Urban public housing in northern nigeria

174 26 0
  • Loading ...
1/174 trang
Tải xuống

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 14/05/2018, 13:24

The Urban Book Series Abubakar Danladi Isah Urban Public Housing in Northern Nigeria The Search for Indigeneity and Cultural Practices in Design The Urban Book Series Aims and Scope The Urban Book Series is a resource for urban studies and geography research worldwide It provides a unique and innovative resource for the latest developments in the field, nurturing a comprehensive and encompassing publication venue for urban studies, urban geography, planning and regional development The series publishes peer-reviewed volumes related to urbanization, sustainability, urban environments, sustainable urbanism, governance, globalization, urban and sustainable development, spatial and area studies, urban management, urban infrastructure, urban dynamics, green cities and urban landscapes It also invites research which documents urbanization processes and urban dynamics on a national, regional and local level, welcoming case studies, as well as comparative and applied research The series will appeal to urbanists, geographers, planners, engineers, architects, policy makers, and to all of those interested in a wide-ranging overview of contemporary urban studies and innovations in the field It accepts monographs, edited volumes and textbooks More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/14773 Abubakar Danladi Isah Urban Public Housing in Northern Nigeria The Search for Indigeneity and Cultural Practices in Design 123 Abubakar Danladi Isah Department of Architecture Federal University of Technology Minna Nigeria ISSN 2365-757X The Urban Book Series ISBN 978-3-319-40191-1 DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-40192-8 ISSN 2365-7588 (electronic) ISBN 978-3-319-40192-8 (eBook) Library of Congress Control Number: 2016941297 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland To my parents and family Foreword According to the United Nations, the number of people living in cities surpassed the number of rural residents several years ago, and the rate of urbanisation is greatest in the cities of Africa, Asia and Latin America A critical issue of contemporary global urbanisation is the question of how the hundreds of millions of people who are living in and who will be living in cities will be housed This question incorporates both the provision of safe and sound houses, as well as the suitability of houses for the lifestyles and cultural habits of the people who live in them This second issue—the cultural appropriateness of housing and how it can be achieved—is the subject of this book In Nigeria and elsewhere, the design of public housing is often based on models that originate elsewhere rather than through detailed understandings of how people live in the place where the housing is built, or through reference to historic cultural patterns As the author, Dr Abubakar Danladi Isah, points out, however, this leads to a mismatch between how people want to live and the housing that is provided for them—leading in turn to informal and illegal house transformations that result in highly disordered urban environments But the nature of these informal transformations in fact represents the heart of Dr Isah’s argument People change their own houses in order to make them more suitable for the way they live The details of these transformations can provide the basis for new design standards that can guide public housing in ways that better fit people’s lives and cultural backgrounds The assumption is—and this is backed up by numerous studies in the field of environment–behaviour studies—that what people provides an accurate guide to their needs and wants The book is based on fieldwork involving the careful observation of existing housing, how people transform that housing over time, and deep understanding of the traditional housing of different ethnic groups in Nigeria Dr Isah’s work shows how the detailed understanding of housing transformations that actually take place makes the bridge between people’s cultural backgrounds and the ways in which public housing design might better accommodate those backgrounds This vii viii Foreword improved accommodation of needs will lead, it is argued, to fewer illegal housing transformations and a more ordered urban environment One of the Dr Isah’s important conclusions is concerned with the need for flexibility in the design of public housing Over the twentieth century, public housing standards allowed for less and less space, and this led to dwellings in which activities were more and more spatially fixed But even though families have particular culturally based patterns of behaviour in their houses, they also use their houses in different ways from each other, and those often unpredictable functional differences also need to be recognised through designs that easily accommodate them This book has implications that go far beyond Nigeria The acceptance of informal urbanisation varies from country to country In some places in Latin America for example, favelas have come to be understood as part of a legitimate process of urbanisation, seen as the first step in a sequence that includes the gradual provision of services and the establishment of legal ownership But in many other places, the replacement of informal dwellings with public housing, or the initial construction of public housing (or private, subsidised housing with regulations set by public authorities), is seen to be the way forward In these cases, the careful initial design of public housing is critical, so that