mind, 189–190 Age and coping age changes in, 186, 255–256 age differences in (see Age differences and changes, coping; Coping, age differences in) age-graded difficulties in, 222 age-graded reorganizations of, 98–101 Age differences and changes, coping childhood and adolescence developmental gains and losses, 61–62 differentiation of, 60–61 emergence and elaboration, 60 flexibility, 61 qualitative shifts in, 54–55 families, 27–28 behavioral and cognitive distraction, 57–58 problem-solving, 56–57 strategies, 58–60 support-seeking, 58 strategies of coping, 53 Age-graded coping, 98–101 emotion regulation and coping strategies, 133–134 Age periods, in coping, 54, 56 Agency in coping, 134–135, 141, 275 Agentic self, 130, 134–135, 137 Allostatic functions, 106–108 Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 63, 65, 68–70, 72, 96–97, 148–150, 173, 180, 218, 253 Anxious resistant attachment, 234–235 Appetitive systems, 230–231 Appraisal, 11, 13, 21, 24, 97, 99 complex, 143–144, 163 explicit, 132–135 functions of, 131 higher-level, 69 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 E.A Skinner and M.J Zimmer-Gembeck, The Development of Coping, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-41740-0 329 330 Appraisal (cont.) integration of, 154 tertiary, 48 threat and challenge, 130–131 threat detection and stress reactivity, 116 coping appraisals, 117–118 development of internal working models, 116–117 self-systems, 118 Approach versus avoidance, 31, 32, 34 Arginine vasopressin (AVP), 72 Attachment, 108, 215, 216 functioning of, 111 insecure avoidant, 39, 255–256, 258 qualities of, 233–234 anxious resistant attachment, 234–235 avoidant attachment, 235–236 disorganized attachment, 236–237 relationships, 231 anxious resistant, 234–235 caregiver–infant, 232 disorganized, 232, 234, 236–237, 255 insecure, 233–234 secure, 233, 256–257 secure attachment average expectable environment of, 112 development of, 114 Attention regulation, 150–151 Autonomic nervous system (ANS), 63, 66–67, 76, 89, 113, 216 cardioinhibitory, 81 development of, 80–81 Autonomous coping conscience and coping, 157–158 emergence of, 156–157 Avoidant attachment relationships, 235–236 B Behavioral and emotional regulation, 78–79 Behavioral problems, 213, 255, 282 Birth, 274 Brain architecture, 76 broad developmental phases in, 104 C Caregiving, 220, 235–237 continuity of, 122 sensitive and responsive, 91, 103, 109, 111, 118 stress of, 250, 253, 260 Central nervous systems (CNS), 63, 67, 74, 83, 106 Challenge and threat, 43–46 Childhood Index coping across, 53–54 age differences, 56–62 during middle childhood, 163–164 early, 267, 275–276 middle, 267, 268 qualitative shifts in coping, 54–55 Cooperative coping, 138 co-regulation to cooperation in coping, 138–139 mutually responsive orientation, 139–140 Coordinating actions and contingencies, 36 escape, 38 helplessness, 38 information seeking, 36–37 problem solving, 36 preferences and options, 39–40 accommodation, 40 negotiation, 40 opposition, 41 submission, 40–41 reliance and resources, 38 delegation, 39 self-comforting, 39 social isolation, 39 support seeking, 38–39 Common ground, 282–283 Conscious control, 17, 167, 169, 175 Constructive coping, 170–171 Contingency expectations, 116–117 Continuing communication, 204 Coping action regulation, 3, 11–12, 96 adaptive process (see Resilience) adolescent, 6, 8, 201 adversity, 213–217 developmentally-graded effects of, 222 chronic, 217 age (see Age and coping) agency, 134–135, 141 autonomous (see Autonomous coping) basic functions, 96–98 categories of, 31–32 childhood, 6–7 coaching, 181–182 contours of, 280 cooperative, 138, 143 coregulatory (see also Coregulatory coping), 123, 128, 