Science frontiers 1946 to the present

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SCIENCE FRONTIERS SCIENCE FRONTIERS 1946 to the Present Ray Spangenburg Diane Kit Moser Science Frontiers: 1946 to the Present Copyright © 2004, 1994 by Ray Spangenburg and Diane Kit Moser This is a revised edition of THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE FROM 1946 TO THE 1990s Copyright © 1994 by Ray Spangenburg and Diane Kit Moser All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher For information contact: Facts On File, Inc 132 West 31st Street New York NY 10001 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Spangenburg, Ray, 1939– Science Frontiers, 1946 to the present / Ray Spangenburg and Diane Kit Moser p cm — (History of science) Revised ed of: The history of science from 1946 to the 1990s Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 0-8160-4855-X Science—History—Juvenile literature Life sciences—History—Juvenile literature [1 Science—History.] I Moser, Diane, 1944– II Spangenburg, Ray, 1939– History of science from 1946 to the 1990s III Title Q126.4.S63 2004 509′.045—dc22 2003024290 Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions Please call our Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755 You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at http://www.factsonfile.com Text design by Erika K Arroyo Cover design by Kelly Parr Illustrations by Sholto Ainslie Printed in the United States of America MP Hermitage 10 This book is printed on acid-free paper In Memory of Morgan Sherwood and his love of the ever-human struggle to become rational n CONTENTS Preface xi Acknowledgments xvii Introduction xix PART I The Physical Sciences, 1946 to the Present The Subatomic World: A Swarm of Particles Beginning the Search Triumph of the Chip and the Digital Computer Quantum Joined to Maxwell’s Theory Parade of Particles Richard Feynman’s Legacy Lasers: Quantum Physics at Work The Structure of the Nucleus Superconductors Tools of Science: The Particle Accelerator The Realm of Quarks Looking at Strangeness A Left-Handed World The Corker: The Quark Flavor and Color Grandly Unifying 3 10 12 16 18 20 23 24 26 30 32 33 37 41 44 Stars, Galaxies, the Universe, and How It All Began 47 More Things than Are Dreamt Of 48 New Ways of Seeing Focus on NASA’s Great Observatory Series What Happens Inside Stars? Stellar Evolution: Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin New Methods, New Discoveries Science at Its Worst—And Best: Cold Fusion Fever Quasars Milton Humason: Born Skywatcher A Bug in the Data Listening for Life Extrasolar Planets In the Beginning The Microwave Background Black Holes Missing Mass Pulling It All Together ? Exploring the Solar System The Moon: Closest Neighbor Gerard Kuiper: Planetary Scientist Veiled Venus The Greenhouse Effect on Venus Scorched Mercury Mars, the Red Planet The Asteroids Jupiter the Giant Collision Course Saturn and Its Rocky Rings Mysterious Uranus Neptune, Outer Giant Pluto, the Far Traveler How It All Began What Is It Worth? Mission to Planet Earth The View from Above Drifting Continents Dirty Death of the Dinosaurs 50 55 56 58 59 60 62 63 64 64 68 68 69 70 72 75 78 79 82 83 85 86 87 92 93 97 98 100 102 104 105 106 108 108 111 113 Hole in the Ozone Earth’s Greenhouse Effect 118 120 PART II The Life Sciences, 1946 to the Present 123 The Architects of Life: Proteins, DNA, and RNA The Double Helix The RNA Story Genetic Code The Origins and Borderlines of Life: From Soup to Viruses and Designer Genes The Primordial Soup In the Beginning Clay? Life Processes: Growth Factors Teaching Evolution Viruses: At the Threshold of Life Retroviruses Stealthy and Insidious: The Story of AIDS Birth of Genetic Engineering Barbara McClintock and the Case of the Shifting Gene Genetic Markers and the Human Genome Life and Death of a Famous Ewe Where Did Humans Come From? The Search Continues The Famous Leakey Luck Tools of Science: How Old Is It? Piltdown Man Revisited “Handy Human” Lucy Turkana Boy The Black Skull Unsolved Mysteries and Later Finds Hot Debate 125 126 134 135 137 138 142 143 144 146 149 151 156 158 160 163 167 168 170 172 175 175 177 178 178 179 232 Science Frontiers current advances Sidebars cover parallel social or political events and certain diseases Portugal, Franklin H., and Jack S Cohen A Century of DNA Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1977 Provides a thorough look at the background leading up to the discovery of the role played by DNA in heredity Ridley, Matt Genome: The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters Ridley tells how the Human Genome Project mapped the approximately 31,000 genes found on the 23 pairs of human chromosomes He picks one newly discovered