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Saurabh Bhatia Systems for Drug Delivery Safety, Animal, and Microbial Polysaccharides Systems for Drug Delivery Saurabh Bhatia Systems for Drug Delivery Safety, Animal, and Microbial Polysaccharides Saurabh Bhatia Assistant Professor School of Medical and Allied Sciences GD Goenka University Gurgaon, India ISBN 978-3-319-41925-1 ISBN 978-3-319-41926-8 DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-41926-8 (eBook) Library of Congress Control Number: 2016944155 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland Author Bio Saurabh Bhatia, is currently working as an Assistant Professor at the School of Medical and Allied sciences, GD Goenka University, Gurgaon, Haryana, India He has several years of academic experience, teaching such specialized subjects as Natural product science, nanotechnology, biotechnology, parasitology, polymeric sciences, biomaterials He has promoted several marine algae and their derived polymers throughout India He has written more than 30 international publications in these areas and has been an active participant of more than 35 national and international conferences So far he has successfully finished nine books in pharma and its allied sciences His published books include Modern Applications of Plant Biotechnology in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Academic press, Elsevier, 2015; Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery: Fundamentals, Design, and Applications, Apple Academic Press 2016; Leishmaniasis: Biology, Control and New Approaches for Its Treatment, Apple Academic Press 2016; Natural polymer drug delivery systems: Nanoparticles, plants and algae, Springer, 2016, Natural polymer drug delivery systems: Nanoparticles, Mammals and microbes, Springer, 2016 Dr Bhatia has graduated from Kurushetra University followed by M Pharm from Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Pune, India He has received his Ph.D degree from Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India v Contents Mammalian Polysaccharides and Its Nanomaterials 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 Polysaccharide-Based Nanoparticles 1.2 Hydrophobically Modified Hyaluronic Acid 1.3 Chemically Crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid Semi-IPN 1.4 Photopolymerized Hyaluronic Acid IPNS 1.5 Hydrophobically Modified Hyaluronic Acid 1.6 Hydrophobically Modified Heparin 1.7 Chondroitin Sulfate, Heparin and Hyaluronic Acid: pH/Ion-Responsive Networks 1.8 Chondroitin Sulfate and Hyaluronic Acid: Electrical Field-Responsive Network 1.8.1 Chondroitin Sulfate and Hyaluronic Acid 1.9 Heparin & Hyaluronic Acid: Anti-Adhesivesurfaces 1.9.1 Hyaluronic Acid 1.9.2 Heparin 1.10 Hyaluronic Acid and Chondroitin Sulfate (Polysaccharides of Human Origin): Biodegradable Polymers as Biomaterials 1.10.1 Hyaluronic Acid 1.10.2 Chondroitin Sulfate 1.11 Natural–Origin Polymers as Carriers and Scaffolds for Biomolecules and Cell Delivery in Tissue Engineering Applications 1.11.1 Hyaluronan 1.11.2 Chondroitin Sulphate 1.12 Rationale for the Use of HA in Drug Delivery 1.13 Chondroitin Sulfate-Based Nanocarriers for Drug/Gene Delivery 1.14 Chondroitin Sulphate: Colon-Specific Drug Delivery 1 2 6 7 8 9 10 10 12 13 13 14 15 17 19 vii viii Contents 1.15 Hyaluronan and Its Medical and Esthetic Applications 1.15.1 Aging and Hyaluronan 1.16 Polysaccharides Based Composites 1.16.1 Heparin-Based Composites 1.16.2 Hyaluronan-Based Composites 20 21 21 21 22 Microbial Polysaccharides as Advance Nanomaterials 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Microbial Polysaccharides: General Applications 2.3 Microbial Polysaccharides Production 2.4 Biosynthesis of Polysaccharides 2.5 Polysaccharides Recovery 2.6 Microbial Polysaccharides vs Plant Polysaccharides 2.7 Microbial Polysaccharides: General Features 2.7.1 Xanthan 2.7.2 Dextrans 2.7.3 Bacterial Alginate 2.7.4 Scleroglucan 2.7.5 Gellan 2.7.6 Pullulan 2.7.7 Curdlan 2.7.8 Levan Polysaccharides 2.7.9 Bacterial Polysaccharides 2.7.10 Gellam, Guar and Xanthan Gums 29 29 33 34 34 34 34 35 35 36 41 42 43 43 47 48 48 49 Chitosan Based Nanomaterials and Its Applications 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Chitin 3.3 Chitosan and Chitooligosaccharides 3.4 Chitin