The illegal wildlife trade

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Studies of Organized Crime 15 Daan P. van Uhm The Illegal Wildlife Trade Inside the World of Poachers, Smugglers and Traders Studies of Organized Crime Volume 15 Series Editor Dina Siegel, Willem Pompe Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands This series will publish theoretically significant books in two primary areas One is the political economy of organized crime and criminality whether at the transnational, national, regional or local levels (focus on financial crime, political corruption, environmental crime, and the expropriation of resources from developing nations) The other is human rights violations particularly in Third World countries Manuscripts that cover either historical or contemporary issues of the above, utilizing qualitative methodologies, are equally welcome In addition, we are particularly interested in publishing the work of sophisticated junior scholars More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/6564 Daan P van Uhm The Illegal Wildlife Trade Inside the World of Poachers, Smugglers and Traders 123 Daan P van Uhm Willem Pompe Institute Utrecht University Utrecht The Netherlands ISSN 1571-5493 Studies of Organized Crime ISBN 978-3-319-42128-5 DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-42129-2 ISBN 978-3-319-42129-2 (eBook) Library of Congress Control Number: 2016946943 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland Foreword The academic study of global trafficking in humans is as necessary as it is in non-humans In the last 50 years libraries full of books and articles have been written about human trafficking and smuggling However, there are a very limited number of publications on illegal activities with regard to animals and animal products There is, however, no reason for criminologists to continue to exclude these issues from their studies and to leave them only for biologists, zoologists or environmental lawyers Especially for cultural criminology this new area can be important, if we take seriously the ambition and call of the leading cultural criminologists to discover new fields of understudies using original innovative research methods In this book, Daan P van Uhm has readily accepted this challenge by combining and exploring two criminological issues: the transnational crime of the illegal trade in wildlife and the ‘green’ perspective of cultural criminology The interrelationship between the upper- and underworld, the flourishing activities of organized crime groups, which extensively use advanced technology and make huge profits from the wildlife trade, on the one hand, and the dependence of local communities and corrupt officials on the illicit activities of hunters, fishermen and poachers in order to be able to survive in difficult economic conditions, on the other hand, manifest the complex nature of this phenomenon It becomes clear from the present analysis that the reality is not black and white, ‘bad’ or ‘good’; there are too many actors involved in the illicit trade chain with various motives, expectations and aspirations When a poor fisherman in a remote village on the shores of the Caspian Sea describes his poaching activities as an act of survival and remembers with nostalgic sentiments the ‘good old Soviet times’ when he was considered a hero of the socialist economy and the pride of society, his story could provide a much deeper and complex explanation for the nature of this kind of crime than the prevailing stereotypes of blood-thirsty, merciless criminals The same is true for the non-negotiable, almost sacred belief of a Chinese patient in the powers of traditional medicine, a belief which is transmitted from generation to generation, and which is often illustrated with ‘examples of success’ Who are we v vi Foreword then, the Westerners, to dare to challenge these rich and very long traditions by introducing unacceptable regulations? These are precisely aspects which cultural criminology adds to the study of organized crime’s activities and which challenge the existing explanations and logic Some of the issues discussed in this book can be generalized for other illicit activities, for