gene from each of the 23 pairs of chromosomes and takes the reader inside its story—and the story of how scientists solved some of the mysteries surrounding genetics and the nature of life Watson, James D The Double Helix New York: Atheneum, 1968 A now-classic, highly personal account of the search for the elusive structure of DNA, as engrossing now as when first written Science research as a battlefront in one of the first and best “warts-and-all” looks at how science is done Watson, James D., and John Tooze The DNA Story: A Documentary History of Gene Cloning San Francisco: W H Freeman and Co., 1981 An offbeat and very compelling look at the history of DNA research told through the use of newspaper clips, personal correspondence, official documents, and narrative Well done and interesting, but it does require a little background on the part of the reader to help put all the pieces into perspective Watson, James D., with Andrew Barry DNA: The Secret of Life New York: Alfred A Knopf, 2003 Fifty years after the author and his colleague Francis Crick discovered the structure of DNA, Watson provides the panorama of the genetic revolution—journeying from Mendel’s vegetable patch to Watson and Crick’s discovery of the double helix and bringing readers up to the moment with an account of the human genome and beyond ON EVOLUTION Morris, Richard The Evolutionists: The Struggle for Darwin’s Soul New York: W H Freeman and Company, 2001 Contains good descriptions of Darwinism and Darwin’s development of evolutionary theory, as well as discussions of 21st-century views spearheaded by Richard Dawkins and Stephen Jay Gould Eldridge, Niles Life Pulse: Episodes from the Story of the Fossil Record New York: Facts On File, 1987 A little tough going and dry but well worth the effort for the serious student Milder, Richard The Encyclopedia of Evolution New York: Facts On File, 1990 Just what the title says, written in an easygoing, informal style that makes it a joy to use for research or just endless hours of browsing Further Reading and Web Sites 233 fun Plenty of surprises, too, including looks at popular films dealing with the subjects and lots of little-known oddities Reader, John The Rise of Life New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1986 Beautifully illustrated popular-level book covering the origins and evolution not only of humans but of all life forms Very well done ON THE SEARCH FOR HUMAN ORIGINS Burenhult, Gören, gen ed The First Humans: Human Origins and History to 10,000 B.C Volume of the Landmark Series from the American Museum of Natural History New York: HarperSanFrancisco (a Division of HarperCollins Publishers), 1993 Originally published by Weldon Own Pty Limited, McMahons Point, Sydney, Australia, and Bra Böcker AB, Sweden, 1993 Beautifully organized, edited, and illustrated Charts, maps, and illustrations all work hand in hand with a highly readable narrative to make this an indispensable up-to-date volume for any personal or school liberty Lambert, David, and the Diagram Group The Field Guide to Early Man New York: Facts On File, 1987 Well-designed and carefully illustrated “handbook” on all aspects of early humans A wonderful book for finding facts, or just reading for fun Easy to read and endlessly fascinating Lewin, Roger Bones of Contention: Controversies in the Search for Human Origins New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987 Although primarily concerned with the controversies and developments in the latter half of the 20th century, this book does have good, readable background material about the search for human origins during the period from 1895 to 1945, as well Spencer, Frank Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery London: Natural History Museum Publications, Oxford University Press, 1990 Exhaustive but highly readable look at the Piltdown hoax and its discovery Covers just about everyone involved in the story, including the most likely suspects Illustration and seldom-seen photographs help bring the story to life A must for anyone interested in science and the Piltdown mystery Willis, Delta The Hominid Gang: Behind the Scenes in the Search for Human Origins Introduction by Stephen Jay Gould New York: Viking, 1989 Fascinating, on-the-spot examination of how anthropology is done in Africa by Richard Leakey and his crew of trained specialists, recorded with a skeptical eye by photojournalist Delta Willis INDEX Italic page numbers indicate illustrations A aces (subatomic particles) 40 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) 147, 151–156, 154 adenine (nitrogen base) 130 Africa AIDS in 152 as source of human evolution 179 The Age of Aquarius 198 AIDS See acquired immunodeficiency syndrome alanine (amino acid) 