Nanoparticles 3.5 Chitosan Nanoparticles 3.6 Chitooligosaccharide Nanoparticles 3.7 Chitosan Applications 3.7.1 Thermosensitive Gels 3.7.2 Chitosan Nanoparticles and Gene Therapy: Chitosan-DNA Conjugated 3.7.3 Chitosan in Gene Therapy: Bio-Conjugated Nano Applications 3.7.4 Chitosan Based Amnioacid Polymer Conjugate 3.7.5 Chitosan Based Quantum Dots 3.7.6 Chitosan Based Ceramic Glass Nanopaticles 3.7.7 Chitosan Based Metallic Nanoparticles 3.7.8 Chitosan Based Cationic-Cationic Polymer: Macromolecule Grafted NPs 3.7.9 Chitosan Based Functionalized Nanoparticles 3.7.10 Chitosan Based Self Assembled/Amphiphillic NPs 55 55 56 56 57 58 61 62 62 62 65 69 69 69 69 71 71 72 Contents ix 3.7.11 3.7.12 3.7.13 3.7.14 3.7.15 3.7.16 3.7.17 3.7.18 Chitosan Based Coacervative Nanoparticles Chemically Modified Chitosan NPs Chitosan Based NPs for Poorly Soluble Drug Chitosan Based Quaternized Nanoparticles Chitosan Based Peg-Yalated Nanoparticles Chitosan Based Glycolated Nanoparticles Chitosan Based Nanoparticles Fluorescent Nanoparticles (C Dots or Core-Shell Silica Nanoparticles) 3.7.19 Crosslinked Chitosan Polymers Based NPs 3.7.20 Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNPs) 3.7.21 Synthetic Nanoparticle: Chitosan B-Cyclodextrin NPs 3.7.22 Lecithin Polymer Conjugates 3.7.23 Glycolyated Chitosan Based NPs 3.7.24 Galactosylated Chitosan Based NPs 3.7.25 Phytochemicals Based Chitosan Nanoparticles 3.7.26 Glycoisyalated Chitosan Nanoparticles: siRNA Chitosan Conjugate 3.7.27 Chitosan Based Microencapsulated NPs 3.7.28 Chitosan Based Monodisperse Nanoprticles 3.7.29 Improved Stable Conjugates 3.7.30 Chitosan Based Coreshell Nanoparticles 3.7.31 Chitosan Based Surface Modified Nanoparticles 3.7.32 Lipid Nanoparticles: Large Molecule Carrier Nanoparticle 3.7.33 Chitosan Based Controlled Release Nanoparticles 3.7.34 Chitosan Based Bioadhesive Nanoparticles 3.8 Targeted Applications 3.8.1 Chitosan Bio-Targeted Applications 3.9 Miscelleneous Applications 3.9.1 Food Industry 3.9.2 Immobilization 3.9.3 Chitosan as a Drug Advance Polymers and Its Applications 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Polymers and Their Physically Crosslinked Hydrogels by Freeze–Thaw Technique 4.3 Smart Polymers: Controlled Delivery of Drugs 4.4 Auto-Associative Amphiphilic Polysaccharides as Drug Delivery Systems 4.5 Supramolecular Hydrogels: Potential Mode of Drug Delivery 4.6 “Click” Reactions in Polysaccharide Modification 4.7 Star Polymers: Advances in Biomedical Applications 4.8 Ordered Polysaccharides: Stable Drug Carriers 73 74 74 76 77 77 78 80 80 82 82 83 84 84 84 84 85 86 87 87 88 88 88 89 89 91 94 94 97 97 119 119 121 122 124 127 128 130 131 x Contents 4.9 Interpenetrating Polymer Networks Polysaccharide Hydrogels for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering 134 4.10 Polysaccharide-Based Antibiofilm Surfaces 135 4.11 Polymers, and Their Complexes Used as Stabilizers for Emulsions 139 Advanced Application of Natural Polysaccharides 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Biodegradable Polymers as Bio-Materials 5.2.1 Biodegradable Polymers 5.2.2 Hydrolytically Degradable Polymers as Biomaterials 5.3 Natural Polysaccharides as Carriers and Scaffolds FOR Biomolecules and Cell Delivery in Tissue Engineering Applications 5.4 Natural and Synthetic Polysaccharides for Wounds and Burns Dressing 5.5 Present Research on the Blends of Natural and Synthetic Polymersas New Biomaterials 5.6 Applications of Synthetic Polymers in Clinical Medicine 5.7 Current Progress on Gelatin NPS in Drug and Vaccine Delivery 5.7.1 Drawbacks and Challenges 5.8 Current advancement of Chitosan-Based Polyelectrolyte Complexes with Natural Polysaccharides for Drug Delivery 5.9 Relevance of Chitosan and Chitosan Derivatives as Biomaterials 5.10 Hyaluronic Acid for Anticancer Drug and Nucleic Acid Delivery 5.11 Chondroitin Sulfate-Based Nanocarriers for Drug/Gene Delivery 5.12 Nanoengineering of Vaccines Using Natural Polysaccharides 147 147 148 150 151 Modern Polysaccharides and Its Current Advancements 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Polysaccharide Colloidal Particles Delivery Systems 6.3 Polysaccharides Scaffolds: for Bone Regeneration 6.4 Polysaccharides-Based Nanodelivery Systems 6.5 Polysaccharides and Its Recent Advances In Delivering 6.6 Unexplored Potentials of Polysaccharide Composites 6.7 Use of Microwave Irradiation in the Grafting Modification of the Polysaccharides 6.8 Cationization of Polysaccharides for Promoting Greener Derivatives with Many Commercial Applications 6.9 What Could Be Greener Than Composites Made from Polysaccharides? 