example the trafficking in drugs, works of art, arms or tobacco The modus operandi, the variety of roles both within and outside the criminal networks, the facilitative functions of legal actors, etc are usually discussed in the rich body of literature on organized crime in general, and on illicit markets in particular Little is known, however, when it comes to the illicit wildlife trade and wildlife markets in particular van Uhm focuses on three specific case studies on three different continents and shows, in a masterly fashion, not only common patterns of trafficking, but also the unique sociocultural conditions and settings in which the wildlife trade is developed The combined qualitative and quantitative methods of the research and especially his ethnographic fieldwork allow him to dig deeper under the statistics and to look for multiple aspects in order to explain this phenomenon The second leidmotief of this book is green criminology, a new area of study, which has recently conquered the hearts and minds of many critical and cultural criminologists, with its focus on environmental harm, the danger of ecocide, insatiable (Western) consumerism, and the victimization of poor local communities in various parts of the world The contribution of van Uhm’s work here is mainly in reconsidering the meaning of luxury, from caviar to traditional medicine, and its socially constructed and manipulated value, which leads at the end to disastrous consequences for nature and wildlife van Uhm rejects the anthropocentric approach and chooses the ecocentric approach, which doubts the artificial distinction between humans and non-humans, emphasizing the growing concern about the reduction in biodiversity due to human activities In this regard, the worldwide illicit trade in wildlife is one of the most extreme examples of human evils and a very serious form of crime This book is a good example of how an excellent ethnographic study, combined with multidisciplinary theoretical explanations, contribute not only to social science research, but also to the efforts of many concerned academic researchers to make the public at large aware of the growing risks and dangers of globalization, and to urge policy-makers to think creatively so that possible solutions can be found Dina Siegel Utrecht University, The Netherlands Acknowledgements Since ancient times wildlife has fascinated, inspired, impressed and frightened people all over the world During this research I came to understand how symbolic, functional and social meanings of wildlife influence the black market in both Western and oriental cultures and civilizations By uncovering the world of poachers, smugglers and traders, the illegal wildlife trade has gained a face It turned out to be a lucrative and organized business driven by inequalities, corruption and a desire for unique and rare species with disastrous global consequences Fortunately, humans have become more aware of the declining animal populations and their loss for future generations Hopefully, the insights in this book will provide assistance in safeguarding the future of wildlife with which we share our planet Writing this book would not have been possible without the support, participation and effort of numerous people I am indebted to many informants who told me their stories and shared their secrets with me They opened the doors of their houses, provided me with guidance and advice and introduced me to the fascinating business of wildlife Their stories, visions and hospitality during my fieldwork in Azerbaijan, China, Kazakhstan, Morocco and Russia will be preserved in my memory I am gratefully thankful to them for all their help and unique experiences My foremost gratitude goes to Dina Siegel who convincingly supported me through the entire research I will never forget her unexpected invitation to write my dissertation under her supervision, and I would have done it all again; it is amazing how one moment can change one’s life She always stood by me, shared her knowledge, understandings and perspectives and convinced me to carry out ethnographic research abroad Not only she was very inspiring and encouraged my intellectual freedom, but she has also become a great