Teachers’ counseling competence in parent teacher talks

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Mara Gerich Teachers’ Counseling Competence in Parent-Teacher Talks Modeling, Intervention, Behavior-Based Assessment Teachers’ Counseling Competence in ­Parent-Teacher Talks Mara Gerich Teachers’ Counseling Competence in Parent-Teacher Talks Modeling, Intervention, Behavior-Based Assessment Mara Gerich Darmstadt, Germany Dissertation Technische Universität Darmstadt (D17) Original Title: Teachers’ Counseling Competence in Parent-Teacher Talks on the Support of Students’ Learning Processes Modeling, Intervention, Behavior-Based Assessment The preparation of this doctoral thesis was supported by grants SCHM 1538/5-3 from the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the Priority Program “Competence Models for Assessing Individual Learning Outcomes and Evaluating Educational Processes” (SPP 1293) ISBN 978-3-658-15618-3 ISBN 978-3-658-15619-0 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-3-658-15619-0 Library of Congress Control Number: 2016951713 © Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH The registered company address is: Abraham-Lincoln-Strasse 46, 65189 Wiesbaden, Germany For my family Acknowledgment Firstly, I would like to thank my supervisor Prof Dr Bernhard Schmitz for the opportunity to prepare this work and his support and advice throughout the time of my dissertation research Thank you for the chance and your trust to undertake my research activities in a very self-determined way I am also very thankful to Prof Dr Silke Hertel, who kindly agreed to act as an expert referee for this doctoral thesis I would also like to thank Prof Dr Silke Hertel as well as Dr Simone Bruder for their helpful support as my “expert team” on the topic of teachers’ counseling competence I always enjoyed our constructive teamwork within our various publication projects Moreover, without your profound and extensive preliminary work, the preparation of this doctoral thesis would not have been possible in its present form Special thanks go to Dr Simone Bruder for her decisive support regarding the structural equation analyses conducted in this work I am also grateful to my project colleague Monika Trittel Thank you for our friendly collaboration and that I could always ask you for your advice and opinion I also would like to thank my other former and current colleagues and friends in my working group as well as the adjacent working groups of the Institute of Psychology who accompanied me during the progression of this work: Dr Corinna Baum, Henrik Bellhäuser, Dr Jana Birkenbusch, Marlene Deja, Michael Gutjahr, Alice Ihringer, Britta Juchem, Dr Florian Kattner, Dr Julia Klug, Jessica Lang, Patrick Liborius, Sabine Ogrin, Anne Roth, Anne-Kathrin Scheibe, Dr Josef Schlittenlacher, Kathleen Schnick-Vollmer, Sylvana Silber, Dr Kirsten van de Loo, and Christian Wolff Thank you for providing a sense of community and camaraderie You have contributed immensely to my professional and personal time at the Institute of Psychology Moreover, I would like to thank my student assistants Sonja Kugler and Vanessa Dannecker for their support I appreciate your hard work during the organization of the studies and the data acquisition, particularly in the implementation of the counseling talk simulations Additional thanks go to all the (prospective) teachers who participated in the studies that will be reported in this thesis Lastly, but by no means least, I am especially grateful to my family and friends for all their encouragement throughout the preparation of this work, but also for always reminding me that there is a whole world outside of my doctoral thesis I am eternally grateful to my parents Ida and Ralf and my sisters Nina and Rena Thank you for your support, your love, and for always being there when I need you I am also deeply thankful to my partner Christian Thank you so much for your great encouragement, your true friendship, love, and faith in me Contents  Abstract 15 Zusammenfassung 19 I Synopsis 23 Theoretical Background 23 1.1  Relevance of Teachers’ Counseling Competence in ParentTeacher Talks 23 1.2  Definition 24 1.3  Models 27 1.4  Intervention 32 1.5  Assessment 36 1.6  Purpose of the Thesis 40 Thesis overview 45 2.1  Study 45 2.2  Study 48 2.3  Study 52 General Discussion 55 3.1  Summary of Results 55 3.2  Limitations and Future Research Perspectives 57 3.3  Implications for Educational Practice 61 II Original Manuscripts 65 Study 65 4.1  Manuscript A: What Skills and Abilities Are Essential for Counseling on Learning