people can feel at home in it, from the beginning This book points the way to methodological frameworks that can help policy makers and architects understand how the cultural contexts in which they are working can improve the dwellings they design Howard Davis Howard Davis is the professor of architecture at the University of Oregon, USA, and a codirector of the Collaborative for Inclusive Urbanism He is the coauthor, with Christopher Alexander and others, of The Production of Houses and author of The Culture of Building and Living Over the Store: Architecture and Local Urban Life Preface This transactional phenomenological research in urban housing transformation centres on typical social building initiated and provided by government as public housings in the northern region of Nigeria Basically, the research sets out to investigate person–environment relations through space and activity space relations The basis of the study is theoretically ingrained in emancipatory research philosophy, aligning with several ways of human thought based on diverse social, political, economic, gender, and inhabitants’ ethnic background in spite of existing commonalities Uniquely common to this book is the persistent emphasis on the need to uncover the yield in housing transformation benefits and regulate unstructured public housing transformation, a gap yet to be addressed This book thus responds to the widely experienced challenges in public housing with respect to the transition (evolution, growth and maturity) practised in public housing units in developing countries It therefore provides direction to the challenges and changing face of housing spatial problems experienced by public housing residents living in the urban environment This arose from the need to provide for clarity in space perception and its associated relationship with households’ social traits Therefore, relating the clarity of building entity to behavioural patterns comprehended from users’ viewpoint, each with its describable, distinct but complementary features Minna, Nigeria 2016 Abubakar Danladi Isah ix Acknowledgement The author acknowledges the support received from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia in providing the enabling environment for this study Specifically, the guidance and encouragement received from Dr Tareef Hayat Khan were of immense value and deeply appreciated In particular, recognition is his patience in the supervision of the research content and editing the initial draft of this book Similarly, the valuable support received from numerous personalities during the data collection stage is greatly acknowledged Also, the author appreciates the contribution of Professor Howard Davis and his acceptance to write the book’s foreword Finally, the author sincerely thanks Springer group for cooperating to publish the book xi Cultural Determinants and Spatial Patterns of Public Housing … 146 Table 7.6 Spatial composition of samples Case A Case B Case C Size of household Number of bedrooms Additional living spaces Average occupancy rate 15 13 20 08 07 04 01 02 04 per room per room per room kitchens and women living areas such as bedrooms are kept at the rear of the compounds to ensure their privacy Equally, apartments sited in the fore courtyard are provided for guest and adult males of the compound The household sizes in relation to the rooms are provided in Table 7.6, even though living rooms are relatively used in the night for children to sleep therein 7.4.6 Spatial Patterns 7.4.6.1 Emerging Culture Reflective Spatial Pattern Replicates the Root and Useful for Design Planning Across the region, a consistent pattern of sequential configuration was prominent It begins with initial fore courtyard, a reception foyer, the main building and an inner Pattern comprise of three sections A Male dominated outdoor-fore courtyard area with room for male adults (children and visitors) B is the core provision (main building with habitable spaces for the family head and his wife or wives C Comprise of the inner courtyard for domestic chores with kitchen and storage services Rooms for children and resident relatives are located here Fig 7.10 Common spatial pattern discovered at the root 7.4 The Implicit Domains 147 courtyard that remain common among transformed houses Enclosures situated in both the fore and inner courtyard relatively depend on the household structure In addition, alternative entrances connect both courtyards To achieve these pattern transformers often compromises the size and existence of open spaces to be able to reshape the layout Nevertheless, this study persistently affirms that the pattern reflects indigenous urban architectural character which aligns with the general root pattern and ideal for subsequent public housing design The common consistent pattern is shown in Fig 7.10 and illustrated in transformed housing units in Fig 7.11 The consistency upholds privacy, gender convenience and households’ social structure critical in design planning It therefore connotes that these enduring culture-responsive patterns are necessary design guides in achieving successful sustainable public housing design that recommended for policy and design brief development (a) (c) (b) (d) Fig 7.11 Spatial arrangement showing consistency of flow 148 Cultural Determinants and Spatial Patterns of Public Housing … Case The fore courtyard connects to the children section where the alternate entrance is situated from where it links with the inner courtyard The rear exit of the main building and the kitchen which is detached from the main building opens to the inner courtyard Case Similarly, the fore courtyard