139, 223, 228, 267 definition of, development of (see Coping, development of) discussions of, 158 Index early adversity, 215–217, 223, 255–258 emotion and constructive coping, 170–171 emotion-focused, 32 episodic process, 9–10 external, 109, 114–115 caregiver sensitivity as, 108–109 development of, 108 facets of, families of (see Coping, in families) flexibility, 202 fundamental adaptive process, goals, 119–120, 263 higher-order dimensions, 31–32 heightened reactivity, 222–223 infants (see Infants) in newborn (see Newborn coping) interactional process (see Regulation) intrapersonal (see also Intrapersonal coping), 155–156, 229 intrinsic, 119–120 matching to task demand, 180–181 mental means of, 177–178, 201, 209, 276 meta-capacities (see also Meta-capacities in coping), 200–203 modes of, 34 normative development, beginning with, 102 packages, 123–124, 128–129, 137, 267 proactive, 200–201 problem-focused, 32, 120, 171 reappraisal, 170–171, 203 definition of, 168 development of, 169 emergence of, 169 emotion regulation, 168 recursive processes, 271 resilient, 181, 183, 260, 227 rudimentary, 121 self-awareness, 133 social partners, crucial role of, 101–102 strategies (see Coping strategies) stress reactivity, integrated multi-level processes of, 96 structure of, 28–29 study, place and purpose of, 280–281 toddler, 129–131, 135–137, 139, 163, 266, 267 reorganization of, 140–141 transformations of, 141 transactional models of, 5–6 transformations of, 182–183 triadic, 138–139, 142–143 ways of (see Coping, ways of) 331 working models of, 115–116, 132, 144–146, 164 Coping, age differences in, 53–54, 56–59, 61–62, 173 general pattern of, 190, 196 research on, 176, 264, 265 reviews of, 185, 203 summary of, 62 Coping and attachment, 108, 231–232 caregiver sensitivity, 108–109 proximity seeking, 109 qualities of, 233–234 anxious resistant attachment, 234–235 avoidant attachment, 235–236 disorganized attachment, 236–237 Coping and conscious control, 17, 151, 165, 169, 174 Coping, development of, 265–266, 273 age periods in, 54, 62, 199, 208, 265, 277 dangers and safeguards, 274 developmentally-friendly conceptualizations of, 10 differential, 216 differential development of cascades in, 255–257 maladaptive, 214 direct effects on, 221 future study of, 264–271 indirect effects on, 220–221 origami of (see also Origami of coping), 277–278 Coping, in families accommodation, 40 adaptive functions, 32, 35 delegation, 39 developmentally adaptive, 42–43 escape, 38 good news, 46 helplessness, 38 hierarchical, 35 information-seeking, 36–37 negotiation, 40 opposition, 41 problem-solving, 36 social isolation, 39 submission, 40–41 support-seeking, 38–39 Coping packages, 123–124, 128–129, 137, 267 Coping, proximity seeking and, 19, 35, 109 Coping, self-regulation and, 73 voluntary self-regulation, 151–152 development of EF, 152 hot and cool EF, 153 332 “hot” executive functions, 152–153 Coping reappraisals, 168–169 constructive coping, 170–171 emergence of, 169–170 reflection and, 203 Coping strategies, 62, 133, 180, 263 adaptive, 7, 87 cognitive, 55 constructive interpersonal, 123 differentiation of, 60 disparate, 59 expanding repertoire of, 179 maladaptive, 7, 47, 186, 221 Coping, ways of, 27–28 comprehensive list of, 30 developmental adaptiveness of, 46–47 good news and bad news, 41–42 long-term consequences of, 43 lower-order, 30, 34 Co-regulatory coping, 123, 128, 223, 139, 228, 267 development of, 122 emergence of, 122–123 joint construction of, 123–124 Co-regulatory system, 128 Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 72, 76, 220 Cumulative risk, 254–255 D Defensive, 230–231 Development of amygdala system, 68–69 of conscience, 144, 156–158 of hot executive