research partner I would also like to thank all my other colleagues at the Willem Pompe Institute and especially Tim Boekhout van Solinge for all our conversations on environmental global issues that substantially inspired me during my research Following his lectures that stressed the importance of studying green crimes already persuaded me to focus on wildlife crimes during my bachelor’s courses in criminology I am vii viii Acknowledgements also grateful to Damián Zaitch whose constructive suggestions to improve this book were of great value, Brenda Oude Breuil who shared her fieldwork experiences, John Vervaele who kept me informed of news on wildlife trafficking and Constantijn Kelk for the intellectual discussions about the role of animals in current society Furthermore, I thank my paranymphs Veronika Nagy and Elina Kurtovic for their special assistance and support I am grateful to the support of David van Gennep, Eline Lauret and Raquel García (AAP Sanctuary for exotic animals) and Gernant Magnin and Christiaan van der Hoeven (WWF) Furthermore, I thank all (former) Ph.D candidates for the good times: Roos de Wildt, Rosa Koenraadt, Joep Rottier, Sjaak Zhang, Mark Hornman, Elena Krsmanović, Stephanie Rap, Lianne Kleijer-Kool, Paula Gil Larruscahim, Hanneke Mol, Kristien Hepping, Jessica de Jong, Byron Villagómez, Julia Rushchenko and intern Grethe Pettersen Finally, I would like to acknowledge my friends and family who have remained close to me in my life And of course I want to express my immeasurable thanks to my girlfriend Harma for being at my side and supportive in my work Last but not least, my son Atilla who has made my life indescribably more colourful and meaningful than ever before Utrecht, The Netherlands March 2016 Contents Wildlife Trade Through the Ages 1.1 Ancient Egypt 1.2 Roman and Greek Antiquity 1.3 The Medieval Period 1.4 Early Modernity 1.5 The Modern Era 1.6 Lessons from the Past References 1 11 13 The Sixth Mass Extinction 2.1 Global Defaunation and Ecological Interaction 2.2 Creation and Management of Risks 2.3 The Boomerang Effect 2.4 Nature is Society and Society is Nature References 17 18 22 24 27 28 Imperialism and Criminalization 3.1 European Interference in Nature Protection 3.2 The International Convention 3.3 EU Wildlife Trade Regulations 3.4 The Effect of Regulation 3.5 The Further Process of Criminalization References 33 33 36 39 41 43 45 Crimes Against Nature 4.1 Criminology and Green Crimes 4.2 Animals in Criminology 4.3 Through Time and Space 4.4 Illegal Flows and International Inequalities 4.5 The Organization Behind Crimes 4.6 The Greening of Criminology References 49 49 52 56 59 61 64 69 ix 310 Appendix VIII: Overview of Informants in China (continued) Respondent Seller CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 CS5 CS6 CS7 CS8 CS9 CS10 CS11 CS12 CS13 CS14 CS15 CS16 CS17 CS18 CS19 CS20 CS21 CS22 CS23 CS24 TCM doctors CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4 CC5 CC6 CC7 CC8 CC9 Organization, function Place of interview Date Local salesman TCM Local salesman saiga horn Local seller rhino horn Rhino horn seller Fake rhino horn, tiger bone, saiga horn seller Seller pangolin scales Seller pangolin scales and saiga horn Seller saiga horn and pangolin scales Seller elephant skin Seller pangolin scales, saiga horn Seller rhino horn, tiger bone, pangolin scales and saiga antelope horn Seller saiga horn and pangolin scales Seller saiga horn and pangolins scales Pangolin seller Fake rhino horn and saiga horn seller Seller pangolin scales, saiga horn Seller saiga horn Seller pangolins Seller rhino horn TCM shopkeeper Pharmacy pangolin and saiga horn Seller saiga horn Pharmacist saiga horn Seller tiger bone wine Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Guangzhou November November November November November 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 CN CN CN CN CN Guangzhou Guangzhou Kunming Kunming Kunming Kunming November November November November November November 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 CN CN CN CN CN CN Chengdu Chengdu November 2013 November 2013 CN CN Chengdu Beijing November 2013 December 2013 CN CN Beijing Anguo Anguo Anguo Anguo Xian Xian Harbin