connects with the inner courtyard through a side entrance route within the fence and the main building The shop could be accessed from both outside and the inner courtyard, respectively This connection sometimes allows the link to be used as service route into the house Case In this situation, guest and children sections are provided within the fore court yard Consequently, an entrance route is created between the main building and the newly created apartment in the fore courtyard Also, the kitchen and the store were relocated to the inner courtyard This has greatly reduced the domestic open space of the inner courtyard Case The compound gained more space with a complete reconfiguration total area that led to the creation of four separate buildings which includes a security post beside the gate Adult male section opens to the fore courtyard, and in the entire compound, there are two fore and inner courtyards, respectively The overall sequence in the four examples represents a consistent layout structure with the spatial pattern replicating the countryside, hence suggested for design visions 7.4.7 Space Formation 7.4.7.1 Initial Core Unit to Begin a Course of Phases in Transformation Practices Transformed layout is observed to be attained with initial layout as taking off stage, thus suggested as core provision in public housing delivery Progressive stages which occur upon occupation should actualise the final formation of the houses The physical composition, space distribution and pattern of initial designs guided the projections during transformation In order to achieve the form, spaces modified as contained in the transformation process and the underlying meaning remain basic useful design attributes essential for the design framework Illustratively, kitchen relocation and reorientation present strong association with the inner outdoor space (courtyard) This is in contrast to its link with the dining area or living room which is the practice in modern design and contained in the initial designs The provision of entrance reception and its location shows its social significance In the same effect, courtyards and other open spaces relate social effect to inhabitants by their location and connection to other spaces This is proven by the conversion of courtyards provided in the initial layouts and its recreation at needed locations Although creating in-suite toilets in the bedrooms appears to be consistent, it is an 7.4 The Implicit Domains (a) 149 (b) Case 1:Initial Layout (c) Transformed (d) Case Initial Transformed Fig 7.12 Conversion of internally fused open spaces into enclosures example of the influence of urban living standards in the transformation process Above all, these space formation approaches are ideal and requires formalisation for culture inclusive public housing design The assertion is further explained with illustrations as shown in Fig 7.12 Case The car garage and courtyard are converted into bedrooms This is usual in houses with open spaces within the core building after boundary fence and new open spaces have been provided Case In this case, the courtyard and even enclosed spaces are completely transformed, hence reshaping the layout Case In this situation, the inner courtyard was perfected after two rooms were created and attached to the main building leaving a little setback In addition, the creation of new kitchen and boys’ bedrooms both attached to the fence defined the inner courtyard (see Fig 7.13) Case The initial courtyard embedded in the building and the recess were converted into bedrooms and family living room and effectively fused to the layout A new provision for outdoor cooking was made in the inner courtyard (see Fig 7.14) Cultural Determinants and Spatial Patterns of Public Housing … 150 (a) (b) Case 3:Initial Layout Transformed Layout Fig 7.13 Transformation with reference to initial layout (d) (c) Case Initial Transformed Layout Fig 7.14 Transformation with reference to the initial layout (i) 7.4 The Implicit Domains 151 Case In Fig 7.15, both transformed layouts added two rooms with toilets utilising the recessed space in the initial layout Case The situation in this category does not allow for the attachment of additional spaces to the core building Therefore, the new creations are situated in the (a) Case 5:Initial Layout (b) (c) Transformed layouts Fig 7.15 Transformation with reference to the initial layout (ii) 152 Cultural Determinants and Spatial Patterns of Public Housing … (a) (b) Case 6:Initial (c) Transformed (d) Transformed Transformed Layout Fig 7.16 Transformation with reference to the initial layout (iii) inner courtyard; while the fore courtyard is created after erecting boundary fences (see Fig 7.16) Case The example provided in this case represents situation where the transformed house is located in a block of flats The two examples are buildings located at opposite ends of a block of four flats, thereby gaining additional space by the sides In the first example, a bedroom and accompanying toilet were created, while in the second example, two additional rooms and a toilet are created and linked to the building through the living room (see Fig 7.17) 7.5 Re-adaptation of Cultural Attributes; Public Housing Design Framework 153 Case 7: Initial Layout Transformed Layouts with focus on additional rooms enclosing the courtyard Fig 7.17 Transformation taking advantage of side setbacks 7.5 Re-adaptation of Cultural Attributes; Public Housing Design Framework These domains collectively present ideals for typical culture-responsive public housing design Its pragmatic constituents are substantial for policy formation or review and