171 171 172 172 173 175 176 151 154 155 157 158 158 159 160 161 164 165 177 179 180 Contents 6.10 The Use of Mucoadhesive Polymers in Buccal Drug Delivery 6.10.1 New Generation of Mucoadhesive Polymers 6.10.2 Thiolated Mucoadhesive Polymers 6.10.3 Target-Specific, Lectin-Mediated Bioadhesive Polymers 6.10.4 Mucoadhesive Polssacharides in the Design of Nano-Drug Delivery Systems for Non-Parenteral Administration 6.11 Polysaccharide Based Gene Transfection Agents 6.12 Polymeric Micro/Nanoparticles: Particle Design and Potential Vaccine Delivery Applications Toxicity of Nanodrug Delivery Systems 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Nanotoxicology 7.3 In Vitro and In Vivo Tests to Assess Oral Nanocarriers Toxicity 7.4 Toxicity of Nanocarriers for Oral Delivery xi 180 181 181 181 182 183 184 189 189 190 193 194 6.11 Polysaccharide Based Gene Transfection Agents 183 Table 6.4 Mucoadhesive polymers in buccal drug delivery Active ingredient Acyclovir Chitosan Chlorhexidine digluconate Insulin Thiocolchicoside Tetracycline Nifedipine or Propranolol HCl Insulin Chitosan and PVP Polymers used Chitosan HCl and PAA sodium salt Chitosan Chitosan Gelatin and CP 934P Gelatin and CMC Atelocollagen Chitosan with or without an anionic crosslinking polymer (PC, sodium alginate, gellan gum) Gelatin and CP 934P Glibenclamide Ref [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [49] to maintain patient acquiescence high, the manufacturing of innovative drug delivery systems administrable by mucosal routes has come to light and gained the attention of the scientific community owing to the possibility to considerably change pharmacokinetics [58] Moreover, to attain the aim of mucosal drug administration, the production of biomaterials has been refined to fit specific applications Table 6.5 describes the list of potential biomaterials explored as nano-drug delivery systems for mucosal administration by diverse non-parenteral routes (e.g., oral, inhalatory, etc.) 6.11 Polysaccharide Based Gene Transfection Agents Gene delivery is an excellent technique that involves in vitro or in vivo introduction of exogenous genes These genes are introduced into cells for experimental and therapeutic purposes Optimal gene delivery depends on the development of efficient and safe delivery vectors There are two prominent delivery systems, viral and non-viral gene carriers, are at present deployed for gene therapy As majority of present gene therapy clinical trials are based on viral approaches, non-viral gene medicines have also appeared as potentially safe and successful for the treatment of a wide variety of genetic and acquired diseases Non-viral technologies involve plasmid-based expression systems This contains a gene linked with the synthetic gene delivery vector Polysaccharides accumulate a large family of heterogenic sequences of monomers with various applications and various benefits as gene delivery agents Current research progress in polysaccharide based gene delivery is based on the recent developments of polysaccharide employed for in vitro and in vivo delivery of therapeutically important nucleotides, e.g plasmid DNA and small interfering RNA Polysaccharides can also offered a stable drug and gene delivery platform [58] Cationic polysaccharides are non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible materials They are particularly appropriate for transfection and biological uses as they are water soluble and can be readily transported to cells in vivo Therefore these polysaccharides act as effective vehicles 184 Table 6.5 List of mucoadhesive polymers in the design of nano-drug delivery systems for administration by nonparenteral routes [58, 59] Modern Polysaccharides and Its Current Advancements Mucoadhesive polymers Natural polymers • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Alginate Chitosan Thiolated chitosan O-Carboxymethyl chitosan N-trimethyl chitosan N-carboxymethyl chitosan Guar gum, xanthan gum and