The pragmatics of word order

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The Pragmatics of Word Order Empirical Approaches to Language Typology Editors Georg Bossong Bernard Comrie Mouton de Gruyter Berlin · New York The Pragmatics of Word Order Typological Dimensions of Verb Initial Languages Doris L Payne Mouton de Gruyter Berlin · New York 1990 M o u t o n de Gruyter (formerly Mouton, T h e Hague) is a Division of Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin ® Printed on acid free paper (ageing resistant — p H : 7, neutral) Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Payne, Doris L., 1952T h e pragmatics of w o r d order : typological dimensions of verb initial languages / by Doris L Payne p cm — (Empirical approaches to language typology ; 7) Includes bibliographical references (p ) and index ISBN 0-89925-612-0 (alk paper) Grammar, Comparative and general —Word order Typology (Linguistics) Pragmatics I Title II Series P295.P35 1990 415 — dc20 90-6041 CIP Deutsche Bibliothek Cataloging in Publication Data P a y n e , D o r i s L.: The pragmatics of word order : typological dimensions of verb initial languages / by Doris L Payne — Berlin ; N e w York : Mouton de Gruyter, 1990 (Empirical approaches to language typology ; 7) ISBN 3-11-012207-3 NE: G T © Copyright 1990 by Walter de Gruyter & Co., D-1000 Berlin 30 All rights reserved, including those of translation into foreign languages N o part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing f r o m the publisher Printing: Rat2low, Berlin — Binding: Dieter Mikolai, Berlin — Printed in Germany To the memory of Lucia Macedo, an eternally great woman, and to all those she represents Acknowledgements Rarely is any significant work accomplished by one person in isolation This is not to imply that the following pages are necessarily that significant, but it is true that they have not been done by one person, nor in isolation This study owes its existence primarily to Des Derbyshire, who I am honored to consider a friend and mentor He came through town one purported Peruvian dry season and perhaps inadvertently convinced me that one ought to know the basic constituent orders of the language one is working on I decided to take an afternoon off from looking at phonology to definitively settle the question for Yagua This, and much more, is the result Pedro Diaz, Gloria Cahuachi de Díaz, and other members of the community of Ureo Miraño not only helped Tom Payne and myself learn something about Yagua, but also offered their friendship and put up with our lack of social graces By sharing their home, Alchico Jápiiryá and Estela Múcatyuriryá taught us a great deal, especially about the unimportance of manufactured goods Pedro Díaz, Mamerto Macahuachi, Hilario Peña, and Alcides Lozano Salazar gave unselfishly of their time, energy, and patience Paul Powlison shared his years of knowledge about jungle living and the Yagua language, culture, and an excellent text collection, as well as many helpful comments along the way Each of these people has enriched our lives and this study would not have been possible without them Various members of the Summer Institute of Linguistics provided technical support in the