Reading rehabilitation for individuals with low vision

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Kamila Růžičková Reading Rehabilitation for Individuals with Low Vision Research and Practice in the Czech Republic Reading Rehabilitation for Individuals with Low Vision Kamila Růžičková Reading Rehabilitation for Individuals with Low Vision Research and Practice in the Czech Republic Kamila Růžičková Dept Special Education and Speech Therapy University of Hradec Králové Hradec Králové, Czech Republic Advisors Prof PhDr PaedDr Miloň Potměšil, Ph.D Doc Lea Květoňová, Ph.D Doc PaedDr Jana Lopúchová, Ph.D Translation Mgr et Mgr Vlasta Lišková Czech Republic National Library cataloguing in Publication Data 617.751 * 316.344.6-056.262 * 617.75-08 * 615.8 376.1-056.262 * 159.262 - Low Vision - Special Education - Functional visual capacity - Vision Rehabilitation - Reading performance 617 – Orthopaedics Surgery Ophthalmology [14] 364-1/-7 – Social Care and Services ISBN 978-3-319-43652-4 ISBN 978-3-319-43653-1 DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-43653-1 (eBook) Library of Congress Control Number: 2016948728 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland Foreword The development of vision rehabilitation, including reading skills, is a constant subject of interest to specialists, and the author of this publication has been dealing with the issue for many years The content of the book is the result of a well-prepared concept Due to the fact that the book is intended for professionals, the author considers the factor of development and discusses the dynamics of individual segments of the concept The book includes chapters on visual perception and its defects, psychosocial aspects of visual impairment in the context of the age of their bearers and the status of the issue at the national level Most importantly, the book contributes knowledge about the development and innovation of a rehabilitation programme with the use of modern theoretical, assistive and technical means The author’s original scientific contribution consists of the creation of an innovative rehabilitation programme for individuals with low vision along with the research behind the programme The results of the research provide verification data of the effectiveness of this experimental programme The client-oriented approach to individuals with low vision, i.e rehabilitation with the aim of developing functional vision and reading skills, has become not only a support for special education facilities but also an important activity for workers in social and other services To understand the basic principles, objectives and methodology of vision rehabilitation, the author works in a broad interdisciplinary context, thus making the publication useful for professionals outside the field of special education Palacky University in Olomouc, Czech Republic January 20, 2016 Miloň Potměšil v Preface Care, education and rehabilitation have a long tradition in the lands of Bohemia and Moravia, parts of the present Czech Republic Current development has been substantially influenced by it Significant changes in Czech special education were made possible by the change of political system in 1989 This date initiated a new period of development Twenty-five years of development have shown that the level of the Czech system of social and rehabilitation services for adults with visual impairment is in many areas comparable with other developed countries In a few selected areas, however, it is necessary to continue to work on development and to achieve global standards of rehabilitation One of these areas is rehabilitation of individuals with low vision The need to review the current state of knowledge is suggested and evidenced by a number of important Czech authors (e.g Jesenský, Moravcová, Růžičková, Skalická, Vítková) The author uses in her work numerous foreign professional works which highlight the need for a comprehensive, multidisciplinary-conceived rehabilitation intervention focused on the special needs of adults (e.g Lueck, Silvestrone, Lang, Rosenthal, Faye et al.) The publication answers a number of questions concerning functional impact of vision rehabilitation on the increase of functional