Harbin December December December December December December December December December CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN Hong Kong Hong Kong Guangzhou Kunming Kunming Kunming Chengdu Chengdu Anguo November 2013 November 2013 November 2013 November 2013 November 2013 November 2013 November 2013 November 2013 December 2013 TCM TCM TCM TCM TCM TCM TCM TCM TCM doctor doctor doctor doctor doctor doctor doctor doctor doctor Country 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 2013 CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN (continued) Appendix VIII: Overview of Informants in China 311 (continued) Respondent Organization, function Place of interview Date Country CC10 CC11 TCM doctors CH1 CH2 CH3 Smuggler CU1 Police CP1 TCM doctor Beijing University TCM doctor Beijing University (hospitals) Hospital Guangzhou Hospital Chengdu Hospital Beijing Beijing Beijing December 2013 December 2013 CN CN Guangzhou Chengdu Beijing November 2013 November 2013 December 2013 CN CN CN Former smuggler illegal TCM Guangzhou November 2013 CN Endangered species protection officer (Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department) Head of enforcement wildlife crime Hong Kong November 2013 CN Beijing December 2013 CN Professor at CUHK Doctor at HKU Employee Civic Exchange Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong November 2013 November 2013 November 2013 CN CN CN PhD candidate criminology (University of HK) PhD candidate Local Local consumer Breeding centre Employer Harbin tiger park Hong Kong November 2013 CN Guangzhou Chengdu Anguo Xian Harbin November 2013 November 2013 December 2013 December 2013 December 2013 CN CN CN CN CN CP2 Experts CE1 CE2 CE3 Other CO1 CO2 CO3 CO4 CO5 CO6 Appendix IX Overview of Informants in Europe Respondent Organization, function Place of interview Date Country Traders ET1 ET2 ET3 Opportunistic caviar trader International caviar trader Caviar trader May 2015 April 2014 August 2014 NL NL NL Caviar trader Bird trader TCM trader Caviar trader Caviar trader TCM trader Utrecht The Hague Near Venlo and the German border Hamburg Woerden Utrecht The Hague Hamburg The Hague May 2015 March 2013 September 2013 February 2014 May 2015 October 2013 DE NL NL NL DE NL Russian shopkeeper Russian shopkeeper Russian shopkeeper TCM shopkeeper TCM shopkeeper Utrecht The Hague Amsterdam The Hague The Hague January 2014 January 2014 February 2014 October 2013 October 2013 NL NL NL NL NL Environmental police officer IMT Anonymous Europol National police/IPOL Environmental police officer IMT The Hague February 2014 NL X The Hague The Hague Ridderkerk April 2013 September 2013 November 2012 February 2013 NL NL NL NL ET4 ET5 ET6 ET7 ET8 ET9 Seller ES1 ES2 ES3 ES4 ES5 Police EP1 EP2 EP3 EP4 EP5 (continued) © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 D.P van Uhm, The Illegal Wildlife Trade, Studies of Organized Crime 15, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-42129-2 313 314 Appendix IX: Overview of Informants in Europe (continued) Respondent Experts EE1 EE2 EE3 EE4 EE5 EE6 EE7 EE8 EE9 Organization, function Director of AAP Coordinator seizures AAP Animal behaviourist EU-TWIX officer Wildlife crime expert WWF CITES expert Traffic expert CITES authority NL Former chief of enforcement of CITES EE10 Wildlife expert IFAW EE11 Wildlife expert EIA Law enforcement EN1 Law enforcer food and consumer product safety authority EN2 Border customs EN3 Law enforcer food and consumer product safety authority EN4 Public prosecutor EN5 Former CITES Permit Officer Other EO1 Chef EO2 Former owner of Yab Yum brothel Place of interview Date Country Almere Almere Almere Utrecht Zeist The Hague The Hague Utrecht Utrecht December 2013 February 2013 February 2013 June 2012 March 2012 August 2012 July 2013 February 2014 January 2015 NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL The Hague May 2013 February 2014 NL NL Utrecht September 2013 NL Schiphol Utrecht February 2013 January 2013 NL NL The Hague The Hague February 2013 June 2015 NL NL Utrecht Amsterdam October 2014 October 2014 NL NL Appendix X IUCN-CITES Status of Sturgeons Critically endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near threatened