functions, 152–153 of hypothalamic-pituitary axis, 65, 96–97, 253 of parasympathetic nervous system, 97, 105, 253 of stress neurophysiology (see Neurophysiological developments) of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, 63, 65, 97, 253 of vagal system, 81, 109–110, 113–114 Developmental cascades, 239, 255, 257–258 active trouble maker, 259–260 creation and perpetuation of, 259 self-righting tendencies in, 260–261 Developmental changes, in ways of coping, 89, 110, 123, 139, 197 Developmentally-friendly conceptualizations, 8, 10, 12, 24, 64, 263, 264 Index Difficult temperament and coping, 227, 257, 258 Dimensions of coping, 29 Disorganized attachment, 236–237 Distinctive focus, 283 Distress, 188–189 Dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), 190 Dual-process models, 194 E Early adversity and coping, 216–217 and family stress, 257–258 Early life stress, 84–85, 188, 217, 218, 220, 222 impacts of, 221 severity of, 127 Easy temperament and coping, 226–227, 229 EF See Executive function (EF) Effortful control, 87, 150 commensurate levels of, 256 low levels of, 228, 230, 255 Emotional action regulation, 130, 133–134, 145, 160 Emotional understanding, 164–165 Enriched environments, 126 Error-related negativity (ERN), 76 Event-related potential (ERPs), 75–76 Executive function (EF), 64, 68, 145, 158, 186, 192, 200 attentional skills of, 152 development of, 152, 154, 171, 127 developmental differentiation of, 171–172, 193 hot and cool, 152–153, 155, 174–175, 193, 207, 220 longitudinal studies of, 174 mean level changes in, 172 multiple aspects of, 185 Exerting control and stress inoculation, 125–126 Experience-dependent effects, 224 Explicit appraisal system functions of appraisals, 131 internal experience and social relationships, 131–132 social buffering of stress and coping appraisals, 132–133 of threat and challenges, 130–131 External coping, 109, 114–115 caregiver sensitivity as, 108–109 development of, 108 Extrinsic motivation, 17, 137, 159, 161, 271, 276 Index F Families, coping, 56 behavioral and cognitive distraction, 57–58 problem-solving, 56–57 strategies, 58–60 support-seeking, 58 Family stress and coping, 214 authoritarian parenting, 247–248 differential development of, 245 dimensions of parenting, 242–244 goals of parenting, 249–253 neglectful parenting, 248–249 overprotective parenting, 246–247 parent–child relationships, 239–242 permissive parenting, 245–246 stressful family systems, 253–254 cumulative risk, 254–255 differential development of coping, 255–256 unengaged parenting, 248–249 Flexibility and attention regulation, 150–151 coping flexibility, 61 Foundations of, 211–214 Future study, in development of coping, 271 coordinated at level of action, 272 integration of multiple levels, 272 multiple time frames, 272–273 qualitative reorganizations, 273 whole coping system, 271–272 G Glucocorticoid receptors (GR), 68 Glucocorticoids (GC), 67–68, 73, 76, 78 healthy development of, 106, 108, 110, 230, 247 H Heightened stress, 188–189 Homeostatic functions, 106–108 Hyporesponsive stress reactivity system, 83, 91–92, 112, 114, 233 Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, 67–68, 92, 107 chronic activation of, 218 disrupted functioning of, 218 down-regulation of, 218–219 I Identity development, 201–202 Imbalance models, 195–196 Implicit appraisals, 92, 115–117, 218–129, 131, 183, 224 333 Incorporating emotion understanding, 144–145 Infancy, 266, 274–275 Infant coping, 87, 112–114 Infants, 58, 115–116, 118, 121–124, 129 caregivers, 229 development of, 115 knowledge rich, 140 Inner feelings, 167–168 Insecure attachment and coping, 234, 236, 258 Insecure avoidant attachment, 255, 258 Integration of multiple