visual performance of adults with low vision The results of the research confirmed the high importance of the experimental rehabilitation programme in all its components (reading rate, reading accuracy and reading comprehension) as well as in the monitored intervening variables (visual acuity, age, level of reading experience and activity) Implemented interventions represented a significant potential for the solution of one of the most acute areas of rehabilitation objectives: they significantly affected the quality of life of the research group Based on the achieved data, the author proposes areas and means for a modernization of the programme of vision rehabilitation which represent a potential for increase in the quality and effectiveness of the programme vii viii Preface The publication is intended for professionals, especially special teachers or education assistants, social and rehabilitation workers The author hopes that it will become a stimulus for professional discussions and an improvement of rehabilitation services for persons with low vision Recommendation The need for further development of special education and rehabilitation of individuals with low vision was stressed as the pivotal conclusion of 2001 international conference ‘Edukace a rehabilitace zrakově postižených na prahu nového milénia’ (Education and Rehabilitation of Persons with Low Vision at the Threshold of the New Millennium) in the Czech Republic The topic of development of a rehabilitation programme for individuals with low vision was recommended by the Czech prominent specialist Prof Ján Jesenský, CSc (Charles University in Prague) The interdisciplinary research study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University Hospital in Hradec Kralove Both the University of Hradec Králové and Rehabilitation Centre for Individuals with Visual Impairment in the Czech Republic participated in the research Hradec Králové, Czech Republic Kamila Růžičková Acknowledgements Acknowledgements for the collaboration go to the colleagues Ján Jesenský and Lea Květoňová (Charles University in Prague, The Czech Republic), Miloň Potměšil (Palacky University in Olomouc, The Czech Republic), Jana Lopuchová (Komensky University in Bratislava, The Slovak Republic) and colleagues from the Rehabilitation Centre for Individuals with Visual Impairment in the Czech Republic Acknowledgements also go to all people with low vision who were participating in the research Significant assistance was also provided by the University of Hradec Králové (The Czech Republic) ix 8.3 Recommendations for Rehabilitation Practice 275 Based on the results of the experiment, the conclusion was also confirmed that even in this type of education, an important role is played by the personality of teacher and his/her ability to adapt the organizational and methodological side of education in such a way so that the development of motivation and activity was enhanced (resulting for instance in the positive results of primarily less active probands) As to the forms of the programme’s implementation, the outpatient form proved highly beneficial A clearly positive contribution for an increase in visual performance was also the direct participation of the teacher in the assessment, adaptation and supervision of external conditions for visual tasks in individual’s usual environment The data, confirmed by the research, document a high effectiveness of this concept of the ‘Increasing visual performance in reading’ rehabilitation programme We believe that further planned activities will lead to its application in practice in the Czech Republic Based on the presented results and conclusions, we propose and expect a further use of the following provisions: – Validation of the results and conclusions of the research on a larger sample – Extension of the research into the area of validation of effects of other intervening variables – Extension of the rehabilitation programmes by additional specialized programmes; their theoretical and methodological development and validation through research – Utilization of the findings and conclusions of the research for further publication activities Concerning the last above given area, further publishing activities