Difficulties and Learning Strategies? Modeling Teachers’ Counseling Competence in ParentTeacher Talks Measured by Means of a Scenario Test 65 4.2  Additional Analyses 80 Study 87 5.1  Manuscript B: Improving Prospective Teachers’ Counseling Competence in Parent-Teacher Talks Effects of Training and Feedback 87 Study 125 6.1  Manuscript C: Using Simulated Parent-Teacher Talks to Assess and Improve Prospective Teachers’ Counseling Competence 125 References 149 10 List of Figures 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 4.1 4.2 5.1 5.2 5.3 6.1 Munich model of teachers’ communicative competence in parent-teacher conversation (Gartmeier et al., 2011) 28 Four-dimensional model of higher track secondary school teachers’ counseling competence (Bruder, 2011) 30 Predictors of higher track secondary school teachers’ counseling competence (Bruder, 2011; Klug et al., 2012) 32 Overview of the research subjects and relations of the studies included in the doctoral thesis 43 Study 1: Model of teachers’ counseling competence 77 Study 1: Model of teachers’ counseling competence with the related dimensions and predictor variables 84 Study 2: Model of teachers’ counseling competence (Gerich et al., 2015) 90 Study 2: Results of the repeated measures MANOVAs for the prepost and the post-follow-up comparisons 112 Study 2: Trajectories of the observed dependent variables for both intervention groups 116 Study 3: Model of teachers’ counseling competence (Gerich et al., 2015) 128   !+-###      !+/###    !),## $    !,*###    !.)###    !*+###       !0, !/0 !./ !./ !/' !/) !.0 !*) !/)###  "    ! !0+ !.) !-'### !-+   !+/ !// Figure 4.2 Model of teachers’ counseling competence with the related dimensions and predictor variables 84 The MANOVA for the examination of potential group differences between teachers working in primary schools, lower track secondary schools, and higher track secondary schools resulted in significant multivariate main effects (Wilks´ lambda Λ = 81, F(14/ 696) = 5.64, p < 001, η² = 10) Results for the dependent variables as well as descriptive statistics are displayed in Table 4.5 Contrary to the expectations, post-hoc analyses did not reveal significantly greater values for primary and lower track secondary school teachers than higher track secondary school teachers concerning overall counseling competence, the dimensions diagnostic skills, problem-solving skills, and coping skills, as well as the predictor variables knowledge and experience However, concerning the dimension communication skills (F(2, 354) = 12.858, p < 001) and the predictor variable professional self-concept (F(2, 354) = 13.269, p < 001), posthoc analyses revealed significantly lower values for higher track secondary school teachers compared with the other two subgroups with moderately large effect sizes (Cohen, 1988) In addition, results generally indicated a rather low overall level of counseling competence for all three subgroups Table 4.5 Results of the MANOVA for the evaluation of group differences Group PST LSST HSST M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) df F η² 1.03 (0.26) 0.99 (0.29) 0.95 (0.25) 2/354 2.44 01 0.59 (0.33) 0.56 (0.32) 0.39 (0.27) 2/354 12.86*** 07 1.44 (0.32) 1.41 (0.36) 1.48 (0.25) 2/354 1.16 01 1.20 (0.35) 1.20 (0.36) 1.18 (0.37) 2/354 0.09 00 Coping skills 0.91 (0.63) 0.79 (0.63) 0.77 (0.62) 2/354 1.65 01 Knowledge 6.05 (1.28) 5.60 (1.44) 5.87 (1.60) 2/354 3.24* 02 Professional self-concept 5.09 (0.46) 4.97 (0.55) 4.73 (0.58) 2/354 13.27*** 07 Experience 3.35 (0.60) 3.34 (0.65) 3.34 (0.76) 2/354 0.03 00 Overall score Counseling competence Predictor variables Communication skills Diagnostic skills Problemsolving skills Note PST = Primary school teachers; LSST = Lower track secondary school teachers; HSST = Higher track secondary school teachers * p < 05 ** p < 01 *** p < 001 85 Study 5.1 Manuscript B: Improving Prospective Teachers’ Counseling Competence in Parent-Teacher Talks Effects of Training and Feedback Abstract Counseling parents concerning students’ learning difficulties and learning strategies is considered to be an increasingly important competence area of teachers However, there exist few educational programs, which specifically focus on the improvement of this essential teacher competence, particularly in early teacher education The current study, which took place at a German university, describes the evaluation of a corresponding training program for prospective teachers as well as a process-oriented feedback intervention We conducted a quasiexperimental study with three treatment groups (training