for developers to initiate design brief adequate to meet users’ desires Its benefit suits culture-responsive communities seeking to improve indigenous ideals in public housing design using the emic and epic paradigm Beyond this, the framework provides substance for indigenous urban architecture which lacks adequate attention in the built environment The framework which combines the seven domains attests to the significance of space in public housing, with each relatively reshaping space quality within the confines of land constrains, density and applicability of cultural tenets Afterwards, public housing residents re-adapt with their root 154 Cultural Determinants and Spatial Patterns of Public Housing … The re-adaptation of public housing residents with their cultural tendencies is assured with the housing that culturally and architecturally fits their perception of abode Therefore, transformation benefits formally exhibited in the transformed units represent emerging indigenous urban architecture The concept of indigenous urban architecture lies in the ‘recognition region’—an interface where there is a collective agreement between the etic and emic ideals to coexist 7.5.1 Culture-Responsive Design The convergence of the seven domains to relate the proposed design framework substantially presents the features desired in a culture-responsive design guidelines Certainly, the procedural approach ensures that the suggested guidelines are grounded evidences that evolve from public housing users’ experiences and housing transformation initiatives Satisfaction derived from functional ability is weighted by effective execution of routine activities which reflects a social system culturally inclined to gender, age and privacy The main implication to the users expresses the performance of activity to be more significant than its hosting space Thus, the consistency of the emergent pattern regardless of varieties witnessed in arrangement affirms the cultural satisfaction derived in the spaces formed As a result, despite the technological impact, ordered spaces align with family structure across the household’s life cycle allowing home ownership which supports required transformation practices Another implication is the significance that lies with the transformation process and practice which facilitates changes to be made in phases as need for changes evolve with time Developing houses in phases from a common core is therefore highly asserted by this study 7.5.2 Emerging Urban Architectural Character This research provides evidences that prompt insight into housing outlook as a growing structure with resident’s behavioural tendencies determining the growth pattern Until architects accept this concept of house as a ‘flexible living object’ configuration, issues will persist Therefore, designers should understand ‘cultural design paradigm’ appropriate in public housing design in culture sensitive situations in order to succeed Accordingly, occupation after the completion of core unit of public housing should be seen as the end of the first stage of its creation The growth into maturity is achieved during the transformation period and process Consequently, the architectural character that emanates from the transformation practices is considered indigenous urban architecture worthy of research and adoption It displays potentials for students to learn and architects to imbibe and practice towards achieving sustainable public housing design 7.6 Conclusion 7.6 155 Conclusion The outcome indicates how transformation benefits have reflected in the spatial patterns that evolved from the transformation process Property ownership provided occupants the impetus to harness these benefits, hence satisfying their needs Therefore, ownership transfer of public housing after core provision improves liveability and shapes successive phases of development In addition, homogeneous provisions of core units provide the basic initial layouts with flexibility for anticipated transformation due to changes in user needs In sum, the discoveries imply that the design patterns that contain transformation benefits and generated from real-life situations require operationalisation as applicable foundation in public housing design The benefits include achieving additional functional spaces such as rooms, toilets, outdoor spaces and living rooms which increase occupants’ livelihood configuration and quality References Mberu BU (2005) Who moves and who stays? Rural out-migration in Nigeria J Popul Res 22(2):141–161 Miles MB, Huberman AM, Saldaña J (2013) Qualitative data analysis: a methods sourcebook Sage, Thousand Oaks Chapter Rethinking Sustainable Public Housing Design in Cultured Communities Abstract Applicable guidelines on sustainable housing design in culture responsive societies emanated from insight of the user rooted in response of the inhabitants to space use Indeed, public housing transformation has enabled inhabitants reshape their dwelling with attributes of culture informing their required layout Accordingly, planning thoughts directed to liveability of the user in indigenous insights as a pathway towards rethinking of public housing design was established It is echoed as culture responsive design and architectural character which is the thrust of this chapter This is achieved through the process of re-adaptation of root culture by inhabitants, renewed planning, and attainment of desired configuration thus emphasising importance of the user in the process Keywords Culture responsive Reshaped dwelling 8.1 Á Indigenous architecture Á Planning paradigm Á Introduction The concept of culture-responsive design