are planned concerning this research Processing the methodology of the ‘Increasing functional performance in reading’ rehabilitation programme and ‘Exercise book and texts’ for training during the programme as well as for follow-up self-education activities is in the phase of planning Rehabilitation process does not only use the means of environmental adaptation and training of visual perception; the potential of whole personality must be included as well as his/her environment The ability to read at all its basic levels (transmission of information, educational and emotional stimulation, experience) is generally considered one of the core competencies of the human being Depending on the development of society, the ability of effective manipulation with information mostly conveyed by reading belongs to the values of social status and freedom of information Even if we can foresee changes in the possibilities of artificial vision replacement in future, we believe that no stage of development should be omitted and comprehensive services should be provided for the adults interested in the optimal use of partial sight to achieve a highquality independent life 276 8.4 Conclusions Summary This scientific publication deals with the issue of special education and rehabilitation of adults who belong to the target group of adults with low vision It assumes a position towards the development and current situation of the special support of vision rehabilitation Based on the comparison of the level of rehabilitation services in other European countries, it points to the needs and opportunities of further development of this field in the Czech Republic Specific attention is paid to the amendment of the rehabilitation programme ‘Vision rehabilitation of adults and elderly adults’ The research was realized as a part of dissertation It deals in detail with the topic of the support of maintaining and increasing reading performance It was carried out with the help of the Qual-quan research strategy In the quantitative part, the measurable data (reading rate, number of errors and reading comprehension of the read text) were compared and evaluated and the level of influence of selected intervening variables (visual acuity, age, level of reading experience and level of activity) on reading performance was observed The experimental group did not achieve the socially acceptable level of reading rate (70 words per minute) without a previous professional intervention They did not succeed in exceeding this limit of reading performance even through the implementation of the ERP However, by achieving the average speed of 63.77 words per minute, the performance came much closer to it The overall increase in reading rate was by 34.3 % Reading accuracy was measured by the reduction of number of errors Due to the application of the rehabilitation programme, 65.9 % of errors were reduced in the experimental group The overall growth achieved in reading comprehension was 107.7 % The implementation of the programme meant a higher contribution in all the categories of reading performance especially for persons with lower visual acuity The assessment of the dependence of increase in reading performance on age indicated that younger persons showed a higher reading rate, but they committed more errors and their reading comprehension was lower in comparison with the persons of older subcategory In all the observed categories, persons with higher level of reading experience achieved a significantly higher performance without rehabilitation interventions The persons showing a higher level of participation during the programme achieved higher nominal values of resulting performance in all the observed categories The evaluation of qualitative research data brings findings of methodological and educational character in connection with the use of modern educational strategies and resources Based on the achieved data, the author proposes areas and means for a modernization of the programme of vision rehabilitation which represent a potential for increase in the quality and effectiveness of the programme References 277 References Bäckman, Ư (1998) Komplexní péče o osoby s těžším zrakovým postižením Praha: ČNSPS, Tyfloservis