group, training + feedback group, control group) combining pre-, post-, and follow-up test measures with time-series data By means of multivariate repeated measures MANOVAs and time-series analyses we were able to demonstrate that prospective teachers’ counseling competence can be successfully fostered by training and individual process-oriented feedback Our results provide several practical implications concerning the improvement of teachers’ counseling competence within the context of teacher education 5.1.1 Introduction Counseling is considered to be an increasingly important activity in teachers’ professional routines and has been specified as a key task in recent concepts of Gerich, M., Trittel., M., & Schmitz, B (in press) Improving Prospective Teachers’ Counseling Competence in Parent-Teacher Talks Effects of Training and Feedback Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation 87 teachers’ professional competences in Germany and worldwide (e.g., Baumert & Kunter, 2006; Guli, 2005; Hertel, Bruder, Jude, & Steinert, 2013) Among others, parent counseling has become one of the most relevant counseling fields for teachers, as it has been shown to be an effective method of treatment delivery for a variety of school-related issues (for a review, see Guli, 2005) In particular, parent counseling concerning the support of their children’s home-based learning activities (e.g., by providing assistance with homework, enhancing motivation, and structuring time for homework and leisure) has become one of the primary objectives, as parental involvement in children’s education has a profound influence on students’ academic success as well as social, emotional, and behavioral development (Christenson & Sheridan, 2001; Cox, 2005; Hill & Taylor, 2004; Hill & Tyson, 2009; Miller, Colebrook, & Ellis, 2014; Pomerantz, Moorman, & Litwack, 2007; Reschly & Christenson, 2012) Specifically, counseling parents with respect to students’ learning difficulties and learning strategies has been identified as an important means for teachers to support students in their academic development (Guli, 2005; Whiston, Tai, Rihardja, & Eder, 2011) Parent counseling is often used in the broader psychology literature to refer to any communication between a professional and a parent (Guli, 2005) Within school psychology, parent counseling is defined as a structured, collaborative, problem solving relationship between the counselor (in this case the teacher) and one or more parent consultees (Sheridan, Kratochwill, & Bergan, 1996) This definition particularly emphasizes, that parent counseling is to be understood as an interactive process of co-construction between multiple experts (Idol, Nevin, & Paolucci-Whitcomb, 1994), characterized by collaboration and joint ownership of responsibilities and accountability for outcomes (Reschly & Christenson, 2012) Thus, within the context of parent-teacher talks on students’ learning difficulties and learning strategies, teachers and parents can come together to jointly identify possible learning difficulties that need to be addressed and determine specific intervention strategies in the school and home context (Keys, Bemak, Carpenter, & King-Sears, 1998) Particularly in recent years, parents increasingly request guidance from teachers concerning the support of their children in homework and learning activities (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones, & Reed, 2002; Hertel et al., 2013) Thus, in order to meet these high demands and capitalize on the full potential of involving parents in their children’s learning processes, teachers must be well educated in counseling and collaborating with parents However, international research on early teacher education shows that teacher education institutions often fail to facilitate prospective teachers to acquire the interpersonal competences they will need to counsel parents effectively (Lawrence-Lightfoot, 2003; Walker & Dotger, 2012) As a consequence, novice teachers often feel overburdened by demands concerning the collaboration with parents with which they are 88 confronted when they enter the profession (Epstein, 2005; Mandel, 2006) This so-called “reality-shock” frequently leads to a reluctance to offer counseling talks (Wild, 2003), decreased job satisfaction, extended occupational stress, and an increased risk of burnout (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Pas, Bradshaw, & Hershfeldt, 2012) Against this background, numerous studies on teacher education as well as political recommendations and standards for teacher education highlight the importance