142 alternative health movement 195, 201 Alvarez, Luis Walter 116–117 Alvarez, Walter 116–117 amino acids 135, 140, 142 Anderson, Carl 7–8, 8, 12 Antarctica, ozone hole over 119 antibiotics, bacterial resistance to 156–157 antimatter 7, 22 antiparticles 76 antiprotons 22 apes, evolution of 168 Apollo (asteroid group) 93 Apollo spacecraft 190 Apollo 17 80 The Aquarian Conspiracy (Ferguson) 198–199 Arber, Werner 157 Arecibo, Puerto Rico, radio antenna at 60–61 argon gas, on Mars 90 Ariel (moon of Uranus) 102 Aristotle (Greek philosopher) 138 Arp, Halton 63–64 Arp 220 (galactic merger) 54 Asia, AIDS in 152 asteroid belt 92 asteroids 87, 92, 92–93 astrology 198 astronomy 47–48 radio 59–62 Aten (asteroid group) 93 atom(s) 4–6, Standard Model of 43–44, 44f, 76 atomic bomb 12–13, 185–186 See also Manhattan Project aura (of person) 200 australopithecines 169, 175, 178–180 Australopithecus aethiopicus 180 235 Australopithecus afarensis 175–177, 176, 180 Australopithecus africanus 169, 180 Australopithecus anamensis 180 Australopithecus bahrelghazali 180 Australopithecus boisei 172, 178, 180 Australopithecus robustus 178, 180 Avery, Oswald 126 axions (hypothetical particles) 74 azidothymidine (AZT), in AIDS treatment 154 B bacteria 156–157 bacteriophages 156–157 Baltimore, David 149 Bardeen, John 10, 11, 24 baryons (subatomic particles) 38, 39–40, 42 base-pairing, in DNA 130 BCS theory, of superconductivity 24 Beagle-2 (spacecraft) 91 Beckwith, Jonathan 157 Becquerel, Henri 31 Bednorz, Georg 24 Bell, Jocelyn 62, 64 236 Science Frontiers Bell Laboratories (New Jersey) 10, 11, 69 Berg, Paul 161 beta ray emissions 31 Bethe, Hans 18, 56 Bevatron (particle accelerator) 22 Beyond with James Van Pragh (tv show) 199–200 big bang theory 68–69, 75 binary star systems 51 black holes 54, 70–72 “Black Skull” (hominid skull) 178 Bohr, Aage 18 Bohr, Niels 6, 18, 56 Boise, Charles 172 bomb shelters 186 Bondi, Hermann 69 Bonnet, Charles 113 bosons (messenger particles) 43, 76 bottom quark (subatomic particle) 27, 42 Bowen, E G 59 Boyer, Herbert W 158–160 Boyle, Robert Brattain, Walter 10, 11 Briggs, Robert William 161 Brookhaven National Laboratory (New York) 26 Broom, Robert 169 brown dwarfs (failed stars) 74 Bullard, Sir Edward Crisp 111 Bunge, Mario 202 Burstein, David 73 Bush, George W 165 C 3C273 (quasar) 62 Cairns-Smith, Graham 143 California Institute of Technology Calisto (moon of Jupiter) 96 Caloris Basin (surface feature on Mercury) 87 cancer, viruses and 147 Cannon, Annie Jump 58 carbon 14 dating 170–171 carbon dioxide, and greenhouse effect 120 Carr, Michael 92 Cassini/Huygens (spacecraft) 99, 100 Cavendish Laboratory (England) 64, 127 CD4 T cells, HIV and 153 cells 143–144 differentiation of 145–146 Ceres (asteroid) 93 CERN (Conseil Eurpoéen pour la Recherche Nucléaire) 27, 28, 45, 76 Cetus (constellation) 82 CFCs See chlorofluorocarbons CGRO See Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Chadwick, James Chamberlain, Owen 22 Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan 53, 53–54 Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) 53–54, 55 Chang, Sherwood 138, 142 channeling 198–199 Chargaff, Erwin 130 charge centers, of subatomic particles 32 charmed quark (subatomic particle) 40–41, 42 Charon (moon of Pluto) 104 China, moon missions of 81 chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs; freons), and ozone depletion 119–120 Christy, James W 104 chromosomes 125, 126 clay-life theory 142–143 Clementine (Moon mission) 81 Clinton, Bill 165 cloning 161, 163–166 cloud chamber 7, 8, 18 COBE See Cosmic Background Explorer Cocconi, Giuseppe 65 Cockcroft, John 26 Cohen, Stanley H 146,158–160 cold fusion 60–61 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium for Quantitative Biology (1951) 158 cold war 185–192 colors, of quarks 42–43 combination therapy, for AIDS 155 comets 93, 97, 117, 118 Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) 203 Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) 52–53, 55 computers 10–11 Conseil Eurpoéen pour la Recherche Nucléaire See CERN conservation of parity 34–35, 36–37 Contact (Sagan & Druyan) 65 continental drift 111–113 controls, in experiments 61 Cooper, Leon N 24 Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) (spacecraft) 69–70 cosmic ray 17 Index 237 cosmic-ray particle tracks 17 cosmic X-ray source 50–51 Cosmotron (particle accelerator) 26 counterculture movement, of 1960s 198 Crab Nebula 51, 54, 59 Crab Pulsar 54 Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (K-T boundary) 117 Crick, Francis 127–134, 128 critical temperature, for superconductivity 24 Crossing Over with John Edward (television show) 199–200 crystallography 127 CSICOP See Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal culture, in