and CZV Kahn, N B (2001) Jak efektivně studovat a pracovat s informacemi Praha: Portál Lueck, A H (2004) Functional vision: A practitioner’s guide to evaluation and intervention New York: American Foundation for the Blind Matějček, Z., Šturma, J., Vágnerová, M., & Žlab, Z (1992) Zkouška čtení Bratislava: Psychodiagnostika Moravcová, D (2003) Význam reedukace zraku na udržení a zvyšování vizuální výkonnosti zrakově postižených Speciální Pedagogika, 3(3), 204–210 Moravcová, D (2004) Zraková terapie slabozrakých a pacientů s nízkým vizem Praha: Triton Moravcová, D (2005) Práce s klientem—pacientem zrakové terapie—předpoklad úspěšné rehabilitace Praha: CZV LF Motol Moravcová, D (2007) Význam zhodnocení zrakových funkcí pro vytvoření plánu rozvoje zraku a vytvoření optimálních podmínek pro vzdělávání In: VII Mezinárodní konference k problematice osob se speciálními potřebami (pp 106–112) Olomouc: UP Skalická, M (2007) Specifické potřeby seniorů s postižením zraku v pozdějším věku In: VII Mezinárodní konference k problematice osob se speciálními potřebami (pp 78–90) Olomouc: UP Appendix A: Recommendation of implementation of the interdisciplinary research by the Ethics Committee of the University Hospital in Hradec Králové— English translation The Ethics Committee of the University Hospital in Hradec Králové, Sokolská 581, 500 05 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic Mgr Kamila Růžičková Department of Special Pedagogy and Logopedy Faculty of Education, University of Hradec Králové Hradecká 1227/4 500 02 Hradec Králové Ethics Committee local OPINION—Ref 200502 S03L Name of the clinical research: The Effect of Vision rehabilitation on Increase in Functional Visual Performance in Adults with Low Vision Delivery date: 1.2.2005 Opinion issued: 10.2.2005 Assessment with the places marked of the conduct of the clinical research to which the Committee expressed its opinion and which the Committee is supervising: Mgr Kamila Růžičková, Department of Special Pedagogy and Logopedy, Faculty of Education, University of Hradec Králové List of documents: a b c d Project description Professional CV Consent of the patient Information for those interested in cooperation Verdict (justification): approval © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 K Růžičková, Reading Rehabilitation for Individuals with Low Vision, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-43653-1 279 280 Appendix A: Recommendation of implementation of the interdisciplinary research… University Hospital Hradec Králové Ethics Committee Sokolská 581, 500 05 Hradec Králové Czech Republic E-mail:etikom@fnhk.cz Hradec Králové, 14.2.2005 MUDr Jiří Vortel, Chairman of the EC Handled by: Petra Doležalová, tel 495833795 E-mail: etikom@fnhk.cz Appendix B: Czech original Etická komise Fakultní nemocnice Hradec Králové, Sokolská 581, 500 05 Hradec Králové Vážená paní Mgr Kamila Růžičková Katedra speciální pedagogiky PdF UHK Hradecká 1227/4 500 02 Hradec Králové EK místní STANOVISKO—čj 200502 S03L název klinického hodnocení: Vliv komprehenzivní reedukace zraku na zvyšování vizuální výkonnosti dospělých osob se zrakovým postižením datum doručení: 1.2.2005 datum vydání stanoviska: 10.2.2005 místa hodnocení s označením míst provádění KH, ke kterým se EK vyjádřila a kde vykonává dohled: Mgr Kamila Růžičková, Katedra speciální pedagogiky PdF UHK Seznam dokumentace: a b c d Popis projektu Profesní životopis Souhlas pacienta Informace pro zájemce o spolupráci Výrok (odůvodnění): souhlasné stanovisko © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 K Růžičková, Reading Rehabilitation for Individuals with Low Vision, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-43653-1 281 282 Fakultní nemocnice Hradec Králové Etická komise Sokolská 581, 500 05 Hradec Králové, E-mail:etikom@fnhk.cz V Hradci Králové dne 14.2.2005 MUDr Jiří Vortel, předseda EK vyřizuje: Petra Doležalová, tel 495833795 E-mail: etikom@fnhk.cz Appendix B: Czech original Appendix C: Members of the Ethics Committee Listed below are the names and professional positions/occupations of the members of the Ethics Committee of the University Hospital in Hradec Králové Name Jan Bedrna, Assoc Prof., M.D., Ph.D Dominika Jana Bohušova, O.P Jiří Grim, M.D