The european union as guardian of internet privacy

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Law, Governance and Technology Series 31 Hielke Hijmans The European Union as Guardian of Internet Privacy The Story of Art 16 TFEU Law, Governance and Technology Series Volume 31 Series editors Pompeu Casanovas Institute of Law and Technology, UAB, Spain Giovanni Sartor University of Bologna (Faculty of Law-CIRSFID) and European University Institute of Florence, Italy The Law-Governance and Technology Series is intended to attract manuscripts arising from an interdisciplinary approach in law, artificial intelligence and information technologies The idea is to bridge the gap between research in IT law and IT-applications for lawyers developing a unifying techno-legal perspective The series will welcome proposals that have a fairly specific focus on problems or projects that will lead to innovative research charting the course for new interdisciplinary developments in law, legal theory, and law and society research as well as in computer technologies, artificial intelligence and cognitive sciences In broad strokes, manuscripts for this series may be mainly located in the fields of the Internet law (data protection, intellectual property, Internet rights, etc.), Computational models of the legal contents and legal reasoning, Legal Information Retrieval, Electronic Data Discovery, Collaborative Tools (e.g Online Dispute Resolution platforms), Metadata and XML Technologies (for Semantic Web Services), Technologies in Courtrooms and Judicial Offices (E-Court), Technologies for Governments and Administrations (E-Government), Legal Multimedia, and Legal Electronic Institutions (Multi-Agent Systems and Artificial Societies) More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/8808 Hielke Hijmans The European Union as Guardian of Internet Privacy The Story of Art 16 TFEU Hielke Hijmans Brussels, Belgium ISSN 2352-1902    ISSN 2352-1910 (electronic) Law, Governance and Technology Series ISBN 978-3-319-34089-0    ISBN 978-3-319-34090-6 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-34090-6 Library of Congress Control Number: 2016949456 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland Foreword Among the many challenges presently facing the European Union, this book – a revised version of the author’s dissertation which recently served as the basis for a joint doctorate at the University of Amsterdam and the Free University of Brussels – addresses a subject which is by its very nature rather invisible, but arguably also one of the most far-reaching and consequential areas within the Union’s competence, where it is currently operating with a remarkable degree of success: namely the protection of privacy and personal data, notably on the Internet Today, information about the activities of every individual, at every moment of the day, is exploding as a result of different social and technological factors The exponential growth of information and communication technologies, and the popularity of systems and devices allowing their mobile use to everyone at a global scale, have exposed the private lives and personal data of every individual to new hazards which are only gradually understood beyond the limited circles of specialists in this field The Internet and a growing number of networked services connected to it, serve as the driving forces of this development which is likely to reshape our societies in the coming years It is no wonder therefore that public policymakers, as well as industry and civil society, are now looking at the implications of this trend and at different ways to enhance its positive and reduce its negative sides Due to the Lisbon Treaty’s entering into force in 2009, the European Union has received a strong mandate for the protection of personal data, not only at the level of the EU institutions and bodies, but also at the level of the Member States when acting within the scope of EU law The author has taken up this mandate – laid down in Article 16 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and Articles and of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights – as a starting point for his analysis, and looked at the ways in which the different key actors involved – the European Court of Justice, the EU’s legislative institutions, the independent Data Protection Authorities at national and EU level, including their cooperation mechanisms, and those acting in the external relations with third countries – should play their role to ensure the legitimacy and the effectiveness of their actions in the mandate The question how and to what extent the EU can – both legitimately and effectively – act in a global environment, such as the Internet, is one of the central themes of the book v vi Foreword In this way, the author has developed a range of views and perspectives which have truly enriched the scholarly literature, both in the field of data protection and EU institutional law, and the increasingly relevant interfaces between them He was also eminently qualified for this task, due to his extensive experience in most of the relevant areas: first as a legislative adviser in the Dutch Ministry of Justice, second as a senior legal adviser of an Advocate General at the European Court of Justice, and third as the head of unit responsible for Policy and Consultation at the European Data Protection Supervisor’s Office All these tasks involved extensive work in and exposure to the development of EU law In his third capacity, we have worked together closely for more than 10 years in Brussels It is therefore a very special privilege for me to be able to contribute these words of introduction to this book The first chapter mentions that this book was triggered by a perceived loss of control of governments over societal developments, due to globalisation and technological developments, which inhibit the effective protection of essential values in democratic societies Three examples are provided to illustrate this problem These examples also illustrate a widespread feeling of citizens that they are losing control over their own personal data This double loss of control could easily undermine the quality of our democracies under the rule of law These are key elements of the need to reinforce the existing legal framework for data protection and