postmodernism 196–197 Curie, Marie 31 Curie, Pierre 31 Cuvier, George 113 CXO See Chandra X–Ray Observatory cyclotron (particle accelerator) 26 cystic fibrosis 160 cytosine (nitrogen base) 130 D Dactyl (asteroid moon) 92 Dalton, John dark energy 74–75 dark matter 72–75 Dart, Raymond 169, 173 Darwin, Charles 114, 116, 168 Davies, Kay 160 Dawson, Charles 172–175 ddI See dideoxyinosine dead, communication with 198, 199–200 Delbrück, Max 126, 147, 157 Democritus (Greek philosopher) 4–5 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 125, 126, 132 composition of 127–128 crystallography of 127 division of 160 and genetic engineering 157 recombinant 157 replication of 133, 134 retroviruses and 149–151 and ribonucleic acid 135 structure of 132–133, 133, 134 viruses and 149 deoxyribose 126 designer genes 136 dideoxyinosine (ddI) 154 digital computing 10 dinosaurs, extinction of 114, 117 Dirac, Paul 7, 13 diseases, genetic 160 DNA See deoxyribonucleic acid Dolly (cloned sheep) 163–166, 164, 165 Doppler shift 49, 62–64 The Double Helix (Watson) 132 down quark (subatomic particle) 40, 42 Doyle, Arthur Conan 174 Drake, Frank 66 Druyan, Ann 65 Duchenne muscular dystrophy 160 DuPouy, Gaston 149 E Eagle Nebula 191 Earth 108–122 asteroid collision with 93 formation of 105–106 greenhouse effect on 85, 120–122, 121 history of 113–118 primordial atmosphere of 139 relationship with Moon 81–82 satellites of 108–109 earthquakes, plate tectonics and 113 Earthrise, as seen from Moon 109 Eastern religions 198 East Turkana (Kenya) 175 Eddington, Arthur Stanley 56, 58 Edwin P Hubble Space Telescope See Hubble Space Telescope Ehrlich, Paul 118 Eightfold Way 37–39 Einstein, Albert 44–45, 47–48, 71 Eldredge, Niles 114–118, 115 electromagnetic field theory 12–16 electromagnetic force, in atoms 43 electromagnetic spectrum 51 electron(s) (subatomic particles) 5, 6, 41 electron microscope 148–149 electron volts 22 electroweak theory 27, 45 elementary bosons (messenger particles) 43 elements embryo development 145–146 238 Science Frontiers Epsilon Eridani (star) 66 ESA See European Space Agency Escherichia coli 159–160 ethics, and genetic engineering 161–163, 164–166 Europa (moon of Jupiter) 68, 96, 96–97 European Organization for Nuclear Research See CERN European Space Agency (ESA) 81, 91, 100 event horizon (circumference of black hole) 71, 72 evolution of humans 167–181 primordial 143 theory of 116, 144–145 exobiologists 64 experiments, controls in 61 Explorer missions 190–191 extinctions, mass 114, 117–118 extrasolar planets 68 Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope 57 F faunal dating 171 Ferguson, Marilyn 198–199 Fermi, Enrico 7, 18, 28, 30, 33–34, 56 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) (Illinois) 22, 27, 28 Feynman, Richard Phillips 13, 13, 14–15, 18–19, 19, 61 Feynman diagrams 18–19 fission-track dating 171 flavors of leptons 41 of quarks 41–42 Fleischmann, Martin 60–61 Flemming, Walther 125 food, genetic engineering of 163 Ford, Sandra 151 Ford, W Kent 73 fossil record 114–116, 171 fossils, dating of 170–171 “1470” (skull) 175 fractional charge, of atoms 39–40 Franklin, Rosalind 127–132, 129, 133 freons See chlorofluorocarbons fungal infections, AIDS and 151 fusion 56 cold fusion 60–61 G galaxies, spiral, rotation of 73 Galileo (spacecraft) 92, 93, 96, 96–97, 97 Galileo Galilei 79, 96, 98 Gallo, Robert 152 gamma ray astronomy 52–53 Gamow, George 56–57, 68–69 Ganymede (moon of Jupiter) 96–97 Gaposchkin, Sergei I 59 gas giants (planets) 94 Gaspra (asteroid) 93 Gay-Related Immune Disorder 151 Gell-Mann, Murray 30, 31, 32–33, 37–39, 40 genes shifting of 158 transposition of 158–159 gene therapy 163 genetic code 135–136 genetic engineering 156–163 genetic markers 160 Genetic Takeover and the Mineral Origins of Life (Cairns-Smith) 143 Germany, and space race 188 Giacconi, Riccardo 50 Glashow, Sheldon 45, 45, 75 gluons (subatomic particles) 42–43 glutamic acid (amino acid) 142 glycine (amino acid) 142 God Particles See Higgs bosons Goeppert-Mayer, Maria 23–29, 25 Gold, Thomas 69 Gould, Stephen Jay 114–118, 116, 116 gradualism 113, 114 grand unified field theory (GUT) 44–46, 75–76 gravitinos (hypothetical particles) 74 gravity, in atoms 43 Great Dark Spot, of Neptune 103 Great Observatories series, of NASA 52, 53–54, 55 Great Red Spot, of Jupiter 96 Great Rift Valley 167, 171 greenhouse effect on Earth 85, 120–122, 121 on Venus 84, 85, 120 Griffith, John 130 Gross, Barry 202 group theory, of subatomic particles 38 guanine (nitrogen base) 130 Gurdon, John P 161 GUT See grand unified field theory Guth, Alan 72, 75 Index 239 H Hadar (Ethiopia), hominid skeleton in 176 Hale Observatory (California) 48 Hale telescope 48 Hall, James 111 Hamburger, Viktor 145 Handy Man See Homo habilis