form of air and river transportation, computer technology and software, and the underrated art of babysitting The Peruvian Ministry of Education made it possible for me to pursue this research in Peru This work was partially supported by the UCLA Graduate Division and the Department of Linguistics I thank each of these people and institutions for their support Many thanks are also due to Pamela Munro, Jack Du Bois, Ed Keenan, Paul Kroskrity, Carlos Quicoli, Sandy Thompson, Tom Payne, Steve Anderson, Bernard Comrie, and Marie-Louise Liebe-Harkort for helpful comments at various points Donna Fisher and Tom Payne professionally prepared the manuscript The people who facilitated this research in the most consequential way are those who shared in the lives of my daughters Claire and Stephanie during its duration: Delicia Méndez, Kimber Olson-Brady, Chela Diaz, Margaret and Russ Obenchain, Barbara Hagan, Suhair Azzam, Shirean Williams, Jan Tyhurst, Tais and Richard Weisenberger, Sheila Fountain, vili Acknowledgements the staff of the UCLA Parent-Toddler Co-op, and the staff of the Marina Christian Preschool Finally, my most heartfelt thanks go to my family During the most solid period of writing Anna Claire taught me that playing fairies is the most important thing in life and that linguists are not scientists; Stephanie Joy was the delight of my life simply by virtue of being two And always, grateful thanks to Tom If there is anything of value in the following pages, either in terms of perceived fact or proposed explanation, Soli Deo Gloria Eugene, Oregon January 1990 Contents Acknowledgements Abbreviations Chapter One Introduction 1.1 Genetic and typological affiliations 1.2 Demography and ethnography 1.3 Previous linguistic work on Peba-Yaguan 1.4 Data for the current study Chapter Two Constituent Order and Order Correlations 2.1 Observations of constituent order co-occurrences 2.2 The verb initial norm (VIN) 2.3 Selected theoretical approaches accounting for word order correspondences 2.4 Identification of basic constituent order 2.5 Towards an adequate constituent order typology Chapter Three Clausal Phenomena 3.1 Major structural clause types 3.1.1 Clause Type 3.1.2 Clause Type 2: SQ clauses 3.1.3 Clause Type 3: Predicate nomináis and predicate locatives 3.1.4 Type predicate nomináis 3.2 Impersonale and functionally related constructions 3.2.1 The impersonal construction 3.2.2 The anti-causative 3.2.3 Predicate nomináis with object nominalizations 3.2.4 Lexical passives 3.3 Auxiliaries 3.4 Second position clitics 3.4.1 Second position clitics within C 3.4.2 Second position clitics in C 3.4.3 Constituency of auxiliary plus main verb 3.5 Causation and desideration vii xiii 9 10 16 21 23 27 26 29 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 45 48 48 53 58 60 References Hale, Kenneth 1982 "Preliminary remarks on configurationality", in: Pestejovsky, J., and P Sells (eds.) 