Least concern Acipenser dabryanus (Yangtze Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Acipenser baerii (Siberian Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Acipenser brevirostrum (Shortnose Sturgeon) APPENDIX I Acipenser fulvescens (Lake Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Acipenser gueldenstaedtii (Russian Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Scaphirhynchus albus (Pallid Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Acipenser ruthenus (Sterlet Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Acipenser medirostris (Green Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Acipenser oxyrinchus (Gulf Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Acipenser mikadoi (Sakhalin Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Acipenser naccarii (Adriatic Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Acipenser transmontanus (White Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Polyodon spathula (Paddlefish) APPENDIX II Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (Shovelnose Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Acipenser nudiventris (Ship Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Acipenser persicus (Persian Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Acipenser schrenckii (Amur Sturgeon) APPENDIX II (continued) © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 D.P van Uhm, The Illegal Wildlife Trade, Studies of Organized Crime 15, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-42129-2 315 316 Appendix X: IUCN-CITES Status of Sturgeons (continued) Critically endangered Acipenser sinensis (Chinese Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Acipenser stellatus (Stellate Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Acipenser sturio (Atlantic Sturgeon) APPENDIX I Huso dauricus (Kaluga) APPENDIX II Huso huso (Beluga) APPENDIX II Psephurus gladius (Chinese Paddlefish) APPENDIX II Pseudoscaphirhynchus fedtschenkoi (Shovelnose Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Pseudoscaphirhynchus hermanni (Dwarf Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Pseudoscaphirhynchus kaufmanni (False Shovelnose Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Scarphirhychus sittkusi (Alabama Sturgeon) APPENDIX II Endangered Vulnerable Near threatened Least concern Appendix XI IUCN-CITES Status of Macaques Critically endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near threatened Least concern Macaca nigra (Celebes Crested Macaque) APPENDIX II Macaca maura (Moor Macaque) APPENDIX II Macaca munzala (Arunachal macaque) APPENDIX II Macaca silenus (Lion-tailed Macaque) APPENDIX I Macaca sinica (Toque Macaque) APPENDIX II Macaca sylvanus (Barbary macaque) APPENDIX II Macaca arctoides (Stump-tailed Macaque) APPENDIX I Macaca assamensis (Assam Macaque) APPENDIX II Macaca hecki (Heck’s macaque) APPENDIX II Macaca thibetana (Milne-edwards’ Macaque) APPENDIX II Macaca cyclopis (Taiwan Macaque) APPENDIX II Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating Macaque) APPENDIX II Macaca fuscata (Japanese Macaque) APPENDIX II Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque) APPENDIX II Macaca radiata (Bonnet Macaque) APPENDIX II (continued) Macaca pagensis (Pagai Island Macaque) APPENDIX II Macaca leonina (Northern Pig-tailed Macaque) APPENDIX II Macaca nemestrina (Southern Pig-tailed Macaque) APPENDIX II Macaca nigrescens (Gorontalo Macaque) APPENDIX II © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 D.P van Uhm, The Illegal Wildlife Trade, Studies of Organized Crime 15, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-42129-2 317 318 Appendix XI: IUCN-CITES Status of Macaques (continued) Critically endangered Endangered Vulnerable Macaca ochreata (Booted Macaque) APPENDIX II Macaca siberu (Siberut macaque) APPENDIX II Macaca tonkeana (Tonkean Macaque) APPENDIX II Near threatened Least concern Appendix XII IUCN-CITES Status of Tigers Extinct Critically endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near threatened Panthera tigris balica (Bali Tiger) † Panthera tigris altaica (Amur Tiger) APPENDIX I N/A N/A Panthera tigris sondaica (Javan Tiger) † Panthera tigris amoyensis (South China Tiger) APPENDIX I Panthera