pectin Galactomannan and glucomannan Carrageenan-type II Hyaluronic acid and other glycosaminoglycans Gelatin Synthetic polymers Poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(ethylene oxide) and its copolymers Poly(acrylic acid) and poly(methacrylic acid) derivatives Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) Poly(vinyl amine) Boronate-containing polymers Semi-synthetic polymers Cellulose derivatives for delivering agents complexed with them [58] Most of the cationic polysaccharides employed for gene delivery purposes are either natural or semisynthetic in origin Semisynthetic cationic polysaccharides are fabricated by the conjugation of different oligoamines to oxidized polysaccharides e.g polycations of dextran, pullulan and arabinogalactan grafted with oligoamines of 2–4 amino groups were also investigated and were found to be effective in gene delivery [58] One of the most related features of this type of carrier is that the polysaccharide hydroxyl groups can be easily modified and possibly the presence of sugar-recognition receptors on the cell surface can assist internalization [58] (Fig 6.6) 6.12 Polymeric Micro/Nanoparticles: Particle Design and Potential Vaccine Delivery Applications Particle based adjuvant endow hopeful signs on transporting antigen to immune cells and behaving as stimulators to elicit preventive or therapeutic response Nevertheless, the wide size distribution of existing polymeric particles has so far masked the immunostimulative effects of particle adjuvant, and compromised the development in pharmacological researches [60] To overcome this obstacle, Yue et al has conceded out a series of research activities regarding the particulate References 185 Expression DNA Endosome/ Iysosome DNA NPs Polyplexe m RNA Nucleus Polycation Fig 6.6 Mechanism for targeted delivery of nucleotides using cationic polymers and different cellular barriers for in vitro gene delivery, 1: interaction of DNA nanoparticle with targeted DNA; 2: entry in to the cell; 3: escape from the endosome; 4: dissociation of DNA nanoparticle; 5: nuclear transport vaccine, by taking benefit of the successful fabrication of polymeric particles with uniform size In this investigation Yue et al demonstrated the insight and practical development focused on the effects of physiochemical 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by grafting of N-vinyl-2pyrrolidone and studies of physicochemical properties in terms of swelling capacity, metal-ion uptake and flocculation Carbohydr Polym 2010;80:1147–54 Chapter Toxicity of Nanodrug Delivery Systems Abstract The study of the potential toxicity of NPs is essential for the safe development of these vehicles The lack of strategies, regulatory requirements, and validated protocols, along with the particular physical, chemical and biological properties of these materials, makes the evaluation of the preclinical toxicity very complex Taking into consideration the outcomes of the toxicological investigations reviewed here, it seems that the toxicity of these nanocarriers is quite low Most of the in vivo toxicological investigations did not demonstrate effects at very high doses whereas in vitro studies showed some toxic effects However, more in vitro and in vivo toxicity assessments are required to reach a apparent conclusion about the potential toxic effect of these nanocarriers; the progress of validated protocols and the performance of chronic studies are of immense importance Keywords Nanoscience • Nano-toxicity • Drug delivery • Nanocarriers 7.1 Introduction Nanoscience has been variously explained at different books, journals, fora, and the web, however one thing is universal; it engages the investigation of the control of matter on an atomic and molecular scale Generally, a nanometer is one billionth of a meter and the properties of materials at this atomic or subatomic level vary considerably from properties of the same materials at larger sizes Nevertheless, the primary features of nanomaterials studied were for its electrical, magnetic, physical, mechanical, chemical and biological applications, recently, focus has been geared towards its pharmaceutical application, particularly in the field of drug delivery This is due to the confronts with utilization of large size materials