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Aghem grammatical structure Los Angeles: University of Southern California: 137-97 (Southern California Occasional Papers in Linguistics No 7) Weber, David 1983 Relativization and nominalized clauses in Huallaga (Huanuco) Quechua Berkeley: University of California Press (University of California Publications in Linguistics) References 289 Wise, Mary Ruth 1971 Identification of participants in discourse: A study of aspects of form and meaning in Nomatsiguenga (Summer Institute of Linguistics publications in linguistics and related fields No 28) (PhD dissertation University of Michigan, 1968) 1986 "Grammatical characteristics of Preandine Arawakan languages", in: Derbyshire, Desmond, and Geoffrey Pullum (eds.) 1986: 567-642 1986 (ed.) Bibliografía del Insrituto Lingüístico de Verano en el Peru, 1946-1986 Yarinacocha, Peru: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano Index Abelson 189 Adjective (descriptive modifier) 1, 3, 9-10, 12-13, 16-21, 36, 74, 97-119, 127, 129, 132136, 145, 148, 197, 215, 239-240, 247-254, 271-272, 279-280 Adverb 13-14, 18, 36, 38, 48, 74, 118-119, 159, 166-167, 170-171, 197, 210, 215-216, 245, 247-248, 271, 274, 278 Adverbial clause 12, 50, 76, 80-82, 91-94, 123, 192, 211 Agglutinative 11, 17, 172, 246-247 Agreement 1, 13, 15, 31, 84, 105, 115-116, 129, 132, 135-137, 140, 143-144, 146, 148, 151, 158, 240, 248 Akmajian 270 Alicea 249, 269 Amazon 2, Amuesha 249 Anaphora 140-143 Anderson, J 103-104 Anderson, S 1, 129, 135, 143-144, 147, 150151, 155, 170, 273-274, 276 Anti-causative 43, 60 Antinucci 280 Anttila 274 Ara bela 274 Arabic, Classical 14 Arawakan 3, 10, 102, 145, 173, 249, 269, 273, 276 Asheninca 249 Aspect 38-40, 45, 48, 60, 76, 78, 81-82, 92, 94, 100, 136, 159, 161-164, 170, 181, 183, 192, 275 Assertion 190-191, 197-198, 201-202, 204, 208, 212, 214-215, 227 Augustinian Austin 189 Austronesian 24 Auxiliary 14, 29, 31, 45, 45-49 52-53, 55-56, 58-59, 69, 80, 82, 170-171, 241-242, 247, 250-251 Bantu 145,274 Basic constituent order 1-2, 9, 11, 20-25, 97-102, 116-118, 122, 127, 144, 168-170, 223, 239-240, 243-247, 255 Baure 10, 249 Becker 121, 189 Benedictine Berber 14 Berlin Biblical Hebrew 277 Blake 21,242,246 Bora 3, 145 Brazilian Guarani 207 Cahuapanan 3, 102, 145 Caquinte 249 Carib 2, 3, 23, 102 Case 13-14, 27, 84, 104, 117, 123, 144, 192, 196, 247, 251 Causative 14-15, 43, 60, 150, 159, 173-174, 178, 180, 184, 188, 275 Cayuvava Celtic 11,31,39 Chafe 33, 35, 120, 122, 150, 192, 198, 202, 277 Chaumeil 4, Chayahuita 3, 102, 145 Chinese 15 Chinook 11 Clarification 62, 192, 276 Classifier 1, 3, 8, 42, 70-71, 83-84, 98-99, 101, 103, 105-106, 110-111, 113-117, 129158, 165, 172, 248, 257, 273-274 Cleft 11 Clitic 3, 18, 27-33, 36-40, 42-43, 45-59, 61, 67-68, 75-76, 80, 82, 84, 90, 92-94, 97, 100, 108, 112, 115, 119-122, 124-125, 127-128, 131, 137, 139-141, 159-160, 162, 164, 167171, 175, 177-179, 184-187, 191-192, 196, 200, 203, 206-207, 215, 217, 222, 226-231, 233-237, 239-241, 244-245, 247, 251-252, 257, 269-271, 275, 276-279 Co-reference 27-28 Comitative 92, 174-179, 201, 251, 276 Comparative 11, 20, 73-74 Complement 12, 15, 19, 23, 41, 60-61, 72, 77-79, 92, 94, 161, 203, 243, 247 Complementizer 12, 36, 76, 78, 82, 92, 247 Completive 49, 161, 182-183, 204 Comrie 26, 43, 254, 276 292 Index Conditional 12, 50-53, 76, 80, 91, 192, 247 Conjunction 12, 62, 66-67, 74-76, 80, 192, 219-220, 229-230, 237 Connective 192, 194 Continuity 127-128, 191, 227, 233, 236 Contrast 11, 25, 50, 59, 65, 73, 75, 112, 