Eduard Havel, M.D., Ph.D Josef Herink, M.D Jaromír Hrubecký, M.J Petr Hůlek, Ass Prof., M.D., Ph.D Bohuslav Král, Prof., M.D., Ph.D Pavel Měřička, M.D Jaroslava Pečenková Taťána Rešlová, Assoc Prof., M.D., Ph.D Rosvita Sevčíková, M.A Ivana Vašátková, M.A Zdeněk Vít, M.D Jiří Vortel, M.D Jiřina Zatloukalová, M.A Petr Zďánský, M.A Professional position/occupation Retired Gender M Present Y Assistant of the Secretariat of the Bishopric in Hradec Králové Physician, The First Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Physician of the Surgery Department, University Hospital Physician, Department of Toxicology Retired Physician, The Second Department of lnternal Medicine, University Hospital Physician, The First Department of lnternal Medicine, University Hospital Head of Tissue Bank, University Hospital Retired Physician, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Lawyer Vice-Head Nurse, University Hospital Physician, Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital Cardiologist—Private Physician Lawyer, University Hospital Geronthological and Metabolic Department, University Hospital F Y M N M Y M M M Y Y Y M Y M F F N Y Y F F M Y Y Y M F M Y Y Y © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 K Růžičková, Reading Rehabilitation for Individuals with Low Vision, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-43653-1 283 284 Appendix C: Members of the Ethics Committee Ethics Committee composition meets the requirements of ICH GCP standards and is working according to its written procedure which is in compliance with the above-mentioned standards (ICH E6) Chairman of the Ethics Committee Jiří Vortel, M.D Date: 10/FEB/2005 University Hospital Hradec Králové Ethics Committee Sokolská 581 500 05 Hradec Králové Czech Republic Index A Absorptive filters, 95 Acceptance, 26, 27 Accessibility, 30, 38, 44, 56, 70 Accommodation, 11, 124 Accompanying symptoms, in reading, 143 Achromatopsia, 9, 15 Activities of daily living, 5, 16, 24, 30, 33, 62, 73, 74, 80, 84, 88, 93, 96, 100–103, 107, 112, 120, 124, 128, 150, 233, 263, 272, 274 Acuity test, 11, 143, 157 Adaptation, 22–23 to darkness, 13, 97 of eye, 13–14 of lighting condition, 165 of lighting conditions, 103 to vision loss, 23–25 Adaptive capacity, 13 Adults and elderly adults, 38, 52, 57, 62, 73, 276 visual impairment in, Aetiology, 8, 9, 124 Age factor, 262 Ageing, 124–125 Agnosia, 14, 15 Albinism, 104 Alexia, 14 Amblyopia, 10, 12, 63, 66, 68, 75 Amsler grid, 12 Aniridia, 104 Anomia, 15 Apperceptive agnosia, 14 ARMD, 54 Armd, 5, 10 Assessment of environment, 103 of visual function, 101, 109 Assistive devices and technology, 57, 62, 66, 73, 75, 82, 83, 89, 96, 97, 165, 173 Associative agnosia, 14 Astigmatism, 11 Attention, 16, 21–22 B Basic group, 156 Basic (elementary) rehabilitation, 56 Binocular vision, 8, 9, 12, 13, 91, 157 Braille, 68, 117 Brightness and contrast distribution, 105 C Case studies, 172, 179, 184, 189, 211, 213, 218, 220–222, 225, 230, 231, 236, 239, 252, 270, 271 Cataract, 9, 104, 126 CCTV magnifiers, 92 Central nervous system, 9, 84 Central scotoma, 5, 12, 106 Central visual acuity, 7, 11 Classification of special needs, 5, 50 Clinical examination, 11 Colour discrimination, 8, 11, 13 Colour vision, 13, 106 Co-management, 49 Communication barriers, 20 Compensation, 19, 20, 22, 30, 37, 44, 50, 55, 83, 84, 107, 117, 119, 145, 174, 264 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 K Růžičková, Reading Rehabilitation for Individuals with Low Vision, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-43653-1 285 286 Comprehensive care, 33, 53, 61 Comprehensive ophthalmologic diagnosis, 101, 109 Comprehensive rehabilitation, 42 Concentration, 145–146 Concentration of attention, 21 Concept of vision rehabilitation, 62, 66, 73, 76, 78, 79, 81, 127, 258, 271 Congenital disorder, 18, 26 Continuous experimental test, 174 Contrast, 8, 11, 13, 19, 20, 23, 32, 46, 53, 89, 93–95, 97, 100, 101, 103–106, 110, 116–118, 137, 138, 143, 177, 195, 213, 219, 222, 223, 225, 234, 238, 240, 242, 251, 255, 258–260, 270, 271 Convergence, 38 Cornea, 144 Cortical visual impairment (CVI), 9, 16, 75, 110, 137 Cursory reading (skimming), 144 CVI See Cortical visual impairment (CVI) Czech Republic, 2, 