tigris jacksoni (Malayan Tiger) APPENDIX I Panthera tigris virgata (Caspian Tiger) † Panthera tigris sumatrae (Sumatran Tiger) APPENDIX I Panthera tigris corbetti (Indochinese Tiger) APPENDIX I Panthera tigris tigris (Bengal Tiger) APPENDIX I © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 D.P van Uhm, The Illegal Wildlife Trade, Studies of Organized Crime 15, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-42129-2 319 Appendix XIII IUCN-CITES Status of Rhinoceros Critically endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near threatened Least concern Dicerorhinus sumatrensis (Sumatran Rhinoceros) APPENDIX I N/A Rhinoceros unicornis (Indian Rhinoceros) APPENDIX I Ceratotherium simum (White Rhinoceros) APPENDIX I* N/A Diceros bicornis (Black Rhinoceros) APPENDIX I Rhinoceros sondaicus (Javan Rhinoceros) APPENDIX I * Except the Southern White Rhino Ceratotherium simum which is on Appendix II © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 D.P van Uhm, The Illegal Wildlife Trade, Studies of Organized Crime 15, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-42129-2 321 Appendix XIV IUCN-CITES Status of Saiga Antelopes and Pangolins Critically endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near threatened Least concern Saiga tatarica (Saiga Antelope) APPENDIX II Manis javanica (Sunda Pangolin) APPENDIX II Manis pentadactyla (Chinese Pangolin) APPENDIX II Manis crassicaudata (Indian Pangolin) APPENDIX II Phataginus tetradactyla (Black-bellied Pangolin) APPENDIX II N/A N/A Manis culionensis (Philippine Pangolin) APPENDIX II Phataginus tricuspis (White-bellied Pangolin) APPENDIX II Smutsia gigantea (Giant Ground Pangolin) APPENDIX II Smutsia temminckii (Temminck’s Ground Pangolin) APPENDIX II © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 D.P van Uhm, The Illegal Wildlife Trade, Studies of Organized Crime 15, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-42129-2 323 Index A Actors, 45, 58, 64, 75, 76, 79, 86, 135, 177, 184, 218, 260, 280 Africa, 2, 5, 34, 35, 65, 76, 95, 103, 166, 204, 235 Allee effect, 21, 22, 58, 67, 154 Ancient Egypt, 2, 11, 279 Animal abuse, 56 Animal harm, 44 Animal rights, 11, 68, 271 Animal species, 3, 13, 18, 26, 69, 76, 92, 189, 230, 256 Animal trafficking, see specific species Animal welfare, 11, 42, 268, 269, 271, 272 Anthropocentrism, 66 Asia, 6, 26, 28, 75, 77, 95, 101, 103, 111, 163, 204, 206, 213, 227, 237, 264 Asian medicine, see traditional Chinese medicine Atyrau, 78, 80, 131, 133, 135, 136, 139, 142, 144, 146, 214 Avian influenza, 26, 66, 95, 271 Azerbaijan, 78, 79, 83, 84, 111, 120, 124, 128, 131, 136, 142, 146, 148, 152, 255 B Barbary macaque, 76, 85, 87, 95, 111, 161–163, 165–167, 169, 170, 172, 173, 176, 180, 183, 188, 216, 258, 262, 263, 280 Biocentrism, 66–68, 189, 243, 268 Biodiversity, 17, 20, 23, 57, 98, 101, 107, 269 Bio-piracy, 172 Birds, 2, 3, 8, 10, 20, 43, 56, 77, 91, 92, 104, 105, 162 Boomerang effect, 27 Bribes, 133, 136, 149, 150, 179, 239, 242 Bushmeat, 257 C Cali drug cartel, 109, 270 Captive breeding, 77, 232 Caviar, 10, 12, 76, 78, 81, 83, 85, 93, 97, 102, 108, 110, 117–119, 122, 126, 128, 132, 134, 135, 139, 141, 143, 256, 257, 262, 280 China, 25, 83, 84, 95, 110, 197, 200, 202, 205–207, 209, 212, 217, 221, 222, 224, 227, 230, 233–237, 241, 268 Chinese Triads, 61, 109, 237, 238, 270 CITES regulation, 39 criticisms, 65 Climate change, 18, 24, 42, 67 Collector’s items, 241 Commercial interests, 40, 77, 225 Commodification, 1, 5, 12, 17, 58, 179 Companion animals, 1, 161, 179 Confiscations, 75, 76, 85, 86, 89, 92–94, 98, 101, 111, 137, 169, 170, 241, 242, 280 Conflict, 62, 78, 81, 133, 200, 215, 226, 267 Conservation, 9, 12, 33–35, 38, 50, 65, 75, 107, 165, 260, 262, 266, 281 Consumerism, vi Convention on Biological Diversity, 42 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 36 Coral, 19, 77, 92, 93, 97, 98, 104, 106, 108 Corporate crime, 64, 230, 242, 245, 262, 265 Corruption, 63, 98, 120, 149, 150, 153, 188, 211, 259, 265, 266, 279 Criminality, 65, 119, 156 Criminalization, 28, 33, 43, 44, 64, 166, 200, 215, 223, 263, 269 Criminal justice, 45, 62 Criminogenic asymmetries, 59, 255, 258 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 D.P van