and indigenous urban architectural character can no longer be ignored The outcome of this book relates two insights on the significance of integrating cultural values in public housing design via the platform of housing transformation Inhabitants’ behavioural responses in space interaction which produced transformed units that expresses useful benefits gave rise to these insights They provide sustainable guidelines for future public housing design 8.2 Inhabitants’ Adaptation with the Transformed Pattern Replicating the Root Planning and design of sustainable public housing should recognise residents’ persistent desire for sociocultural liveability The transformed public housing unit seems to have provided occupants with the desired spatial needs offering them © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 A.D Isah, Urban Public Housing in Northern Nigeria, The Urban Book Series, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-40192-8_8 157 158 Rethinking Sustainable Public Housing Design … cultural preferences in space formation The re-adaptation, new planning and layout concepts have ensured housing satisfaction of users, thus improving occupancy ratio, design arrangement and operational effectiveness of spaces enhanced through transformation process Therefore, attributes of spatial configuration rooted in culture are affirmed to sustain public housing design and delivery system 8.3 Indigenous Participation in Sustainable Public Housing Planning Global strategy on sustainable development for shelter campaigns for the consideration of users’ cultural agitations Reliance on the previous experiences to project how consumers participate in defining their housing needs becomes inevitable It provides useful design information which extends housing formation beyond occupation to the period of use and operation, and also offers inhabitants, the opportunity to participate in housing production However, the lack of ingredient is the formalisation of indigenous core cultural space uses Such that at initial stages, future design projections and culture-influenced spaces could be standardise in order to phase development of housing which optimises the built environmental quality and ensures sustainability 8.4 Rethinking Public Housing Design Concept Considerably, this research demonstrated the need to rethink the concept of public housing Deviating from the concept of a one-time finished structure to a package that spans through inhabitants’ habitation cycle allows for subsequent inevitable transformation The impact of transformation has overshadowed the violations emphasised by regulators Therefore, rather than ignoring the potentials therein, regulations to standardise patterns that support design elements for culture reflective public housing design are essential By this, developers can easily adopt the paradigm, and further research and practice by architects would be assured Public housing provision has advanced beyond homogenous provisions to heterogeneous forms that reflect innovative social concepts of inhabitants’ liveability In these intuitions lies the desired public housing conception that results from an empirical research raising issues that are outlined below for consideration • Transformation practices are yet to gain full understanding and inclusion in the provisions of building regulations • Family sociocultural values connected with the root are reflected in transformed houses, they blend with urban ideals, and the impact of technology gives rise to hybrid urban architecture 8.4 Rethinking Public Housing Design Concept 159 • Multifunctional ability of spaces in preference to customisation of space use is fast growing and necessary for spatial flexibility in present and future space needs • Compatibility of occupancy rate and overall space needs remains critical; therefore, unstable household size should correspond with the housing structure at all times 8.4.1 Ideals for Policy and Design Implications Ultimately, the outcome presents creative stanzas that relay design and policy inferences in attainment of sustainable design in culture sensitive communities They evolved from basic parameters of space, culture and housing transformation First, policies are needed for public housing design and delivery process that reconceptualises from completed identical products to a system that develops in stages and periods effectively adjusting to inhabitants’ design needs Second, architects and developers need to understand that sustainable public housing design relates inhabitants’ expectation in hybrid habitation dynamics and that flexibility of household activities projects the functionality of space in design Third, the research outcome espoused the need for the provision of regulations to standardise core-formalised unspoken rules established in the transformed layout patterns that support design indices for culture reflective public housing design Lastly, effective and continuous research development would enrich evidence-based design ideals that will guide the optimisation of public housing production 8.5 Conclusion Irrefutably, government and private developers’ enormous investment in public housing is of excessive concern especially with the corresponding rise in demand for cultured housing Invariably, the design of this book focuses on accomplishing the task to develop culture-inclusive design index by finding core culture attributes at the countryside Thereafter, it establishes the effect on urban public housing As a result, spatial patterns are generated and synthesised with cultural determinants to achieve culture-responsive design index The design index