7, 30, 38, 39, 43, 46, 55, 58, 65, 66, 69, 75, 77, 90, 92, 95, 96, 99, 117, 127, 142, 143, 148, 151, 153, 166, 170, 174, 189, 190, 224, 244, 257, 258, 264, 268, 269, 271–276 rehabilitation development, 39–41, 44–45 research study, 190, 224, 244, 257, 258, 264, 268 risk factors, 9–10 special education approaches, 46–52 vision rehabilitation terminologies, 2–7 D Data triangulation technique, 162 Decreased ability, 3, 70 Democratic and therapeutic education, 49 Depression, 23 Developed rehabilitation, 56 Dimension physical, 26 of self-concept, 25 social, 27–28 spiritual, 26 Disability, Disease/disorder, 3, Distribution of brightness, 105 Dyschromatopsia, 15 E Eating habits, 124 Education, 51 Index age factor, 52–55 classification, 47 methods and techniques, 50–51 methods of, 50 model, 48–49 objectives, 46 principles, 50 process and forms, 51–52 Educational rehabilitation, 272 Effective reading, 137, 144, 145, 148, 168, 197, 264 Effective reading skills, 137 Electronic devices, 92 Employment, 2, 4, 24, 27, 28, 37, 38, 41, 46, 52, 56, 68, 182, 217 Environmental adaptation, 92–93, 98, 118, 197, 230 brightness and contrast distribution, 105 glare, 106–107 illumination intensity, 104 light and contrast of colour, 105 lighting conditions, 103–105 Environmental amodification, 93 Environmental analysis, 93 Errors in reading, 139, 142, 154, 155, 190, 192, 208, 227–242, 262–264 Ethics committee members, 281 Experimental group, 159, 162, 174, 189, 211, 212, 223–226, 228–230, 240, 242, 243, 245, 246, 248, 252, 258–262, 264, 267–269, 276 Experimental rehabilitation lessons (ERL), 166–170 Experimental rehabilitation programme (ERP), 154–156 External conditions, 7, 23, 29, 80, 86, 93, 101, 103, 112, 122, 139, 142, 145, 148, 155, 164, 165, 167, 172–174, 177, 199, 213, 216–218, 220, 222, 231, 233, 236, 239, 242, 247, 256, 270, 275 Eye disorder, 9, 124 Eye movements, 12, 31, 75, 118, 125, 136–138, 140, 142, 149, 201, 203, 227, 240 F Field of vision, Functional ability, Functional assessment of vision, 102, 109 Functional visual capacity, 16, 61, 80, 98, 156, 158, 173, 190, 211, 272 Functional visual performance, 5–6 287 Index G Glare, 106–107 H Habits and body postures, 124 Health, Healthy lifestyle and diet, 123–127 Highly developed rehabilitation, 57 I Iatrogenic problems, 124 ICF See International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Illumination intensity, 104 Impairment, 3, See also Visual impairment Individual rehabilitation plan, 5, 81, 99, 102, 108, 111, 166, 171 Infants, 8, Information reading, 144 Input experimental test, 174 Interdisciplinary research, by ethics committee, 279–280 International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), 3–5 biopsychosocial model, L Large print, 94 Light and contrast of colour, 105 Lighting conditions, 103–105 Lighting regulating devices, 95 Linearity of reading, 268 M Medical rehabilitation, 271–272 Medical therapy, 5, 72 Medicare Low Vision Demonstration Project, 37–38 Memory, 22, 145–146 Moderate visual impairment, N Near-total visual impairment, Non-optical aids, 92–93 Nyctalopia, 13 O Object agnosia, 14 Ocular motor skills, 136 Optical devices, 90–92 Optimal lighting, 104 Orientation in text, 136, 201, 234 Output experimental test, 174 Output information recording, 146 P Paradigm of education, 38 Paradigm of rehabilitation, 42 Perception, 18, 31, 119 expectation and context influences, 20 objectivity of, 19 reaction time, 19 social, 20 synergy of, 20 three-dimensional, 14 Permanent health impairment, Personal competences, 7, 33, 45 Personality, 7, 17, 23, 26, 28, 31, 34, 37–39, 44, 45, 50, 56–58, 65, 68, 73, 100, 104, 108, 138, 173, 182, 184, 265, 275 Photophobia, 13 Preschool age, Profound visual impairment, Progressive visual disease, 24 Prosopagnosia, 15 Psychohygiene, 123–124 Q Quality of life, 1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 22, 24, 27–30, 33, 37, 38, 42–45, 55, 56, 59, 66, 73, 74, 76, 80, 81, 85, 125, 128, 166, 181, 243, 263 limitations/disabilities with, 32–33 older adults, 33–34 visual impairment impacts, 28–31 visual perception, 31–32 Qual-quan research strategy, 276 R Rational learning, 146–147 Reading accuracy, 117, 138–140, 224, 227, 230, 231, 234, 236, 238, 240, 243, 259, 268 288 Reading