Secularization revisited – teaching of religion and the state of denmark

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Boundaries of Religious Freedom: Regulating Religion in Diverse Societies Niels Reeh Secularization Revisited - Teaching of Religion and the State of Denmark 1721-2006 Boundaries of Religious Freedom: Regulating Religion in Diverse Societies Volume Series Editors Lori G Beaman, University of Ottawa, ON, Canada Anna Halafoff, Deakin University, Vic, Australia Lene Kühle, Aarhus Universitet, Denmark Processes of globalization have resulted in increasingly culturally and religiously diverse societies In addition, religion is occupying a more prominent place in the public sphere at the turn of the 21st Century, despite predictions of religious decline The rise in religious diversity, and in the salience of religious identity, is posing both challenges and opportunities pertaining to issues of governance Indeed, a series of tensions have arisen between state and religious actors regarding a variety of matters including burial rites, religious education and gender equality Many of these debates have focused on the need for, and limits of, religious freedom especially in situations where certain religious practices risk impinging upon the freedom of others Moreover, different responses to religious pluralism are often informed by the relationship between religion and state in each society Due to the changing nature of societies, most have needed to define, or redefine, the boundaries of religious freedom reflected in laws, policies and the design and use of public spaces These boundaries, however, continue to be contested, debated and reviewed, at local, national and global levels of governance All books published in this Series have been fully peer-reviewed before final acceptance More information about this series at Niels Reeh Secularization Revisited Teaching of Religion and the State of Denmark 1721–2006 Niels Reeh Department of History University of Southern Denmark Odense, Denmark ISSN 2214-5281 ISSN 2214-529X (electronic) Boundaries of Religious Freedom: Regulating Religion in Diverse Societies ISBN 978-3-319-39606-4 ISBN 978-3-319-39608-8 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-39608-8 Library of Congress Control Number: 2016947714 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland Contents Introduction 1.1 The State, External Relations and Internal Organization 1.2 Disclaimers and Remarks on the Limitations of the Perspective References Part I 10 11 Theory The Blind Spots of the Dominant Secularization Theories 2.1 From Secularizatio to Secularization 2.2 Comte’s Framing of Sociology and Break with the Natural Law Tradition 2.3 Consequences of Emile Durkheim’s Foundation of the Discipline of Sociology 2.4 The German Approach to Sociology and Talcott Parson’s Transformation of Max Weber’s Sociology 2.5 Consequences of the Concept of Differentiation 2.6 The Implicit Notion of Religion in the Concept of Differentiation 2.7 On the Absence of War in Sociology 2.8 Blind Spots of Classic Secularization Theories References 17 18 A New Theoretical Approach to Religion 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Towards a New Theory of Religion 3.3 Preliminary Remarks to a Relational Notion of Religion 3.4 Norbert Elias’ ‘Survival Unit’ and ‘the Extended “I-and-We” Consciousness’ 3.5 Towards a Sociology of the Social ‘We’ as a Relational Category 33 33 34 35 19 21 22 25 26 27 28 30 37 38 v vi Contents 3.6 3.7 On the Relations Between Religions Mimicking, Imitation, and Copying in Social Life: A Modification of the Conflict Perspective 3.8 On the Historical Development of the Split Between the Survival Unit and Religious Entities 3.9 The Field of the Religious Survival Units as a Point of Departure in Defining Religion 3.10 Counter-Religions in the Present Field of Religions 3.11 Myth and Ritual 3.12 A Short Note on the Distinction Between Religion and Science 3.13 Three Kinds of Survival Units 3.14 The Call of the State: Civil Religion or Nationalism as the ‘Religion’ of the Danish Survival Unit 3.15 Contested Myths and Life Histories of the US and Denmark 3.16 The Myth and Life History of the Danish Church in Its Liturgical Year 3.17 On the State, Group, and Individual 3.18 Concluding Theoretical Remarks References Further Implications of the Relational Approach to the Study of Religion 4.1 Historical Differentiation of Religious and Sovereign Survival Units 4.2 Miracles as a Discursive Weapon in the Religious Struggle 4.3 State Agency Elsewhere Than Denmark: The Glorious Revolution in England and Beyond References Part II 39 41 42 46 48 52 53 54 56 56 60 61 62 63 67 67 69 71 76 The Danish Road through Modernity Transformations of the Sacred Canopy in Danish Schools from 1721–2006 Despotic Absolutism: 1721–1784 5.1 The Teaching and Politics of Religion from 1721 to 1784 5.2 State Mythology—A Christian State Under a Christian King 5.3 Historical Background—The Wars Against Sweden 1657–1660 5.4 The Absolutist State After 1660 5.5 The Military and Compulsory Schooling 5.6 The Re-Established Country Militia of 1701 5.7 The Establishment of the Equestrian Schools 81 82 83 83 84 85 85 86 Contents 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 Education, State, and Individual The Law of Adscription of 1733 and What Followed The 1736 Statute Regarding Confirmation The Use of Religion Under Early Absolutism in Denmark Arguments Concerning the Law of 1739 The School Law of 1739 Instructions for the Schoolmaster The School Law of 1740 and the Retreat of the State The Sacred Canopy Under Despotic Absolutism, 