hard drives, storage capacity of 10 Harrington, Robert S 104 Harvard College Observatory 59 Hawking, Stephen 70–72, 71 Hayes, William 156 H bomb 186 Hedges, S Blair 179 Heirtzler, James Ransom 112 Heisenberg, Werner 7, 9, 14 helical structure 127, 132–133 helium, transformation of lithium into 26 hepatitis B virus, vaccination against 147 heredity 125–126 Herschel, William 100 Hershey, Alfred Day 147, 148, 157 Hess, Henry 112–113 Hewish, Antony 62, 64 Higgs bosons (messenger particles) 76 hippies (‘60s subculture) 198 Hiroshima, Japan 185 HIV See human immunodeficiency virus Hoagland, Mahlon Bush 135 Holley, Robert 136 hominids 167 Homo erectus 178, 180 Homo habilis 175, 180 Homo sapiens 179, 180 Hoyle, Fred 69 HST See Hubble Space Telescope Hubble, Edwin P 48–49, 49, 63 Hubble’s law 48 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) 52, 55, 97, 190, 191 Hudson, Rock 151 Human Genome Project 160, 163 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 147, 151–156, 152 humans family tree of 179, 180–181 migration of, out of Africa 179 origins/evolution of 167–181 Humason, Milton 48, 63 Huntington’s disease 160 Hutton, James 114 Huxley, T H 115–116 hydrogen bomb (H bomb) 186 hyperons (subatomic particles) 30–32 I ID See intelligent design 243 Ida (asteroid) 93 immune system, AIDS and 151, 153 inflationary model, of birth of universe 70, 72, 75 Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) 51 infrared lasers 20 Institute for Cosmic Ray Research (Japan) integrated plate tectonics 113 intelligent design (ID) 144–145 International Space Station 189 Introduction to Astronomy (PayneGaposchkin) 59 Io (moon of Jupiter) 96 IRAS See Infrared Astronomical Satellite iridium 117 J Jacob, Franỗois 135 James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) 55 Jansky, Karl 59 Japan, moon missions of 81 Jensen, Hans 28, 29 Johanson, Donald 175–177 J particle (subatomic particle) 41 J/psi meson (subatomic particle) 41 jumping genes 158–159 Jupiter (planet) 68, 93–97, 95, 106 JWST See James Webb Space Telescope K Kamerlingh, Heike 24 kaons (subatomic particles) 17–19, 30–32, 34–35, 38 Keith, Sir Arthur 173, 174 Kennedy, John F 189 Khorana, Har Gobind 136 killer T cells, HIV and 153 Kimeu, Kamoya 177 King, Thomas J 161 k-mesons See kaons Kornberg, Arthur 136 K-T boundary (Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary) 117 Kuiper, Gerard P 82–83, 83 240 Science Frontiers Kuiper Airborne Observatory 100–101 Kurtz, Paul 203 L LAGEOS (satellite) 113 lambda (subatomic particle) 19 Landsat I (satellite) 108–109 Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP ) (particle accelerator) 28 Large Hadron Collider (LHP ) (particle accelerator) 28 lasers 20–21, 21 Lawrence, Ernest O 22, 26 Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (California) 26 Leakey, Jonathan 175 Leakey, Louis Seymour Bazett 168–172 Leakey, Maeve 175 Leakey, Mary Nicol 168–172, 176–177, 177 Leakey, Richard 175, 177, 178 Lederberg, Joshua 156 Lederman, Leon 75 Lee, Tsung Dao 33, 33–37, 39 LEP See Large Electron Positron Collider leptons (subatomic particles) 41, 42 Leucippus (Greek philosopher) 4–5 leukemia 149 Levene, Phoebus Aaron Theodor 126 Levi-Montalcini, Rita 144–146 Levy, David 97 LHP See Large Hadron Collider Libby, Willard Frank 170 Lick Observatory (California) 82 Lie, Marius Sophus 38 life, beginnings of clay-life theory of 142–143 primordial soup theory of 138–142 lithium, transformation into helium 26 liver cancer, hepatitis B virus infections and 147 living floor 169 Lowell, Percival 88, 104 Lowell Observatory (Arizona) 104 Lucy (hominid skeleton) 175–177 lumpiness, of universe 70 Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (Arizona) 82 Lunar Prospector (spacecraft) 81 Luria, Salvador E 147 Luria, Salvatore 126 Lyell, Charles 114 M MacLaine, Shirley 199 mad scientists 186–188 Magellan (spacecraft) 85 magic numbers 28 Maiman, Theodore Harold 20 Manhattan Project 12–13, 18, 25 Mariner spacecraft Mariner 89 Mariner 85 Mariner 89 Mariner 10 84, 86 Mars (spacecraft) 89–90 Mars (planet) 82, 87–92, 88, 191 Mars Exploration Rover Mission 91 Mars Express (spacecraft) 91 Mars Global Surveyor (Mars rover) 88, 90 Mars Observer (spacecraft) 90 2001 Mars Odyssey (spacecraft) 90–91 Mars Pathfinder (spacecraft) 90 mass, missing 72–75 mass extinctions 114, 117–118 Maxwell, James Clerk 13 Mayer, Joe 23–24 McClintock, Barbara 158–159, 159 McDonald Observatory (Texas) 82 McKay, Christ 92 medicine, modern versus alternative 201 members of leptons 41 of quarks 41–42 Mendel, Gregor 125 Mendeleyev, Dmitry 39 Mercury (planet) 85–87 mesons (subatomic particles) 12, 16–17, 30, 38, 40, 42 mesotron theory 16 Messelson, M 134 messenger RNA 135, 136 meteorites 142, 143 MeV (million electron volts) 22 microchips 