implicitly coded, resulted from a procedure which was rigorously subjected to structured scientific system of inquiry that produced findings which converged as domain statements 160 Rethinking Sustainable Public Housing Design … Accordingly, the research outcome gave rise to the affirmation that actualisation of culture-responsive design should be derived from transformation benefits that express the engagement with users’ experience Users’ initiated transformation offers diversities of architectural and cultural orders that in turn provide potentials towards upgrading the quality of public housing design Public housing design thus should stem from core unit and grow in phases reifying dynamic household needs and desires The limitation of root practices by technology reshapes the cultural orders to practicable standards that yearn for professional perfection This outcome presents a culture-responsive design concept embedded in indigenous urban architecture with potentials for a paradigm in policy and practice Hereafter, housing transformation quality could be optimised through incorporating the best practices of the new paradigm In addition, young architects are provided with platform to learn the changing trend in clients’ requirements in their immediate communities Significantly, this would reduce chaotic neighbourhoods, improve urban architecture, increase public housing sustainability and enrich the skills of architects Above all, users’ preferences are expressed in their participation in the process; thus, optimisation of this potential portrays the understanding of the client and the user which architecture professes Indeed, comfortable designs minimise health vulnerabilities as witnessed in spontaneous developments, thereby decreasing substandard housing Effectually, experts and investors have to realise these existing possibilities in transformation and allow design schemes conform to essential benefits of cultural order Similarly, the shaping of urban spaces by cultural order due to the unbroken link of urban residents with their root should be acknowledged Finally, despite the increasing effect of Western architecture in traditional cities and the resultant resistivity echoed in morphological products as observed in transformed layouts, the concept of indigenous urban architectural character is perceived as a fresh area of study Glossary Culture inclusion Operationally, the concept of culture regulation in the context of this book implies regulating cultural expression in building layout by defining the threshold of what is applicable from the root that can be assimilated in urban public housing It provides standardised ideas and systems to peoples’ way of living The process satisfies the spatial demands of diverse urban dwellers that agree to their lifestyle with maximum consideration of their norms Evidence-based design Design solutions informed by information and ideals deduced from empirical research outcome Integration strategies It involves inculcation of ideas, products and technologies from one group into another, thereby accepting certain norms, practices and products of other groups Contextually, it means establishing mutual social cohesion among a multicultural groups’ spatial provision with maximum satisfaction of users Public housing Mass residential units initiated by government in providing accommodation for the low- and medium-income categories of the urban population This was ongoing and managed by authorities until most of them were sold to occupants on owner occupier sales scheme Spatial configuration Networking complex activity spaces to successfully relate them with the social activities in providing indigenous social meaning to space performance Transformation It is also understood as change, consisting of post-occupational physical and spatial changes made to public housings that alters the original design concept and in some cases extending with additional floor area Root The term root is used to refer to the traditional dwelling set-up basically found in the country sides or rural areas of the region © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 A.D Isah, Urban Public Housing in Northern Nigeria, The Urban Book Series, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-40192-8 161 ... tangible and intangible cultural features to be adopted in urban housing design 1.4.3.1 Building Evidence-Based Design for Public Housing Bearing in mind, the significance of culture in housing design... desire for indigenousness in urban public housing by inhabitants Keywords Culture integration 2.1 Á Housing dissatisfaction Á Urban migrants Introduction In addressing design and culture integration... qualitative housing in urban environments 1.4.2 Seeking to Regulate Indiscriminate Housing Transformation Integral transformation that appears in dynamic housing growth carried out by inhabitants
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: Urban public housing in northern nigeria , Urban public housing in northern nigeria , 4 Public Housing Concept in Nigeria, Conflict in User and Providers’ Views, 2 Optimising User Activity–Space Relations Through Control Levels, 3 Ethnography: The Search for Cultural Determinants and Patterns, 4 Life at the Root, Identifying the Core Space Use Values, 1 Introduction: Recapitulating the Emerging Design Standpoint, 5 Re-adaptation of Cultural Attributes; Public Housing Design Framework, 2 Inhabitants’ Adaptation with the Transformed Pattern Replicating the Root

Từ khóa liên quan

Mục lục

Xem thêm

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn

Nhận lời giải ngay chưa đến 10 phút Đăng bài tập ngay