Uhm, The Illegal Wildlife Trade, Studies of Organized Crime 15, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-42129-2 325 326 Criminology, 45, 49, 50, 52, 55, 56, 63–65, 69, 106, 266, 281 Critical criminology, 64 Crocodiles, 4, 93, 102 Culture, 27, 58, 59, 118, 161, 188, 197, 212, 215, 257, 258, 280 Customs, 77, 105, 106, 128, 136, 149, 154, 171, 179, 188, 222, 224, 225, 240, 243 D Dark figure, 92 Defaunation, 18, 20, 22, 23, 269 Deforestation, 17, 23, 64, 215 Demand, 1, 4, 8–10, 13, 22, 66, 89, 95, 97, 98, 104, 119, 127, 134, 144, 163, 165, 170, 180, 185, 188, 203, 205, 207, 209, 214, 229, 255, 257, 258, 260, 280 Destination countries, 25, 89, 103, 129, 136, 211, 255, 261, 280 Deterrence, 184 Disorganized crime, 61, 263 Drugs, 23, 105, 109, 148, 186, 215, 220, 223, 237, 239, 241, 242, 264, 265, 270, 281 E Early modernity, 8, 12, 13, 22 Ebola, 26, 190, 271 Ecocentrism, 67 Ecological interaction, 20, 22, 23, 66, 266 Ecological justice, 65 Ecological meltdown, 21, 22, 67 Endangered species, 10, 17, 21, 23, 33, 36, 42, 58, 111, 154, 189, 199, 200, 202, 206, 208, 212, 228, 241, 259, 268, 270 Environment, 21, 23–25, 28, 34, 49, 50, 52, 64, 65, 189, 198, 260, 266, 269, 279 Environmental crime, 51, 61, 64, 262, 281, 282 Environmental harm, 64, 65, 190, 244, 245, 282 Ethics, 33, 84 European Union, 39, 76, 92, 186 European Union Wildlife Trade Regulations, 39, 40, 43 Europol, 61, 75, 89, 99, 102, 109, 154, 237, 265 F Farming, 64, 143, 144, 155, 233, 268 Federal police, 149 Firearms, 133, 153, 215 Fish, 3, 18, 25, 77, 83, 90, 91, 94, 97, 100, 117, 118, 120, 123, 148, 151–153, 155 Index Fishing, 3, 55, 78, 82, 98, 118, 119, 121, 122, 126, 130, 131, 144, 148, 152, 154, 155, 222, 264, 270 Food, 1, 11, 20, 56, 105, 117–120, 130, 137, 155, 164, 165, 173, 174, 213, 222, 244, 257, 268 Forests, 3, 12, 17, 24, 25, 57, 67, 78, 167, 172, 176, 212, 215, 267 Fraud, 42, 61, 133, 156, 230 G Game hunting, 4, 11, 34, 35 Genetic diversity, 21, 23 Global anomie, 59, 61, 69, 255, 258–260 Global defaunation, 18 Global warming, xxv, 18, 24 Greek antiquity, Green-collar crimes, 61, 180, 262 Green crimes, 27, 50–52, 64, 85 Green criminology, vi, 49, 64, 65, 266 Guanxi, 82, 218, 219, 227, 230, 240, 245 Guns, 152, 214, 215, 226, 241, 242, 264 H Harm environmental, vi, 64, 65, 68, 188, 190, 244, 255, 281, 282 to humans, 65 to non-humans, vi, 45, 52, 54, 55, 65–68, 268, 271, 272 Health, 23, 25, 66, 138, 155, 189, 199, 200, 227, 269, 271, 272 Human rights, 11, 64 Hunting, 3, 4, 8, 25, 34, 35, 55, 67, 78, 186, 202, 204, 205, 212, 213, 215, 223, 279 I Illegality, 61, 175, 177, 223, 226, 237, 243 Imperialism, 6, 8, 12, 34, 200 Indigenous people, Indigenous wildlife, 4, 212 Informal economy, 179, 180 Insects, 18, 19, 43, 244, 256 International Fund for Animal Welfare, 44 Interpol, 44, 66, 90, 99, 104, 105 Invasive species, 21 Ivory, 1, 5, 8, 42, 76, 91, 93–95, 100, 103, 108, 110, 177, 237, 239, 269, 270 J Japan, 95, 110, 163 Job, 77, 108, 174, 177 Index 327 Justice criminal, xxvi, 45, 62 ecological, 65 social, 257 species, 65 O Offenders, 51, 63, 81, 108 Organized crime, 44, 61, 109, 110, 148, 150, 155, 237, 240, 245, 263, 270, 272 Overfishing, 122 K Kazakhstan, 78, 79, 84, 111, 120, 121, 129, 131, 133, 134, 140, 142, 147, 152, 153, 205, 214, 222–224, 233, 235, 255, 265 Killing, 19, 213, 233 P Pangolin, 95, 105, 200–202, 205, 206, 208, 212–214, 220, 222, 226–229, 233, 238, 241, 243, 268 Permits, 35, 36, 38, 40, 238 Pets, 1, 2, 10, 12, 26, 111, 161–166, 189, 190, 257, 279, 280 Plants, 20, 21, 36–39, 55, 56, 123, 198, 267, 272 Poaching, 24, 35, 56, 57, 60, 69, 109, 121, 125, 130, 131, 145, 173, 206, 215, 243, 267, 281 Policing culture, 118, 164, 188, 197, 200, 212, 215, 216, 257, 280 effectiveness, 43, 55 resources, 98 Politics, 27, 45, 59, 82 Poverty, 25, 60, 130, 134, 172, 212, 216, 258, 259, 264 Power, 2, 4, 9, 11, 21, 34, 35, 51, 59–62, 64, 124, 136, 188, 215, 240, 243, 244, 257, 258, 260 Prevention, 45, 62, 199 Prices, 9, 58, 60, 95, 117, 130, 148, 163, 186, 213, 233, 272 Primates, 91, 109, 162, 166, 186 Prison, 221 Prosecution, 53, 81, 147, 154 Punishment, 53, 55, 122, 280 L Lacey Act, 35 Laundering, 89, 106, 107, 143, 144, 230, 232, 266, 281 Law administrative, 61 civil, 61 criminal, 45, 51, 61, 