10–11 microscope, electron 148–149 microwave background radiation, and birth of universe 69–70 Miescher, Friedrich 125 migration, of humans, out of Africa 179 Milky Way galaxy, black hole in 54 Miller, Stanley Lloyd 138–142, 139 Mills, Robert 34 Miranda (moon of Uranus) 101–102 Mira variable stars 82 Index 241 mirrors, in lasers 20–21 Miss Cleo (telephone psychic) 200 missing mass 72–75 molecular biology 125 Molina, Mario 119 Monod, Jacques-Lucien 135 Montagnier, Luc 152 Moon 79–83, 80 age of 81 Earthrise as seen from 109 formation of 81 maria of 87 missions to 78, 80–81, 83, 189 relationship with Earth 81–82 topographical map of 81 water on 81 moons of asteroids 92 of Jupiter 68, 96, 96–97 of Mars 90 of Neptune 102–103, 103 of Pluto 104 of Saturn 68, 82, 98, 99, 99–100 of Uranus 101–102 Morgan, Thomas Hunt 126, 158 Morrison, Philip 65 motivational speakers 199 mountain belts, formation of 111 mountains, plate tectonics and 113 Mount Olympus (surface feature on Mars) 89 Mount Wilson Observatory 63 Muller, Hermann 126 Muller, K Alex 24 mu-mesons See muons muons (subatomic particles) 12, 17, 30, 41 muscular dystrophy, Duchenne 160 N Nagasaki, Japan 185 Nakano, T 32, 33 NASA See National Aeronautics and Space Administration Nathans, Daniel 157–158 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Great Observatories series of 52, 53–54, 55 Kuiper and 82–83 SETI projects of 66 National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) (West Virginia) 66 natural selection, primordial 143 nature, simplicity as rule of 44 nebulas Crab Nebula 51, 54, 59 Eagle Nebula 191 Ne’eman, Yuval 38 Nemesis (theoretical twin of Sun) 118 Neptune (planet) 82, 102–104, 103, 106 Nereid (moon of Neptune) 102 nerve growth factor (NGF) 146 neutrinos (subatomic particles) 7, 74 neutrons (subatomic particles) 8, 28, 38, 40, 43 neutron stars See pulsars New Age 196, 197–201 Newton, Isaac Ngeneo, Bernard 175 NGF See nerve growth factor Nimbus (weather satellite) 119 Nirenberg, Warren 136 Nishijima, Kasuhiko 32, 33 nitrogen, on Saturn’s moon 100 nitrogen bases 130 Nobel Peace Prize, 1962 133 Nobel Prize in chemistry 119, 133, 138 in physics 18, 29, 37, 41, 45, 56, 149 in physiology or medicine 133, 136, 146, 147, 158, 159 North Pole, ozone hole over 119 NRAO See National Radio Astronomy Observatory nuclear force, in nucleus nuclear transplantation 161, 162, 163, 166 nuclear winter 118 nucleic acids 126, 149 nucleus (of atom) 6, 9, 23–29 Nutcracker Man 172 O Oakley, Kenneth 173–174 Oberon (moon of Uranus) 102 occult 199, 200 occultation 101 oceans floor of map and model of 112–113 plate tectonics and 113 greenhouse effect and 120 Ochoa, Severo 136 Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) 168, 169–172, 175, 177 242 Science Frontiers Oliver, Bernard M 65 Olympus Mons (surface feature on Mars) 89 omega-minus particle 39 omega-plus particle 39 Oort cloud 118 Oppenheimer, J Robert 18, 186 Opportunity (Mars rover) 91 Opticks (Newton) Out of Africa hypothesis, of human evolution 179 Out on a Limb (MacLaine) 199 oxygen, and greenhouse effect 120 Ozma (radio telescope) 66 ozone 119 ozone layer 118–120, 140 P Palade, George 134 paleontology 167–168 Palomar Observatory 63 panspermia 143 paranormal beliefs 193–203, 195 parity, conservation of 34–35, 36–37 particle accelerators 20–22, 26–28 partons (subatomic particles) 19 Pasteur, Louis 138, 139 Pauli, Wolfgang 7, 37 Pauling, Linus 127, 127, 130, 131 Pauling, Peter 131 Payne-Gaposchkin, Celilia 58, 58–59 peace 185 51 Pegasus (star) 68 Penzias, Arno A 69–70 Perutz, Max 127 phages See bacteriophages phenylalanine 136 Phobos (moon of Mars) 90 photinos (hypothetical particles) 74 photography, and astronomy 47 physics, and astronomy 47–48 Piltdown Common (England) 172 Piltdown Man hoax 172–175, 173 pi-mesons See pions Pinto, Joe 120 Pioneer missions 190–191 Pioneer 10 95–96 Pioneer 11 79, 95–96, 98 Pioneer 12 84 Pioneer 13 84 pions (subatomic particles) 17, 22, 30, 38 Planck, Max Planetary Society 66 planetesimals 105 planets See also specific planets extrasolar 68 formation of 105–106 plasmid (in bacteria) 156–157, 158–160 plate tectonics 113 Pluto (planet) 104–105 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, AIDS and 151 polar ice cap, on Mars 92 Polly (cloned sheep) 166, 166 Ponnamperuma, Cyril 142 Pons, B Stanley 60–61 positrons (subatomic particles) 7–8 postmodernism 196–197 potassium-argon dating 171 Powell, Cecil F 17, 18–19 prime focus cage, at Hale Observatory 48 primordial soup 138–142 proline (amino acid) 142 proteins 126, 127 protons (subatomic particles) 6, 28, 38, 40, 43 protoplanets 105 provirus 150, 151 pseudosciences 193–203, 195 psi meson (subatomic particle) 41 psychic hotlines 200 pulsars 53, 54, 64 punctuated equilibria 114–118 punk