its impact in practice That this book appears as the European legislators are about to complete a comprehensive review of that framework and to open a new chapter for data protection in the EU is a coincidence that can hardly be overrated Rendering justice in this domain is a task that continues to be relevant and – in a true sense – will never be finished European Data Protection Supervisor (2004–2014) Leiden, The Netherlands February 2016 Peter Hustinx Preface An academic sabbatical for over a year resulted in this book I recommend such a sabbatical to everyone It was a luxury to have time and space to think After 30 years of office life, a dramatic change of life: no specific place to go in the morning and being able to decide whether to go to the university or to stay at home, to read or to write I started my sabbatical with the ambition to demonstrate that our much criticized European Union can make a difference and is capable of protecting individuals in a complex society During the period of sabbatical however, much happened and the Union tumbled into a crisis We saw, most importantly, that the Union did not manage to protect people who needed it the most, particularly those who run the risk of drowning in the Mediterranean on their way to seeking asylum in Europe This background made my academic adventure even more academic, because my main argument was that Europe can make a difference and is capable of guaranteeing individuals’ fundamental rights This trust in Europe still stands, as this book demonstrates, but it is not self-evident We see a lack of solidarity between the European countries and a fading belief in Europe which in my view should not just be a market where one can pick and choose We need a strong Union based on values This book was written before the Brexit made the EU even more vulnerable This book is based on combined knowledge and experience gained at different stages of my career, at various ministries within the Dutch government, the EU Court of Justice and, in the last decade, with the European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS) It is motivated by my convictions that we need a strong state that is capable of protecting its citizens, that Europe can offer solutions and that we should not give up on our European values in a globalised world It is the slightly modified version of my doctorate thesis, which I defended on February 2016, and resulted in a joint doctorate in law at the University of Amsterdam and the Vrije Universiteit Brussels Supervisors were Nico van Eijk and Paul de Hert The jury consisted of Sacha Pechal, Christopher Kuner, Serge Gutwirth, Corien Prins, Natali Helberger and Annette Schrauwen Valsamis Mitsilegas was guest opponent vii viii Preface This book also fits within my personal background Both my parents spent most of their professional lives in academia and they always stimulated me to follow their path For a long time, this was precisely the reason not to envisage an academic career or to write a doctorate thesis Yet, at this mature age, I changed my mind and I am happy that my father is still around to see the result of my work and to see how this makes him happy I am sure that I would have made my mother extremely proud when she could realise that I succeeded in what determined much of her life, academic research Life goes on, and in recent years I not only enjoyed the continuing friendship of my old circle of friends, but also the warmth of my own loving family.  To you, Zeta, my big love, and to my daughters Nina, Sophie and Nikki, who make me on my turn proud, I dedicate this book The times we spend together makes life even more wonderful.  Brussels, Belgium Hielke Hijmans Contents Introduction����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������    1 1.1Trigger of This Book: A Perceived Loss of Control ��������������������    1 1.2A First Outline of Article 16 TFEU����������������������������������������������    4 1.2.1The EU Mandate Under Article 16 TFEU to Ensure Privacy and Data Protection�������������������������    4 1.2.2Legitimacy and Effectiveness as Prerequisites for Trust������������������������������������������������������������������������    5 1.2.3Background ������������������������������������������������������������������    6 1.3The Structure of  This Book����������������������������������������������������������    7 1.4Methodology ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������   11 1.5Further Limitations�����������������������������������������������������������������������   13 1.6Terminology����������������������������������������������������������������������������������   14 References��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������   15 Privacy and Data Protection as Values of the EU That Matter, Also in the Information Society��������������������������������������������������������������   17 2.1Introduction ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������   18 2.2Privacy and Data Protection as Part of an EU Based on Values: A General Design����������������������������������������������������������  19 2.2.1Privacy, Data Protection and the Ambitions of the EU in Promoting Its Values��������������������������������   19 2.3Privacy and Data Protection as Constitutional Values That Matter, Also on the Internet��������������������������������������������������   20 2.3.1Two Elements Stand Out: There Are No Good or Bad People, and Monitoring Changes Behaviour ������������������������������������������������������   22 2.4Ambitions of the EU in Promoting Democracy: Democracy Requires a Free Internet, but Not an Unprotected Internet����������������������������������������������������   24 2.4.1Democracy as Guiding Principle in Relation to the Internet����������������������������������������������������������������   24 ix 590 Annex: Consulted Documents Giesen, Ivo, 2006, “Regulating regulators through liability, The case for applying normal tort rules to supervisors – abstract”, Utrecht Law Review, Special on Supervision and Supervisory Authorities, Vol 2, Issue 1, June 2006, 8–31 Goldsmith, Jack L., 1998, “Against Cyberanarchy”, 65 University of Chicago Law Review 1199 (1998) González Fuster, G., 2014, The Emergence of Personal Data Protection as a Fundamental Right of the 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