65, 266, 267 environmental, 28 Law enforcement, 42, 44, 61, 77, 89, 92, 168, 169, 177, 186, 214, 220, 230, 241, 280 Legislation, 37, 40, 55, 121, 166 Logging, 64, 67, 167 M Mafia, 61, 62, 117, 131, 132, 136, 142, 147, 148, 150, 152, 242, 259, 267, 270 Mammals, 3, 18–20, 26, 43, 92, 95, 100, 168, 243 Mass extinction, 18, 22, 117, 269 Medellin drug cartel, 265 Media, 33, 44, 45, 51, 96, 271 Medieval period, 5, 6, 53, 162 Middleman, 57, 58, 132, 135, 136, 145, 147, 174, 175, 184, 217, 219, 229, 255, 263 Militia, 132, 149, 152, 214, 219, 270 Modern era, 1, 11 Moral rights, 11, 64, 65, 119, 271, 272 Molluscs, 18, 19, 77, 92, 94, 98, 101, 155 Murder, 53, 64, 86, 153 N National security, xxv Natural resources, 17, 23, 25, 28, 35, 50, 59, 60, 67, 155, 244, 259, 260, 267, 280 Nature, 2, 3, 27, 34, 35, 49, 52, 64, 89, 200, 207, 214, 243, 266, 280 Neapolitan Mafia, 109 Non-governmental organizations, 38, 44 Non-human animals, 52, 54, 67, 68, 268, 271, 272 R Rangers, 66, 174, 175, 188, 213, 214, 267 Rationality, 62, 243, 263, 266 Regulations, 24, 28, 34, 36, 39, 43, 45, 51, 98, 122, 200, 215, 257 Reptiles, 3, 10, 18, 19, 26, 77, 92, 96, 100, 104, 109, 110, 164 Rhino, 4, 9, 22, 58, 80, 83, 93, 98, 109, 177, 200, 202, 203, 209, 213, 215, 218, 219, 221, 227, 237, 238, 243, 262, 265, 268, 280 Rights animal, 11, 68, 271 environmental, 44, 49, 65, 271 human, 64, 65 328 Risk, 13, 22–24, 26, 27, 80, 84, 110, 140, 189, 213, 220, 222, 224, 226, 243, 258, 265, 271 Risk society, 22, 24, 27 Roman antiquity, 3, Russian Mafia, 150–154, 270 S Saiga antelope, 94, 100, 110, 200, 201, 204–206, 209, 213, 215, 230, 238, 244, 268 SARS, 25, 271 Security, 24, 44, 149, 155, 242, 267, 269, 270, 272 Sentencing, 45, 83, 186 Sixth mass extinction, 18, 279 Slavery, 28 Smuggling, 57, 81, 89, 100, 105, 122, 137, 145, 147, 176–179, 220, 222, 225, 237, 281 Smuggling routes, 186, 236 Social construction, 50, 51, 54, 64, 221, 255, 256, 258, 260, 266 Social embeddedness, 58, 63, 69, 255, 260 Social justice, 34, 172 Social ties, 63, 136, 190, 245, 260, 262, 281 Source countries, 24, 26, 36, 63, 98, 99, 102, 150, 188, 209, 235, 255, 260, 267, 280 South Africa, 35, 95, 99, 201, 204, 217, 235, 237–239, 264 Speciesism, 67 Species justice, 65 State crime, 64 Sturgeon, 10, 12, 83, 94, 97, 102, 117–124, 127, 130–132, 143, 145, 147, 155, 264, 268 Supply, 119, 129, 139, 151, 174, 205, 227, 241, 257 Symbiosis, 22, 66, 67, 267, 272 T Terrorism, 66, 270 Theft, 50, 55, 130, 269 Tiger, 4, 9, 11, 91, 100, 199–203, 207, 209, 215, 219, 223, 224, 229, 231–233, 235, 236, 241, 256, 268, 270 Index Timber, 43, 56, 154 Tourism, 98, 174, 267 Traditional Chinese medicine, 10, 76, 94, 111, 197, 226, 280 Trafficking drugs, 44, 110, 186 human, 61, 264 timber, 43, 56, 154 weapons, 188, 221, 241, 264 Transnational crime, 61, 108 Transportation, 8, 13, 26, 59, 68, 105, 119, 176, 221, 222, 258, 268 Trophic cascade, 21, 67, 244, 268 U United Nations, 24, 61, 81, 122, 128, 237, 264 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 27, 90, 92, 98, 185, 186, 202, 209, 220, 223, 233, 237, 241 United States, 17, 20, 101, 187 United States Fish and Wildlife Service, 89 V Value, 1, 8, 21, 34, 58, 66, 79, 90, 91, 118, 130, 163, 200, 218, 256, 257, 271, 280 Victims animals, 66 environment, 271 human, 52, 66, 69, 267 Violence, 11, 62, 83, 98, 152, 153, 155, 243, 260, 263, 266, 272, 281 W Weapons, 105, 154, 188, 241, 259, 265 Welfare animal, 11, 42, 268, 269, 271, 272 human, 155 Whales, White-collar crime, 51, 60, 61, 262, 265 Wildlife laundering, 106 World Wildlife Fund, 165 Y Yakuza, 109, 265, 270 ... attention to the trade in wildlife for some time, the efforts by criminologists to study these crimes have been rather limited The few criminological studies that have focussed on the wildlife trade. .. understanding and describing the nature of the illegal wildlife trade xxv xxvi Introduction To understand the illegal trade I travelled to important source countries of illegal wildlife, such as Russia,... construction of the value of wildlife, the global anomie and criminogenic asymmetries that provide opportunities for the illegal wildlife trade, the social embeddedness of wildlife crime, the criminal
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