eek See punctuated equilibria Q QCD See quantum chromodynamics QED See quantum electrodynamics quantum chromodynamics (QCD) 42, 76 quantum electrodynamics (QED) 14–15, 18–19 quantum theory 6, 12–16 and black holes 71–72 and lasers 20–21 quarks (subatomic particles) 19, 37–41 bottom 27, 42 charmed 40–41, 42 colors of 42–43 differences between leptons and 42 down 40, 42 flavors of 41–42 members of 41–42 strange 40, 42 top 28, 42, 43–44 up 40, 42 quasars 53, 62–64 Index 243 quasi-stellar radio sources See quasars “The Question of Parity Conservation in the Weak Force” 35 R Rabi, Isidor 17 radioactive particles radioactivity 31 radio astronomy 59–62 and beginnings of universe 69–70 Kuiper and 82 and pulsars 64 and quasars 62–64 and SETI 64–68 radio telescope 59–62 Ranger missions, to Moon 83 Raup, David M 117–118 recombinant DNA 157 red shift 49, 62–64 Rees, Martin 74 relativity, theory of 47–48, 71 religion, traditional 201–202 resource-imaging satellites 109 restriction enzyme 157 retroviruses 149–151, 150 ribonucleic acid (RNA) 126, 134–135, 149–151 ribose 126 ribosomes 134 Richter, Burton C 41 RNA See ribonucleic acid Roslin Institute (Scotland) 163, 166 Rowland, F Sherwood 119 Rubbia, Carlo 27, 45 Rubin, Vera Cooper 73, 73 rule of nature, simplicity as 44 Ruska, Ernst August Friedrich 148–149 Russell, Henry Norris 53 Rutherford, Ernest 6, 6, 56 S Sagan, Carl 65, 118, 143, 202 Salam, Abdus 45, 45 Sandage, Allan 48–50, 62 satellites 78–79 of Earth 108–109 Infrared Astronomical Satellite 51 LAGEOS 113 Landsat I 108–109 launching of 110 Nimbus 119 resource-imaging 109 Sputnik I 78, 187, 188, 189 Uhuru 51 weather 109, 119 X-ray 51 Saturn (planet) 68, 79, 82, 98, 98–100, 99, 106 scattering experiments 21–22 Schmidt, Maarten 62 Schmitt, Harrison 80 Schrieffer, John Robert 24 Schwinger, Julian Seymour 15, 15–16, 18 science move away from 193–203 and society 185–192 science fiction 186–188 Scorpius X-1 (cosmic xray source) 50–51 SDSS See Sloan Digital Sky Survey search for extraterrestrial intelligence See SETI Searle, Leonard 50 Sedna (planetlike body) 104 Segrè, Emilio 22, 23 semiconductors 10 Sepkoski, J John 117–118 Serber, Robert 39, 40 SETI (search for extraterrestrial intelligence) 64–68 Shapley, Harlow 58 Shockley, William Bradford 10, 11 Shoemaker, Carolyn 97 Shoemaker, Eugene 97 Shoemaker-Levy (comet) 93 simplicity, as rule of nature 44 SIRTF See Spitzer Space Telescope The Skeptical Inquirer (magazine) 203 Skylab (space station) 57–58 SLAC See Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 74 smallpox 147 SMART-1 (spacecraft) 81 Smith, Hamilton 157–158 SNO See Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Snow, C P 18 society, science and 185–192 SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) 101 SOHO See Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Sojourner (Mars rover) 90 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) 57 solar energy production 56 solar flares 58 solar prominences 57 244 Science Frontiers solar systems 68 formation of 105–106 solar wind 57, 106 solid-state semiconductor electronics 10 Sommerfeld, Arnold 56 Southern, Edward A 160 Southern blotting 160 Soviet Union in cold war 185–192 Mars missions of 89–90 and space race 188–191 Venus missions of 84–85 space exploration 78–107 Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) See Spitzer Space Telescope space race 188–191 space shuttles 52, 110, 190 space stations 189 space-time continuum 47–48 SPEAR See Stanford Positron Electron Accelerating Ring spectrography, and astronomy 47 spin-orbit coupling 28 spiral galaxies, rotation of 73 Spirit (Mars rover) 91 Spitzer Space Telescope 54–56, 55 spontaneous generation 138, 139 SPS See Super Proton Synchrotron Sputnik I (satellite) 78, 187, 188, 189 Stahl, F 134 Standard Model, of atoms 43–44, 44f, 76 Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) (California) 3, 3, 27 Stanford Positron Electron Accelerating Ring (SPEAR) (California) 27 Stanley, Wendell 148 star(s) 56–59 binary systems of 51 evolution of 58–59 failed 74 fuel of 56–57 internal processes of 56 neutron stars 53, 54, 64 relative velocity to Earth 62 spectrum of 62 star nurseries 191 Stars and Clusters (PayneGaposchkin) 59 Stars in the Making (Payne-Gaposchkin) 59 stellar energy production 56 stem cell research 163, 165 strangeness number 32–33 strange quark (subatomic particle) 40, 42 Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) 101 strong force (in atoms) 9–12, 38, 43 Struve, Otto 58 SU(3) (Special Unitary group in dimensions) 38 subatomic particle(s) 3–29 See also specific particles and birth of universe 76 discovery of 22 transformation of 76 subatomic particle physics Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) (Canada) sulfa drugs, bacterial