in drug delivery, some of which include in vivo stability, poor bioavailability, solubility, intestinal absorption, therapeutic effectiveness, sustained and targeted delivery to site of action, generalized side effects, and plasma fluctuations of drugs Recently, different workers in nanotechnology science have been © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 S Bhatia, Systems for Drug Delivery, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-41926-8_7 189 190 Toxicity of Nanodrug Delivery Systems designed to overcome these confronts through the development and fabrication of nanostructures It has been studied that, nanoparticles have the capability to shield drugs from the degradation in the gastrointestinal tract This technology can enables target delivery of drugs to various areas of the body Additionally this technology allows the delivery of drugs that are poorly water soluble and can provide means of bypassing the liver, thereby preventing the first pass metabolism Regardless of the immense potentials of nano drug delivery systems in revolutionalizing patient management, its safety in humans is of great concern It has been investigated that, smaller nanoparticles show increased toxicity due to their increased surface area [1] For an instance, reports have shown that nanotubes are cytotoxic and induce granulomas in lungs of laboratory animals Metallic nanoparticles such as cobalt, titanium copper, and silicon and their oxides have also been reported to have inflammatory and toxic effects on cells [1] Additionally metallic nanoparticles e.g titanium oxide nanoparticles have been shown to stimulate chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage, whereas hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, a substance closely related to the mineral component of bones and teeth, were reported to induce cell death [1] 7.2 Nanotoxicology Nanotechnology is one of the most pioneering areas of research, which can find application in approximately all necessary aspects of our life Therefore, the development of novel nanomaterials is growing considerably and many products based on nanotechnology are already on the market Nevertheless, the achievements of nanotechnology have not been associated with a parallel progress of sufficient methods to assess and manage the possible risks for humans Incidentally, it has been criticized that “a novle technology will only be successful if those encouraging it can demonstrate that it is safe, but history is littered with instances of promising technologies that never satisfied the exact potential and/or caused countless damage since initial warnings were ignored” [2] Earlier it has been extensively demonstrated that through the application of nanotechnology in health care (Nanomedicine) it is possible to develop conventional medical therapies and diagnosis for a variety of pathological conditions Nevertheless, the same features determining their effectiveness in the host (targeting and controlled release properties) and making NPs so striking in medicine, may contribute to toxicological issues Therefore, to utilize the complete potential of NPs in nanomedicine, particular consideration must be paid to safety and toxicological issue [3] In this regard, nanotoxicology has raised as a multidisciplinary field to correctly review the safety of NPs So far, most nanotoxicological research has concerned a restricted group of engineered NPs, chiefly inorganic nanomaterials Dendrimers, polymeric NPs, liposomes, and other nanocarriers toxicityhas been studied to a smaller extent, even though they are the most capable devices in medicine This circumstance is not unexpected since 7.2 Nanotoxicology 191 there is substantial information about the toxicological profile of various “organic” materials (e.g., polymers, proteins, lipids, polysaccharides) utilized to fabricate these nanocarriers that, in various cases, are also utilized in other healthcare and pharmaceutical products Hence, these “organic” NPs have been considered safe and not much consideration has been paid to their toxicity based on the safety of their bulk material Nevertheless, the features and behavior at the “nano” level are expected to vary significantly in contrast with the similar material used in a macroscopic dosage