118, 160, 171, 198-207, 214, 221, 227, 245 Coopmans 22 Coordination 12, 62, 74, 75, 248 Copula 15,39,41,247 Coreferential 28, 32, 61, 76, 82, 85, 90-91, 97, 167 Correlative 35 Cross Categoiy Harmony 16, 20, 239 Czech 279 Daghestan Definite 13, 21, 23, 30, 33, 35, 121, 125-126, 128, 178, 184, 198, 231-233, 235, 237, 246, 273 Delimiting 29, 30-31, 33, 34-35, 37, 48, 5053, 90, 192, 194, 220, 222, 224, 226, 245 Demonstrative 11, 13, 39, 78, 83-84, 97, 103, 127, 129-130, 134, 138-141, 143-144, 146, 149, 158, 219, 230, 248-249, 251-253 Derbyshire 18, 24, 62, 115, 207, 269, 278 Derivation 1, 102, 129-130, 134-135, 139140, 143-147, 149-151, 154-158, 173-175, 180, 273-274, 276 Desiderative 14, 60-61, 173 Dialects (of Yagua) 4, 8, 66, 70, 130, 209, 257 Dik 24, 35, 198, 202, 204, 208 Distributive 161 Dixon 26, 38, 137, 170, 195, 275 Dooley 33, 35, 192, 207, 270, 277 Downing 90 Dryer 16,97,254 Du Bois 18, 24, 107, 115, 121, 170, 230, 269 Duff Tripp 249 Dutch 22 Egyptian, Middle 15 English 22, 79, 99, 106, 133, 139, 147, 154, 171, 175, 208 Equi-deletion 15 Ergative 13, 24, 170 Espinosa 2, Extended Word-and-Paradigm 129, 143, 146-148, 150-151, 156 Fejos Fijian 11, 13 Fillmore 189,276 Firbas 278 Focus, see Contrast Foley 159, 163-165, 272, 275 Fox 227 Franciscan Future 45, 161 Ge-Pano-Carib Gender 27 Genitive 9-10, 14, 16, 20, 27, 32, 71, 85, 88, 97, 119-120, 124, 127-128, 168, 186, 240, 242, 244, 248-249, 251, 253-255, 272, 278280 Genre 7, 277 German 23 Given information 23, 121-122, 125, 127128, 170-190, 198, 208-210, 214, 227, 230233, 235, 237, 247, 278 Givón 21, 24, 35, 41, 107, 153, 186, 227, 230-231, 242, 246, 270, 273 Gordon 272 Grammatical relations 23, 25, 26, 37 Greenberg 1, 2, 9-10, 12, 16, 19, 21-22, 80, 242, 254 Guajajara 3, 99, 101, 279 Guaraní 277 Gundel 35 Habitual 42-44, 161, 272 Haiman 76, 91, 115, 186, 208, 226, 237 Hale 23, 198 Halle 135 Halliday 35 Hargus 150 Harlow 16, 19 Harrison 99, 100, 279 Hawkins 2, 10, 16, 18-21, 24, 74, 100, 118, 127, 239-240, 242, 246, 248-250, 254, 273, 279-280 Head marking 239, 250-253, 280 Index Head, noun 1, 14, 16, 84, 97, 99, 101-120, 129, 132, 134, 138-140, 142, 144, 146, 148149, 158, 240-241, 248, 251, 253-255 Hebrew 17, 274 Hixkaryana 3, 102, 207 Hopper 99, 107, 111, 150, 153, 176, 177 Huitotoan 2, 3, 145 HumptyDumpty 242 Hyman 280 Identifiability 25 Imperative 26, 29, 45-46 Imperfective 49, 162, 182, 276 Impersonal 41-43 Inchoative 14, 158 Incorporation 151, 159, 172, 175, 177, 179, 188 Indefinite 13, 21, 23, 35, 121, 125, 126, 232235, 273 Indirect quote 92, 162, 164 Infinitival 60 Infinitival adverbial 92-94, 162, 164 Infinitival complement 94, 159-164, 166, 188 Inflection 1, 17, 127, 129-158, 240 Instrument 174-175, 177, 179 Intransitive 28, 38, 42, 274 Irrealis 45,47-49,56,68,82 Isolating 17 Iterative 161, 181-182, 276 htt 277 Jacaltec 11 Jackendoff 103,242 Japanese 17 Jesuit 4-5 Keenan 1, 9-10, 14, 18, 31, 37, 42, 169-170, 245, 249, 269, 280 Key Kinyalolo 145 Klavans 269 Knowledge network 198-191 Kwakwala 170 Lakoff 137-138 Lambrecht 24, 115, 226 Langacker 21-22, 24 Left-dislocated 30, 35 293 Lehmann 16-18, 72, 243, 248, 249 Lehnert 189 Lexical Functional Grammar 24 Li 35,280 Loukotka Lyons 122 Machiguenga 13, 249 Maipurean, see