1721–1784 References Enlightened Absolutism: 1784 to 1849 6.1 Towards the Elementary School Reforms of 1806 and 1814 6.2 The Military and Economic Situation of the Danish Crown 6.3 Peasantry and Power Relations Within the Danish State 6.4 The Small and the Great Land Commissions 6.5 The Great Agrarian Reforms and the School Reforms of 1814 6.6 The School Act of 1814 Education, the State, and the Individual 6.7 School Discipline 6.8 The Curriculum and the Supervisory System of the Law of 1814 6.9 The Schoolmaster Betwixt and Between 6.10 The Sacred Canopy Under Enlightened Absolutism, 1784 to 1814 References Constitutional Monarchy: 1849–1901 7.1 Towards 1849 7.2 A New State-Form 7.3 Schooling and the Act Concerning Marriage 1851 7.4 The Organization of the Church and Education Departments 7.5 The Act Concerning Local Administration of 1855 7.6 The Free Schools Act (Friskoler) of May 2, 1855 7.7 An Overview of the Period from 1849 to 1864 7.8 From 1864 to 1901 7.9 The Circular of H.V Sthyr 7.10 Transformation of the Sacred Canopy Under Constitutional Monarchy, 1849–1901 References vii 88 89 90 92 92 94 94 95 96 97 99 99 99 101 102 103 104 104 105 106 108 110 111 111 112 114 115 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 viii 10 Contents Parliamentary Democracy: 1901–1945 8.1 The Push for Democratization 8.2 Society as Defence of the State 8.3 The Act of 1904 8.4 The Battle Over Christianity in Schools in 1930s 8.5 The Act of 1933 8.6 The Positions of the Four Political Parties in 1933 8.7 Important Aspects of the Act of 1933 8.8 Denmark for the People—The Turnaround of the Social Democrats 8.9 The Act of 1937 8.10 World War II—An Exception? 8.11 The Sacred Canopy Under Parliamentary Democracy and the Nazi Occupation, 1901–1945 References 125 125 126 129 129 130 131 134 The Welfare State: 1945 to 1989 9.1 Beneath the ‘Nuclear Umbrella’ 9.2 The Act of 1949 and the Positions in the Debate 9.3 The Blue Consideration 1960 9.4 Towards the Schools Act of 1975 9.5 The Debate on Political Indoctrination 9.6 The Act of 1975 9.7 The Right of Exemption 9.8 Intellectual Liberty as Ideological Defence 9.9 The External Environment from 1975 to the End of the Cold War 9.10 The Internal Situation from 1975 to the End of the Cold War 9.11 Globalisation and Guidelines for the Teaching of Christianity 9.11.1 The Sacred Canopy Under the Welfare State, 1945 to 1989 References 143 143 144 145 145 147 148 149 149 The Public Management State: 1989 to 2006 10.1 The External Situation of Denmark in 1989 Until 2001 10.2 Legislation Pertaining to the Teaching of Christianity from 1993 Until 2001 10.3 On the Importance of Culture (Including Christianity) in a Shrinking World 10.4 The New Public Management State, the War on Terror, and the Cartoon Crisis 10.4.1 Externally: Towards September 11, 2001 10.4.2 Internally: Towards the So-Called Change of Systems in 2001 157 157 134 136 137 138 140 150 151 152 154 155 160 162 163 163 164 Contents ix 10.4.3 10.4.4 10.4.5 The Governments of Anders Fogh Rasmussen Common Goals The Teaching of Christianity According to Common Goals 10.4.6 Farewell to the Welfare State? 10.4.7 The Cartoon Crisis, the Teaching of Democracy, and Leviathan 10.5 The Sacred Canopy Under the Public Management State, 1989 to 2007 References 11 169 170 172 174 176 Overview of the State Religious Politics in the Danish Elementary Schools from 1721 to 2005 179 11.1 Conclusion to the Case Study 183 References 187 Part III 12 167 168 Conclusion Conclusion 191 References 198 Index 201 ... Niels Reeh Secularization Revisited – Teaching of Religion and the State of Denmark 172 1–2 006 Niels Reeh Department of History University of Southern Denmark Odense, Denmark ISSN 2214-5281... stu
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Xem thêm: Secularization revisited – teaching of religion and the state of denmark , Secularization revisited – teaching of religion and the state of denmark , 1 The State, External Relations and Internal Organization, 4 The German Approach to Sociology and Talcott Parson’s Transformation of Max Weber’s Sociology, 5 Towards a Sociology of the Social ‘We’ as a Relational Category, 8 On the Historical Development of the Split Between the Survival Unit and Religious Entities, 9 The Field of the Religious Survival Units as a Point of Departure in Defining Religion, 15 Contested Myths and Life Histories of the US and Denmark, 16 The Myth and Life History of the Danish Church in Its Liturgical Year, 3 State Agency Elsewhere Than Denmark: The Glorious Revolution in England and Beyond, 3 Historical Background—The Wars Against Sweden 1657–1660, 9 The Law of Adscription of 1733 and What Followed, 11 The Use of Religion Under Early Absolutism in Denmark, 3 Peasantry and Power Relations Within the Danish State, 8 The Curriculum and the Supervisory System of the Law of 1814, 10 The Sacred Canopy Under Enlightened Absolutism, 1784 to 1814, 3 Schooling and the Act Concerning Marriage 1851, 6 The Free Schools Act (Friskoler) of May 2, 1855, 10 Transformation of the Sacred Canopy Under Constitutional Monarchy, 1849–1901, 6 The Positions of the Four Political Parties in 1933, 8 Denmark for the People—The Turnaround of the Social Democrats, 11 The Sacred Canopy Under Parliamentary Democracy and the Nazi Occupation, 1901–1945, 9 The External Environment from 1975 to the End of the Cold War, 1 The External Situation of Denmark in 1989 Until 2001, 4 The New Public Management State, the War on Terror, and the Cartoon Crisis, 5 The Sacred Canopy Under the Public Management State, 1989 to 2007

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