levels, 272 of multiple time frames, 272–273 Intentional emotion regulation, 166–167 Intentional regulation, 164–165 Internalization, 157, 159, 161, 171, 177 Intrapersonal coping, 155–156, 229 development of, 158, 236 voluntary, 268 Intrinsic coping, 119–120 J Just manageable challenge, 124–125, 151, 183 K Knowledge, 166 implicit, 141 rich, 140 L Language development, 134–145, 224 Layer action, 278–279 integration of, 279 intentionality, 278–279 interpersonal, 278 mental means, 278–279 neurophysiological, 278 Limbic system, development of amygdala, 84–85 brain regions, 84 components of, 86 hippocampus, 84 M Maladaptive coping, 20, 33, 257 early adversity and family stress, 257–258 internal dynamics and, 258–259 stress generation, 259 undermining adaptive stress responses, 259 temperament and attachment, 258 an trouble maker in developmental cascades, 259–260 334 Maladjustment, 191, 231, 239 Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), 74, 174 Mental means of coping, 176–177, 278–279 advantages, 177–179 Mentalizing, 189–191 Meta-capacities in coping, 200 flexibility and coordination, 202 identity development and coping, 201–202 proactive coping, 200–201 reflection and reappraisal, 203 Meta-cognition, 201, 252 Mineralocorticoid receptors (MR), 68 Multi-level integrative systems frameworks, 8–9 Multiple pathways, 268–269 Mutually responsive orientation, 139, 143, 275 N Neonatal period, 266 Networks alerting, 148 attention executive, 148–150 development of, 147 orienting, 148 Neurophysiological developments, 101–102, 104, 84, 86 autonomic nervous system, 80–82 polyvagal theory, 80–81 brain and associated developments adolescence, 88–90 early childhood, 87–88 infants and toddlers, 86–87 middle childhood, 88 caregiver, 91 complex dynamic systems activational and organizational, 77 autonomic nervous system functioning, 74–75 behavioral and emotional regulation, 78–79 central nervous system functioning, 74–75 ERPs, 75–76 GC and CRH, 76 integrated stress reactivity systems, 72–73 MRI and fMRI, 76–77 neurophysiological structure and function, assessment of, 74 neurovisceral integration model, 73–74 stress-response system, 78 Index threat-response system, 78 developmental progression, 82 emotion regulation, development of, 91 flexible learning structures, 93 limbic system, development of (see Limbic system, development of) neuroanatomical processes, 86 physiological stress, 83 puberty, 83 social buffering of, 132–133 social engagement system, 91 stressful encounters (see Neurophysiological developments, stressful encounters) subsystems, 105 development of, 79, 105 homeostatic and allostatic functions, 106–108 reorganization of stress neurophysiology at birth, 108 subcortical, 105 threat detection, 105–106 Neurophysiological developments, stressful encounters activation, multiple levels of, 71 amygdala, 68–69 autonomic nervous system (ANS), 66–67 hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, 67–68 limbic system, 69 prefrontal cortex (PFC), 68–69 prefrontal cortex, 69–70 Neuroplasticity, 224 intervention implications of, 224 Newborn coping, 103–105 development of neurophysiological system for, 109–110 coping efforts of social partners, 110 development of neurophysiological subsystems, 105 homeostatic and allostatic functions, 106–108 neurophysiological threat detection and stress reactivity, 105–106 reorganization of stress neurophysiology, 108 hierarchy of processes, 112–114 proximity seeking, 108 emergence of, 109–110 external coping, 108–109 social tuning of neurophysiological stress reactivity and recovery system, 111 Index 335 sensitive periods or continuity of caregiving, 112 social buffering, 111–112 O Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), 