Arawakan Makua 22 Malagasy 11, 15 Malefactive 46 Mallinson 21,242,246 Maori 13 Matthews 143, 158 Mayan 15,277 McCawley 22 Mithun 151 Modal 14, 38, 42, 45-50, 64, 68, 163, 170, 173, 180, 192, 247 Movement 12, 39, 60, 161, 164-165, 181, 242-243, 247 Mufwene 145 Munro 272 Muysken 274,277 Nandi 13-14 Natural Serialization 18, 243 Navajo 280 Negation 14, 42, 64-Í7, 118, 155, 190-191, 198, 203, 215, 247-248, 271 New information 23, 121-122, 125-127, 190, 198, 205, 210, 227, 230-233, 235, 237, 272273, 278-279 Nichols 2, 104-105, 174, 239, 250-255, 280 Niger-Kordofanian 145 Nilotic 11 Nomatsiguenga 249 Nominalization 15, 42, 44, 44, 98, 101-102, 113, 129, 160, 165, 172, 174, 248, 272-274 Noun classification, see Classifier Noun phrase 1, 3, 6-7, 10, 13, 21, 23-24, 2932, 36, 39, 45, 59, 62, 71, 89, 95, 97-129, 132-136, 143-146, 163, 175, 177-178, 184185, 191, 195, 198, 203, 210, 222, 225-255, 272-273, 277 Number 28,273-274 294 Index Numeral 13, 97, 103, 116, 127, 129, 134-135, 138, 138-142, 144, 146, 149, 158, 248-249, 251-253, 274 Object 2-3, 9, 11, 15-18, 21, 24, 26-28, 30-33, 36-39, 42, 44, 62-63, 71-72, 83, 85-88, 98, 100, 104, 106, 111, 113, 123, 126, 133, 137, 145, 151, 159, 163-164, 167-172, 174-179, 184-185, 188, 191, 194, 196-197, 201, 203, 209-210, 213, 220, 222, 226, 230-233, 235237, 239-251, 269, 278 Old information 11 Olson 159, 163-165, 272, 274 OSV 18,29,245 OVS 29 Panare 102 Panoan Papago 10, 23-24, 127, 230, 236 Parataxis 62, 63, 74 Participial 92 Passive 14-15, 41-45, 152, 248 Patient 41, 45, 85, 86, 172, 175, 177-180, 184-187 Payne, David 173 Payne, Doris 2-3, 18, 20, 23-24, 37, 40, 4243, 63, 66, 68, 115, 122-123, 125, 127-129, 145, 172-174, 230, 236, 249, 270-279 Payne, J 273 Payne T 3-4, 6, 27-28, 31, 39-40, 63, 66, 68, 100, 115, 122-123, 125, 127, 143, 170, 172, 179, 227, 233, 236, 270-273, 275, 277, 279 Peba-Yaguan 2, 5, 253 Perfect 48 Perfective 44, 49, 91 Peru 1,4 Philippine languages 15 Pierce 274 Polynesian 11 Polysynthetic 11, 246-247 Postposition 3, 9-10, 13, 18, 20, 27, 32, 36, 63, 70-71, 73-74, 81-82, 85, 88, 92, 97, 98, 100, 111, 113, 122-128, 133, 145, 159, 164, 168, 174-175, 177-178, 191, 197, 226, 231, 240-242, 245, 248, 251, 253-254 Powlison, Esther 4-6, 114-115, 117, 129, 270 Powlison, Paul 4-6, 8, 79, 114-117, 122-123, 129, 138, 270-271, 274, 277-278 Pragmatic structure 189-192, 199, 200 Pragmatically marked 11, 22, 24, 26, 36-38, 50, 52-54, 58-59, 71-72, 97, 101, 112, 117118, 147, 166, 178, 189-238, 244-247, 270272, 275-277 Predicate nominal 18, 28, 39-40, 44, 85-86, 91, 98, 111-113, 131-136, 141, 145, 241, 269 Prefix 11, 13-14, 17, 273 Preposition 9, 13, 20, 122, 127, 248 Primaiy concomitant 248 Prototype 1, 129, 143, 146, 150, 152, 155-156 Pullum 269 Quantifier 97, 130, 215, 272 Quechua 3, 102 Question 11-12, 26, 29, 53, 62, 69, 70, 70-73, 195, 197-198, 204-206, 214, 244, 247, 271 Quileute 13 Reciprocal 32 Referentiality 24, 107, 125-126 Reflexive 32 Reichel-Dolmatoff Relative clause 14, 16, 28, 50, 72, 76, 79, 8291, 97, 107, 128, 164, 247, 249, 251, 253, 280 Relative pronoun 14, 28, 82-91, 248 Relativizer 78, 79, 81-91, 271 Restatement 117, 197-198, 207-211, 214, 218-219, 221, 227, 245, 277-278 Rheme 23 Rivet 2, Rosch 150-151 Russian 135 Saussure 