of integrating parent counseling in teacher education worldwide (e.g., NCTAF, 1997; Valli & Rennert-Ariev, 2000) Particularly, there is a growing demand for specific programs and curricular modules to foster prospective teachers’ counseling competence in early preparation (Dotger, 2010) Whereas there already exist several training programs for prospective teachers on creating effective and collaborative partnerships with parents and general parent counseling (e.g., Brown, Harris, Jacobson, & Trotti, 2014; Ferrara, 2009; Hedges & Gibbs, 2005; Murray, Mereoiu, & Handyside, 2013), there have been few approaches of developing and evaluating training programs or other interventions with a specific focus on counseling parents with respect to students’ learning difficulties and learning strategies In Germany, too, there have been few corresponding programs to foster prospective teachers’ counseling competence in early preparation, although the training in student and parent counseling is prescribed in German standards and recommendations for teacher education (German Society for Psychology, 2008; Standing Conference, 2004) Thus, in the course of the current study, we developed and evaluated a training program on counseling competence for German prospective teachers with a specific focus on counseling parents in how to support their children’s home-based learning activities As studies on different interventions in the education of counselors highlight the beneficial effects of providing continuous and systematic feedback on competence development (Caspar, Berger, & Hautle, 2004; Lambert et al., 2002; McLeod, 2003; Strasser & Gruber, 2003), we additionally developed and evaluated a corresponding feedback intervention Model of Teachers’ Counseling Competence in Parent-Teacher Talks on the Support of Students’ Learning Processes The selection and arrangement of the specific content of the training program as well as the development of the feedback intervention were based on the model of teachers’ counseling competence in parent-teacher talks concerning students’ learning difficulties and learning strategies (in the following, we use the abbreviated term ‘counseling competence’) by Gerich et al (2015) The fourdimensional model was developed on the basis of literature on general counsel89 ing competence, counseling in schools, parent counseling, and counseling on learning strategies (e.g., Guli, 2005; Honal & Schlegel, 2002; McLeod, 2003) as well as preliminary approaches of modeling teachers’ counseling competence for the subsample of higher track secondary school teachers (Bruder, 2011; Hertel, 2009) The proposed model structure was empirically validated conducting structural equation modeling on the basis of 357 primary and secondary school teachers’ data acquired by means of a scenario test (see section 2.3.1) The resulting second-order four-dimensional model comprises the most important skills and abilities a teacher should possess in the context of counseling parents in how to support their children’s educational progress The first dimension, communication-skills, includes general counseling practices such as ‘active listening’, ‘paraphrasing’, and ‘structuring’ the talk The second dimension, diagnostic-skills, contains aspects necessary to analyze the existing problem and identify possible causes such as ‘problem definition’, ‘search for possible causes’ , and ‘perspec-           .. .Teachers’ Counseling Competence in Parent- Teacher Talks Mara Gerich Teachers’ Counseling Competence in Parent- Teacher Talks Modeling, Intervention, Behavior-Based... Prospective Teachers’ Counseling Competence in Parent- Teacher Talks Effects of Training and Feedback 87 Study 125 6.1  Manuscript C: Using Simulated Parent- Teacher Talks. .. School Teachers’ Counseling Competence One of the first models that specifically focus on the differentiated description of teachers’ counseling competence in the domain of counseling parents
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Xem thêm: Teachers’ counseling competence in parent teacher talks , Teachers’ counseling competence in parent teacher talks , 1 Relevance of Teachers’ Counseling Competence in Parent-Teacher Talks, 1 Manuscript A: What Skills and Abilities Are Essential for Counseling on Learning Difficulties and Learning Strategies? Modeling Teachers’ Counseling Competence in Parent-Teacher Talks Measured by Means of a Scenario Test, 1 Manuscript C: Using Simulated Parent-Teacher Talks to Assess and Improve Prospective Teachers’ Counseling Competence

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