72, 76, 92 Origami of coping, 277–278 contours of coping, 280 integration of layers, 279–280 interpersonal layer, 278 layers of intentionality, action, and mental means, 278–279 neurophysiological layer, 278 P Parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), 66–67, 71, 81, 107, 218, 220 Parent–child relationships, 239–242 Parenting, 230, 239–240 authoritarian, 247–249 broad goals of, 242, 249 coaching, 136 dimensions of, 242–244 distinctive combinations of, 245 negative, 243–244, 249 neglectful, 243–244, 248 non-contingent, 246 overprotective, 246–247, 249 permissive, 245–246, 249 styles optimal, 249 non-optimal, 245, 250 systems view, 244 unengaged, 248–249 Peer focus, 186–188, 208 Prefrontal cortex (PFC), 63, 65–66, 68–70, 89, 172, 174 delayed development of, 90 dorsolateral, 152, 173 regulatory mechanisms of, 71 rostrolateral, 152 threat critical areas of, 71 ventrolateral, 152 Proactive coping, 200–201 Problem-solving, 7, 22, 30, 36, 46–47, 56–57, 175, 221 crucial, 208 goal-directed, 158, 283 intentional, 55, 159 interpersonal, 170, 271 low levels of, 207 measurement of, 53 meta-cognitive elaborations of, 62 social roots of, 159 Proximity seeking, 114 omnibus strategy of, 109, 115 vigilant pattern of, 235 Psychological abstracts, Psychopathology, 236, 245, 250, 255, 256 Q Qualitative reorganizations, 273 Qualitative shifts in coping, 54–55 R Reactivity, 193, 194 Reappraisal, 203 See also Appraisal definition of, 168 development of, 169 emergence of, 169 emotion regulation, 168 Recalibrating neurophysiological systems, 187–188 Reflection, 203 Regulation, 8, 10–12, 193, 194 coping and emotion, 14 social-affective engagement and flexibility of, 196 targets of, 13, 17 the nature of, 17 Regulatory capacity, development of, 192–193 adolescent brain development and coping, 199 dual-process models, 194–195 flexibility of regulation, 196–199 hot executive functions, 193 imbalance models, 195–196 reactivity and regulation, balance between, 193–194 social-affective engagement, 196–199 triadic models, 195 Regulatory subsystems, 147–148 Resilience, 8–11, 93, 125 Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), 75 Role of reflection, 154 S Second-order emotion awareness, 165–166 Self-comforting, 39 Self-encouragement, 203, 209 Self-regulation, 11, 52, 58, 66, 73 adaptive system of, 84–85 flexibility of, 71, 75 volitional, 101–102, 104 voluntary, 151–152 Self-righting tendencies, 260 336 Self-systems, 135, 178, 183, 212, 226 constructive, 183 development of, 135 pragmatic, 183 seeds of self, 118 Sensorimotor intentionality, 115, 120, 142, 266, 274 Shared intentionality, 130, 138, 142 Shifting role, 204, 205 Social buffering, 139, 223 of HPA axis, 110 of stress and coping appraisals, 132–133 of stress reactivity, 111–112 Social context, 101, 104, 198 Social partners, 203, 204 State of field, 30–31 Stress, 13, 18, 39, 48, 107 action regulation under, 64 causes of, 21–22 chronic, 79 definition of, 105 family, 257–258 generation, 259 heightened, 188–189 high levels of, 84 hyporesponsive, 83, 112, 114, 223 inoculation, 127 low levels of, 22 moderate levels of, 22 neurophysiology, 104, 105, 112, 115, 117, 118, 128 reorganization of, 108 social tuning of, 111 neurosymphony of, 96, 106, 113 physiological, 109 reactivity (see also Stress reactivity), 18, 78, 89 regulation (see also Stress regulation), 103–105 resilience (see also Stress resilience), 8, 11, 93, 125 resistance (see also Stress resistance), 93, 125 undermining adaptive, 259 Stress reactivity, 18, 78, 89 integrated multi-level processes of, 96 social buffering of, 111–112 Stress regulation, 103–105 complex dynamic systems, 72 external emotion, 108 integrated, 