151, 154, 157 Scancarelli 18, 24 Schachter 18, 24 Schänk 189 Schmidt Schwartz 91 Searle 189 Second position clitic 33, 36, 38, 48, 53-54, 57-58, 71, 161-163, 170, 221, 277 Seiler-Baldinger Index Selective 198 Semitic 31 Serial verb 15, 94, 159, 164, 166 Shuswap 280 Silverstein 28, 186 Single focus contrast 190, 198, 200-202, 204, 207, 214,221 Snell 249 SOV 16, 18-19, 23, 29, 240, 253-254, 269-270 Speech act 12, 189-191 Steele 270 Stucky 22 Subcategorization 27, 33, 37, 104-105, 123, 163, 170, 188, 192, 244, 246, 250, 275-276 Subject 2, 3, 10-11, 15, 17, 20-21, 24, 26-33, 36-40, 43, 45-47, 51, 60-61, 68, 70-73, 77, 85-86, 94, 98, 100, 108, 111-112, 120, 132135, 137, 145, 151, 154, 159-160, 162, 167171, 184, 186-187, 194, 196-197, 200-201, 215, 220, 222, 226, 229-231, 238-247, 250, 269, 278-279 Suffixation 11, 13, 17, 69, 99, 100, 111, 113, 115, 172, 253 Summer Institute of Linguistics SVO 16-17, 19, 22-23, 29, 168-170, 239, 241, 244-246, 280 Swahili 145 Swift 249 Tadzhik Persian 280 Tagalog 11 Tamazight 14 Taushiro 3, 249, 269 Tense 14, 92 Tessmann Tewa 280 Theme 23 Thomas-Flinders 129 Thompson 24, 35, 76, 99, 107, 111, 150, 153, 176-177, 280 Toba Batak 11,18 Tomlin 274,279 Tongan 13 295 Topic 33, 35, 127, 192, 233 Topical 237 Topicalization 11 Townsend 277 Transitivity 1, 7, 24, 28, 41-42, 44, 275 Tucanoan 3, 4, 145 Tupí-Guaraní 3, 99 Tzeltal 11, 15 Underlying order 22 Universal 1-2, 9, 10, 16-17, 20, 74, 76, 80, 197, 214, 239-240, 246, 248-249, 254, 279280 Uto-Aztecan 10 Valence 60, 174, 180 Van Dijk 189 Vennemann 16, 18-19 Verb final 11-15,74 Verb initial 1, 2, 9, 10-11, 14-15, 26, 31, 41, 64, 74, 76, 80-81, 95, 97, 122, 127, 129, 191, 220, 231, 238-239, 246-247, 253-254 Verb medial 12-14,76,245 Verb phrase 1, 14-15, 17, 37, 77, 94, 103104, 159, 166-171, 188, 215, 242-244 Voegelin and Voegelin Volitional 14 VOS 17,22,29 VSO 3, 10, 17-20, 22, 29, 100, 239-240, 244, 246-247, 250, 254 Wakashan 170 Wasow 270 Watters 197 Weber 90-91 Welsh 15 Wise 5-6, 18, 173, 249 X-bar 22, 103, 242 Yameo 2, Zaparoan 3, 102, 274 m Desmond C Derbyshire · Geoffrey Κ Pullum (Editors) m This series is devoted to studies of the syntactic, morphological, and phonological characteristics of the languages of Amazonia, many of which have never been described fully in the available literature, and most of which are so far unknown to the general linguistic community m m m m m m m m m m m m Handbook of Amazonian Languages Volume I 1986.16 χ 24 cm XIV, 642 pages With map Clothbound ISBN 311010257 Introduction, by Desmond C.Derbyshire and Geoffrey K.Pullum Part 1: Grammatical sketches Apalai, by E and S.Koehn; Canela, by Jack and Jo Popjes; Piraha, by D Everett; Urubu, by J Kakumasu Part 2: Word order typological studies Guajajara, by C Harrison; Yagua, by D Payne Part 3: Comparative Arawakan Brazilian Arawakan, by D C Derbyshire; Peruvian Arawakan, by M.R Wise The language families represented in this volume include Carib, Tupian, Ge, Peba-Yaguan, and Arawakan The two typological studies both present evidence of previously unattested combinations of properties, some of which are specifically predicted to be impossible under certain current theories of language universale Volume II 9 x cm X, 474 pages Clothbound