comprehension, 141, 268 Reading efficiency, 155, 244, 245 Reading experience, 262–263 Reading performance, 116, 117, 135–140, 142–144, 147, 149, 151, 153–157, 159, 161, 162, 167, 169, 171–174, 177, 181, 183–187, 191–193, 195–202, 204, 206–208, 210, 211, 214, 216–218, 220, 222–224, 226, 230, 240, 243, 260–262, 264, 265, 267–270, 273, 276 accompanying symptoms in, 143–144 comprehension level, 141 eye movements, 136, 142 Reading rate, 117, 136–138, 140, 144, 145, 149, 151, 154, 155, 177, 189–193, 195–197, 199, 201–204, 206–226, 234, 236, 259, 262–264, 267–270, 276 Reading simple reflex responses, 136 Reading skills, 140–141 concentration and memory, 145–146 output information recording, 146 rational learning and speed learning, 146–147 speedreading, 145 teaching recommendations, 147–151 Recognition colours, 15 face, 15 movement, 15 shapes, 14 Reduced ability, Regression movement, 136, 175 Rehabilitation, 2, 6–7 See also Education assistive devices and technology, 57–58 conditions and principles, 44–46 development, 39–41 medical model, 42 paradigm, 42–44 rehabilitation programmes, 55–57 special education approaches, 39, 46–52 special education model, 42 theoretical models, 41–42 Rehabilitation practice, 273–275 Rehabilitation theory, 271–273 Relative magnification, 94–98 Relaxation, 123–124 Research groups, 156–159 Research objectives, 153–154 Research planning data analysis mathematical and statistical methods, 184–185 Index qualitative method, 185–187 qualitative methods of, 185 data process and display coding method, 178–179 data analysis of case study, 179–184 displaying data, 179 data recording anamnestic and diagnostic data, 170 comparison of data, 170 dialectical experiment, 172–173 experimental factors, 173 experimental measurements, 174–177 experimental testing, 173–174 interview, 171 qualitative observation, 171–172 operationalization of programme, 166–170 professional staffing, 163 rehabilitation programme structure, 165–166 research schedule, 164 technical provision, 163–164 triangulation method, 162 Research questions, 154–155 Research study activity, 263–264 age factor, 262 individual cases, 190–210 reading experience, 262–263 reading performance, 210–260 visual acuity, 261–262 Research tasks, 156 S School age, 8, 9, 73, 75 Sensory substitution devices, 97 Severe visual impairment, Skills and work experience, 56 Social care, 28 Social inclusion, 2, 9, 27, 28, 44, 46, 56 Social rehabilitation, 272 Social status, 2, 27–30, 44, 54, 68, 150, 275 Solar radiational effects, 124 SONS, 10, 34, 40, 41, 56, 68 Spatial orientation and mobility, 12, 68, 71, 97, 111, 121 Special education of adults, 38, 51–53 approaches to older adults, 53 concepts, 39 principles of, 50 Speed learning, 146–147 Speedreading, 145 Strabismus, 12 Supportive techniques, 122 Index T Technology, 44, 46, 57, 58, 62, 73, 75, 84, 89, 90, 93, 95, 96, 98, 142, 164, 172, 175 Telescope, 91 Three-dimensional perception, 14 Total visual impairment, V Vision, anatomy and physiology visual attention, 16 visual cognition and disorders, 14–16 visual functions and disorders, 11–14 Vision rehabilitation aids and devices electronic devices, 92 non-optical aids and environment adaptation, 92–93 optical devices, 90–92 relative magnification, 94–98 assessment and individual rehabilitation plan comprehensive ophthalmologic diagnosis, 101 environment of individuals, 103–107 functional assessment of vision, 102 visual abilities and performance, 99 visual functions, 100, 101 visual performance, 100–101 comprehensive concept, 62, 72, 75–77 development of, 63–64 diagnostics, 69 educational approaches, 84 individual approach, 85 institutionalized system, 71 interdisciplinary team approach, 81–82 methods, 86–87 multifactor approach, 82–83 multisensory approach, 83 objectives, 73–74 principles, 86 psychological approach, 85 psychosomatic conditions, 78–81 special optical and selected rehabilitation aids, 67, 69–70 target groups, 74–75 terminology and definition, 2–7 Vision rehabilitation of adults, 66 comprehensive concept, 62 current structure, 6, 17, 19, 28, 31, 37, 39, 43, 46, 57, 58, 62, 66, 69, 72, 75, 289 77, 85, 92, 114, 124, 150, 155, 156, 158, 166, 167, 170, 173, 180–182, 255, 258, 263, 264, 267, 271, 276 Visual