104–106, 109, 111, 114 Stress resilience, 8, 11, 93, 125 Index complex dynamic systems, 72 development of, 124 mechanisms of, 126–127 optimal functioning of, 71 Stress resistance, 93, 125 development of, 124 mechanisms of, 126–127 Stress-response system, 78 Sympathetic nervous system (SNS), 65 Sympathetic–adrenal medullary (SAM), 67–69, 71, 91–92, 218 T Task demand, matching coping to, 180–181 Temperament, 10, 17, 21, 213–216, 225, 258 analysis of, 25 difficult, 227, 257–258 dimensions, 226 easy, 226–227, 229 impulsive fearless, 229–230 inhibited fearful, 227–228, 230 risk factors, 227 underreactive, 231 Tertiary appraisal, 48 Theory of mind, 144–146 Threat and challenge, balancing, 44–46 Threat detection, 79–80 neurophysiological subsystems, 105–106 and stress reactivity, 187–189 Threat-response system, 78 Toddlerhood, 129–131, 135–137, 139, 163, 266–267, 275 infants and toddlers, 86–87 reorganization of, 140–141 transformations of, 114 Transactional models of coping, 6–7 Triadic models, 195 Two-level emotion theory, 189–191 U Underreactive temperament, 231 Unengaged and neglectful parenting, 248–249 V Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), 69, 76, 190 W Working memory (WM), 172–174 Working models of coping, 116–117 ... Qualitative Shifts in the Development of the Coping System 13.1.2 Multiple Pathways in the Development of Coping 13.2 Future Study of the Development of Coping 13.3... “developmentally-friendly” framework for the study of coping Chapter provides a brief outline of the history of conceptualizations of coping, as well as a critique of the current state of the field, emphasizing... Lines of Sight into the Development of Coping 13.3.1 The Dangers and Safeguards in Developing a System of Coping 13.3.2 The Origami of Coping s Development
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Xem thêm: The development of coping , The development of coping , 2 “Good News” and “Bad News” Ways of Coping, 1 Neuroanatomical Systems involved in Stress Reactivity, Regulation, and Coping, 1 Threat Detection and Stress Reactivity: Development of Neurophysiological Subsystems, 3 Development of a Neurophysiological System that Responds to “External Coping” by the Caregiver, 5 The Emergence of a Hierarchy of Reactivity, Regulatory, and Coping Processes, 1 Threat Detection and Stress Reactivity: Emergence of Appraisal Systems that Increasingly Guide Action Readiness, 2 Action Regulation: Development of Intentionality and Goal-Directed Coping, 3 Changing Role of Social Partners: Development of a Co-regulatory Coping System, 1 Threat Detection and Stress Reactivity: Explicit Appraisals of Threat and Challenge, 2 Action Regulation: From Emotional Action Regulation to Self-awareness in Coping, 3 Changing Role of Social Partners: Emotion Socialization and Coping “Coaching”, 1 Threat Detection and Appraisal: Incorporating Emotion Understanding and Theory of Mind, 2 Regulatory Subsystems: Development of Attention Networks and Coping, 4 Integration of Appraisal and Regulation: Development of Understanding and Control, 7 Changing Role of Social Partners: Development of Intrapersonal Coping, 1 Threat Detection and Appraisal: Emotional Understanding and Intentional Regulation of Stressful Experiences, 6 “Mental” Participation of Social Partners and Coping Coaching, 2 Development of Appraisals: Affective Theory of Mind and a Two-Level Emotion Theory, 3 Development of Regulatory Capacity: Changing Balance among Multiple Subsystems, 1 Parent–Child Relationships and the Differential Development of Coping, 2 The Stress of Caregiving: Stressful Family Systems and the Differential Development of Coping

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