form and, therefore, the toxicological way has to be significantly different from the classical approach to address adverse health effects In this regard, to accurately examine nanoparticle toxicity two concepts should be highlighted: • NPs are developed for their particular properties in contrast with bulk materials Since the surface of NPs is in direct contact with the body tissue and thus evaluate its response, the exceptional surface features of NPs require to be examined from a toxicological viewpoint • Nano-sized particles have qualitatively different physicochemical characteristics in comparison with micron-sized particles Owing to this, NPs might demonstrate unforeseen distribution within the body, which can lead to undesirable results e.g crossing the blood barrier and activating blood coagulation pathways Considering this fact, both pharmacokinetics and distribution of NPs should be examined carefully Indeed, associated to NP biodistribution, there is a lack of fundamental knowledge about the biological response of NPs at both organ and cellular levels [4] Specific consideration should be dedicated to the toxicity of non-drugloaded NPs, mainly in the case of slowly degradable or nondegradable NPs employed for drug delivery For nanodevices employed in medicine the primary focus in most of the research papers is mostly on the reduction of toxicity of the incorporated drug, while the likely toxicity of the carrier used is not measured Following the delivery of the cargo, NPs’ residual components may accumulate in the body causing possible side effects or toxicities In addition, not only NPs determination but also their size should be considered as toxicity risk factors In this concern, Müller et al have projected a nanotoxicological classification system (NCS) [5], based on the structure of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), that would be valuable as a initial approach, because it permits a obvious and basic explanation of likely toxicological risks of NPs used in medicine Nevertheless, additional physicochemical properties also exert an influence on the overall adverse effects in cells and tissues [5] Various in vitro/vivo toxicities investigations on polymeric nanoparticles is mentioned in Table 7.1 192 Toxicity of Nanodrug Delivery Systems Table 7.1 In vitro/vivo toxicities studies on polymeric nanoparticles Nanoparticles Therapeutic field/drug Observations In vitro/vivo toxicities studies of polymeric nanoparticles CS Infections/ceftriaxone and h incubation: sodium loaded-CS-NP non-cytotoxic 24 h incubation: loaded-CS-NP effect-cytotoxic in Caco2 and in J774.2 (1.8 and 0.72 mg/mL, respectively) CS Diabetes/insulin Loaded-NP non-cytotoxic (50, 100 and 250 mg/mL) HT-29: Loaded-NP (50, 100 and 250 mg/mL) non-cytotoxic (3 h incubation) LSC-CS Diabetes/insulin Loaded-LSC2-CS-NP non-cytotoxic O-CMC Infections/tetracycline In all cell lines and concentration tested: Loaded-NP non-cytotoxic No alteration of cell morphology O-CMC Infections/tetracycline Mild hemolysis (8 %, 18 % for 45.90 lg/mL respectively) No significant erythrocyte lysis (
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Xem thêm: Systems for drug delivery , Systems for drug delivery , 10 Hyaluronic Acid and Chondroitin Sulfate (Polysaccharides of Human Origin): Biodegradable Polymers as Biomaterials, 12 Rationale for the Use of HA in Drug Delivery, 15 Hyaluronan and Its Medical and Esthetic Applications, 2 Polymers and Their Physically Crosslinked Hydrogels by Freeze–Thaw Technique, 6 “Click” Reactions in Polysaccharide Modification, 9 Interpenetrating Polymer Networks Polysaccharide Hydrogels for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering, 11 Polymers, and Their Complexes Used as Stabilizers for Emulsions, 3 Natural Polysaccharides as Carriers and Scaffolds FOR Biomolecules and Cell Delivery in Tissue Engineering Applications, 10 Hyaluronic Acid for Anticancer Drug and Nucleic Acid Delivery, 12 Nanoengineering of Vaccines Using Natural Polysaccharides, 10 The Use of Mucoadhesive Polymers in Buccal Drug Delivery, 12 Polymeric Micro/Nanoparticles: Particle Design and Potential Vaccine Delivery Applications, 3 In Vitro and In Vivo Tests to Assess Oral Nanocarriers Toxicity

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