resistance to 156–157 Sun 57–58 formation of 105–106 and solar prominences/flares 57, 58 twin of 118 superconductors 24 superfluidity, theory of 19 Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) (particle accelerator) 27 superstring theory 76 Surely You’re Joking, Mr Feynman (Feynman) 19 Synchro-cyclotron (particle accelerator) 22, 26 synchrotron (particle accelerator) 26 T Tananbaum, Harvey 54 Tarter, Jill 66, 67 Tau Ceti (star) 66 tau-mesons See tauons Taung baby (hominid skeleton) 169, 180 tauons (subatomic particles) 18–19, 41 Taurus X-1 (cosmic x–ray source) 51 T cells, HIV and 153 telescopes 47 Chandra X-Ray Observatory 53–54, 55 Compton Gamma Ray Observatory 52–53, 55 Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope 57 Hale telescope 48 Index 245 Hubble Space Telescope 52, 55, 97, 190, 191 James Webb Space Telescope 55 Ozma 66 radio telescopes 59–62 Spitzer Space Telescope 54–56, 55 Very Large Array 61 Teller, Edward 25, 34, 56, 186 Temin, Howard 149 TeV (trillion electron volts) 22 Tevatron (particle accelerator) 22, 28 theories of everything (TOEs) 76 theory of relativity 47–48, 71 therapeutic touch 200 thermoluminescence dating 171 Thomas, Wayte 120 Thomson, J J thymine (nitrogen base) 130 Ting, Samuel Chao Chung 40–41 Titan (moon of Saturn) 68, 82, 98, 99, 99–100 Titania (moon of Uranus) 102 Titus, Timothy 92 TOEs See theories of everything Tombaugh, Clyde W 104 Tomonaga, Shin’ichiro 15–16, 16, 18 top quark (subatomic particle) 28, 42, 43–44 transfer RNA 135 transpersonal psychology 198 transposition, of genes 158–159 trilobite fossils 115 trinucleotides 135–136 triplets, of subatomic particles 39–40 Triton (moon of Neptune) 102, 103, 103 truth, in postmodernism 197 Turkana, Lake (Kenya) 177–178, 178 Turkana Boy (hominid skeleton) 177–178 U Uhuru (satellite) 51 ultraviolet radiation, and beginnings of life 140 Umbriel (moon of Uranus) 102 uncertainty principle 14 uniformitarianism 113 United States in cold war 185–192 in space race 188–191 universe age of 50 birth of 68–69, 72 big bang theory 68–69, 75 inflationary model of 70, 72, 75 quantum chromodyna mics and 76 3-D map of 74 lumpiness of 70 University of Utah, cold fusion experiments at 60–61 up quark (subatomic particle) 40, 42 Uranus (planet) 82, 100–102, 106 Urey, H C 138–140 uridylic acid 136 USSR See Soviet Union V vaccinations, against hepatitis B virus 147 vacuum-tube computers 10 valine (amino acid) 142 Valles Marineris (surface feature on Mars) 89 van der Meer, Simon 45 Vega (star) 51 Vega missions Vega 85 Vega 85 Venera 11 (spacecraft) 84–85 V 818 Sco (star) 51 Venus (planet) 83–86, 120 Very Large Array (VLA) (radio telescopes) 61 Victoria, Lake (Tanzania) 169–172 Viking missions Viking 90 Viking 90 viroids 146–147 virtual particles 14 viruses 146–149 visible light lasers 20 VLSI (very large-scale integrated) circuitry, in radio astronomy 66 volcanoes continental drift and 111, 112 and fossils 171 on Mars 89 plate tectonics and 113 von Braun, Wernher 188–189 Voyager spacecraft 190–191 Voyager 79, 95–96, 98, 100 Voyager 79, 95–96, 98, 101, 102–104 W Walker, Alan 177, 178 Walton, Ernest 26 “War Against Infinities” 13 Watson, James 126–134, 128 weak force, in atoms 43 246 Science Frontiers weak interactions, theory of 19, 31–32, 33–37 weather satellites 109, 119 Wegener, Alfred Lothar 111 Weinberg, Steven 45, 46 Weisskopf, Victor 40 What Do You Care What Other People Think? (Feynman) 19 Wheeler, John Archibald 71 Whitmore, Braley 73 Wigner, Eugene 29 Wildt, Rupert 94 Wilkins, Maurice 127–132, 133 Williamson, Robert 160 Wilmut, Ian 164, 165, 166 Wilska, Alvar P 149 Wilson, Robert 27, 69–70 Witkin, Evelyn 158 Woodward, Arthur Smith 172–175 W particle (subatomic particle) 27 Wu, Chien-shiung 36, 36–37 Yang-Mills gauge invariant fields 34 Yerkers Observatory (Wisconsin) 82 Yukawa, Hideki 9, 9–12, 16 Yukawa particle (subatomic particle) 12 Yukon (subatomic particle) 12 X X-rays atoms and cosmic, sources of 50–51 and satellites 51 Y Yang, Chen Ning (Frank) 33, 33–37 Z Zinjanthropus 171, 172 Zinjanthropus boisei 172 Z particle (subatomic particle) 27 Zweig, George 40 Zwicky, Fritz 72, 72–73 .. .SCIENCE FRONTIERS SCIENCE FRONTIERS 1946 to the Present Ray Spangenburg Diane Kit Moser Science Frontiers: 1946 to the Present Copyright © 2004, 1994 by Ray... Spangenburg, Ray, 1939– Science Frontiers, 1946 to the present / Ray Spangenburg and Diane Kit Moser p cm — (History of science) Revised ed of: The history of science from 1946 to the 1990s Includes... usually why they became scientists Science Frontiers: 1946 to the Present and the four other volumes in The History of Science look at how people have developed this system for finding out how the world
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