ISBN 11 011495 X Introduction, by Desmond C Derbyshire and Geoffrey K Pullum Macushi, by Miriam Abbott; Paumari, by Shirley Chapman and Desmond C Derbyshire; Sanuma, by Donald Borgman; Yagua, by Doris Payne and Thomas Payne The four languages have typologically interesting word order patterns and case-making systems: Macushi is (probably) OVS and consistently ergative; Paumari is SVO with co-occurring ergative and accusative case-marking systems; Sanuma is SOV and ergative; and Yagua is VSO with accusative case marking Further volumes are in preparation m mouton de gruyter Berlin · New York m The Collected Works of Edward Sapir m Editor-in-Chief: Philip Sapir m Editorial Board: William Bright · Regna Darnell · Victor Golia · Eric P Hamp · Richard Handler • Judith Irvine m Volume V American Indian Languages m Edited by William Bright 1989 584 pages, ISBN 11 012327 m Volumes V and VI of The Collected Works of Edward Sapir are devoted to shorter works on American Indian languages (mainly North American languages), and include some previously unpublished material m m m m m m m m m Within these volumes, the articles are separated into topical divisions and then arranged chronologically within each division Thus, Volume V contains papers of a general nature on typology, classification, and phonetic notation, followed by work on Hokan languages, on the Uto-Aztecan family, and on the relationship of Algonkian, Wiyot, and Yurok A number of articles dealing with one or more specific American Indian languages have been included in Volumes I through IV, and a listing of these articles is presented in Volume V together with the reference to the volume containing the article The combined index for Volumes V and VI appears in the latter volume The publication of the 16 volumes of The Collected Works of Edward Sapir has now commenced The volumes in the set will range in length from 450 to 800 pages, and the price of each volume will be set according to its length The volumes will be invoiced separately and sent to subscribers automatically upon publication mouton de gruyter Berlin · New York .. .The Pragmatics of Word Order Empirical Approaches to Language Typology Editors Georg Bossong Bernard Comrie Mouton de Gruyter Berlin · New York The Pragmatics of Word Order Typological... traditional chief of the monolingual sector of the Ureo Miraño community The monolingual sector of this community migrated in the 1970s from Cahocuma, downriver on the Amazon from the town of Pebas Consequently,... As a group, they have the highest percentage of noun phrases and the highest percentage of transitive clauses The latter characteristic may be partially an artifact of the number of fighting
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Xem thêm: The pragmatics of word order , The pragmatics of word order , Chapter Two. Constituent Order and Order Correlations, Chapter Four. Noun and Postpositional Phrase Phenomena, Chapter Five. Noun Classification and Nominalization, Chapter Six. The Verb Phrase and Related Issues, Chapter Seven. Pragmatic Factors Motivating Order Variation, Chapter Eight. Constituent Order in Yagua: Conclusions and Implications

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