abilities, 5, 7, 10, 30, 32, 64, 73, 80, 99, 107, 115, 127, 129, 139, 157, 162, 167, 171, 173, 177, 224, 243 acuity, 8, 10–12, 65, 88, 90, 91, 100, 104, 107, 111, 113, 118, 123, 137, 143, 144, 155, 157, 166, 170, 172, 174, 178, 185, 186, 189, 214, 215, 220, 225–227, 231–234, 242, 248, 249, 258, 261–262, 269, 276 analysis and synthesis, 136 attention, 16, 20, 22, 260 cognition, 10, 14 hygiene, 72, 73, 86, 113–115, 135, 140, 145, 148, 165, 168, 174, 190, 209 information modification, 87–89 learning, 22 memory, 18, 22, 136 motor skills, 137 perception, 1, 10, 14, 16, 18, 19, 21, 27, 31, 78, 83, 86–88, 92, 97, 100, 103, 105, 110, 111, 118, 120, 122, 127, 136–138, 158, 220, 242, 275 performance, 10, 31–33, 54, 62, 64–66, 69, 73–76, 79, 80, 82, 87, 89, 90, 92, 93, 96, 97, 99–104, 107, 109–111, 113–115, 119, 120, 123, 125, 127–129, 135, 137, 138, 143, 147–149, 155, 156, 159, 162, 165, 166, 181, 216, 221, 223–225, 232, 250, 261, 263, 265, 267, 271, 272, 274, 275 Visual field (VF), 11 disorders, 12 Visual impairment classification, 7–9 Czech Republic risk factors, 9–10 education, 2, 6–7 levels of, prevalence, 1–2 psychosocial aspects adaptation and coping, 22–25 cognitive processes, 17–22 quality of life, 28–34 social context, 25–28 rehabilitation, 2, 6–7 terminology and definition, 5–7 Visual skills image recognition, 119 290 Visual skills (cont.) with non-optical aids, 111 with optical devices for medium and distance tasks, 116 with optical devices for near tasks, 115–116 with optoelectronic and electronic devices, 116 reading performance, 116–117 in social competence, 122 with spatial orientation and mobility, 121–122 with substitution functions, 119–120 without optical devices, 111 in work with pictorial information, 108, 118–119 writing, 63, 68, 88, 96, 98, 99, 112, 117–118, 170 Visual training, 63 approaches, 28, 50, 53, 55, 58, 62, 64, 72, 75, 81, 84, 85, 87, 107, 109, 111, 112, 123, 127, 153, 161, 265, 267, 268, 274 basic tool, 108 development, 1–3, 6–10, 17, 18, 23–28, 31–33, 37–46, 48, 49, 52–54, 56–58, 61–69, 72–77, 79, 81, 82, Index 92, 98, 99, 102, 108, 112–114, 119, 123–125, 127–130, 134, 135, 137, 140, 144, 147, 149–151, 153, 161, 165, 174, 176, 177, 179–184, 187, 189, 217, 221–223, 240, 243, 247, 248, 258–261, 264, 265, 267, 271–273, 275, 276 implementation, 127–129 motivations, 107 supportive techniques healthy lifestyle and diet, 124–127 psychohygiene and relaxation, 123–124 techniques, 109 terminological problems, 65–66 visual skills, 109–110 (see also (Visual skills)) Vocational rehabilitation, 272 Voluntary eye movements, 136 W WHO, 1, 3–7, 28, 41, 55, 66, 80, 99, 124, 166, 274 rehabilitation, 41 visual impairment classification, 5–7 Work organization, 147 .. .Reading Rehabilitation for Individuals with Low Vision Kamila Růžičková Reading Rehabilitation for Individuals with Low Vision Research and Practice in the... improvement of rehabilitation services for persons with low vision Recommendation The need for further development of special education and rehabilitation of individuals with low vision was stressed... and Rehabilitation of Persons with Low Vision at the Threshold of the New Millennium) in the Czech Republic The topic of development of a rehabilitation programme for individuals with low vision
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Xem thêm: Reading rehabilitation for individuals with low vision , Reading rehabilitation for individuals with low vision , 3 Frequent Reasons of Reduction or Loss in the Czech Republic, 1 Development of Czech Rehabilitation Interventions in Brief, 1 Development of Visual Rehabilitation and Training in Brief, 5 Innovative Vision Rehabilitation Concept: Theoretical Postulates, Meanings and Objectives, 1 Objectives, Questions and Tasks of the Research, A. Dependence of Reading Rate on Visual Acuity, C. Dependence of Reading Rate on Previous Reading Experience, D. Dependence of Reading Rate on Activity of the Proband, A. Dependence of Performance in the Category of Reading Accuracy on Visual Acuity, D. Dependence of Reading Accuracy on Activity, C. Dependence of Reading Comprehension on Previous Reading Experience, D. Dependence of Reading Comprehension on Activity

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