Side effects of drugs annual volume 36

803 16 0
  • Loading ...
1/803 trang
Tải xuống

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 14/05/2018, 14:24

Side Effects of Drugs Annual Volume 36 Honorary Editor Prof M.N.G Dukes, Oslo, Norway SIDE EFFECTS OF DRUGS ANNUAL VOLUME 36 A worldwide yearly survey of new data in adverse drug reactions Editor Sidhartha D Ray, PhD., FACN Manchester University College of Pharmacy, USA AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON • NEW YORK • OXFORD PARIS • SAN DIEGO • SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO Elsevier Radarweg 29, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, UK 225 Wyman Street, Waltham, MA 02451, USA First edition 2014 Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, i­ ncluding photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher’s permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our website: www.elsevier.com/permissions This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein) Notices Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any ­information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or ­operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein ISBN: 978-0-444-63407-8 ISSN: 0378-6080 For Information on all Elsevier publications visit our website at http://store.elsevier.com/ Contributors Lise Aagaard  Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, J.B Winsløws Vej, Odense, Denmark Pierre Chue  Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Frank C Church  Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Bolaji Abdullahi  Department of Internal Medicine, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja Joan Costa  Clinical Pharmacology Department, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain Brian A Baldo  Royal North Shore Hospital of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Charlotte I.S Barker  Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, Infection and Immunity Research Institute, St George’s University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, UK Ana L.G Cruz  Department of Microbiology, Oxford University Hospitals, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK Jordan Cunningham  Greenslopes Private Hospital, Brisbane, Australia Aljoša Bavec  Institute of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia Stephen Curran  Fieldhead Hospital, South West Yorkshire Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Ouchthorpe Lane, Wakefield, WF1 3SP, UK Jules Beal  Saul R Korey Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center Bronx, NY, USA Suzanne M Cutts  Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe University, VIC, Australia Glenda E Bilder  Department of Natural Sciences, Gwynedd Mercy University, Gwynedd Valley, PA, USA Rif S El-Mallakh  Mood Disorders Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA Corrado Blandizzi  Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Roma, 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy M Farré  Human Pharmacology and Neurosciences, Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques (IMIM), Parc de Salut Mar Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Eike Blohm  Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Michael T Bowen  Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; School of Psychology, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia Elizabeth Flockton  Departments of Anaesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool, United Kingdom Edward W Boyer  Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Swaran J.S Flora  Associate Director, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Division of Regulatory Toxicology, Gwalior, India Lucy Burr  University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; Mater Health Services, Brisbane, Australia Jason C Gallagher  Temple University, School of Pharmacy Santos Castañeda  Department of Rheumatology, IIS-Princesa, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Madrid, Spain Tatsuya Gomi  Department of Radiology, Ohashi Medical Center, Toho University, Japan Peter R Chai  Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Waddy Gonzalez  Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; The James J Peters VA Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA K Chan  Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney and The National Institute of Complementary Medicine, University of Western Sydney, NSW, Australia Joshua P Gray  Department of Science, United States Coast Guard Academy, New London, CT, USA J.B Hagan  Division of Allergic Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA Elizabeth P Chappell  McAllister Heart Institute Victoria Chatzimavridou-Grigoriadou  Respiratory Assembly, Hellenic Society for the Advancement of Biomedical Research, Athens, Greece Alison Hall  Departments of Anaesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool, United Kingdom N.H Choulis  Professor of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Kifisia, Athens, Greece Makoto Hasegawa  Department of Radiology, Ohashi Medical Center, Toho University, Japan v vi CONTRIBUTORS Yuichi Hattori  Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan Marta Martín Millán  Department of Internal Medicine, IFIMAV, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Cantabria, Spain M.S Jawahar  Department of Clinical Research, National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis [ICMR], Mayor Sathiyamoorthy road, Chetput, Chennai A Minhinnick  The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, UK Lokesh Kumar Jha  Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA Nisharahmed I Kherada  Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; The James J Peters VA Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA J.D Kreuter  Transfusion Medicine, Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA Tadeusz F Krzeminski  Chair and Department of Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Division, Medical University of Silesia, Zabrze, Poland Dirk W Lachenmeier  Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, 76187 Karlsruhe, Germany R Latini  Department of Cardiovascular Research, IRCCSIstituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan, Italy Jodi M Lestner  Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, Infection and Immunity Research Institute, St George’s University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, UK M Leuwer  University Department of Anaesthesia, University of Liverpool, The Duncan Building, Daulby Street, Liverpool, UK Ho Kwong Li  Nuffield Department of Medicine, Experimental Medicine Division, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK Z.X Lin  School of Chinese Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, NT, Hong Kong SAR, PR China Careen Y Lowder  Cleveland Clinic Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA Arduino A Mangoni  Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Flinders University and Flinders Medical Centre, SA, Australia G Masclee  Department of Medical Informatics, Erasmus University Medical Center, CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Alexander G Mathioudakis  Chest Centre, Aintree University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK; Respiratory Assembly, Hellenic Society for the Advancement of Biomedical Research, Athens, Greece Philip B Mitchell  School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales; Black Dog Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia Katarzyna Anna Mitręga  Chair and Department of Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Division, Medical University of Silesia, Zabrze, Poland Sandeep Mukherjee  Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA Patrick Mulvaney  Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, USA Shabir Musa  Fieldhead Hospital, South West Yorkshire Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Ouchthorpe Lane, Wakefield, WF1 3SP, UK Toshio Nakaki  Department of Pharmacology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi Ward, Tokyo, Japan Bogdan Neagu  Hoffmann-La Roche, Mississauga, ON, Canada A Nobili  Department of Neuroscience, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan, Italy Catherine P O’Sullivan  Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, Infection and Immunity Research Institute, St George’s University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, UK Augustine N Odili  Department of Internal Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria; Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Wakana Ohashi  Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan Igho J Onakpoya  Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom C Padmapriyadarsini  Department of Clinical Research, National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis [ICMR], Mayor Sathiyamoorthy road, Chetput, Chennai L Pasina  Department of Neuroscience, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan, Italy Georgios A Mathioudakis  Respiratory Assembly, Hellenic Society for the Advancement of Biomedical Research, Athens, Greece; Respiratory Centre of Athens, Greece Jayendra K Patel  Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA H McShane  The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, UK Isobel D Ramsay  Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK Francesco Pichi  San Giuseppe Hospital-University Eye Clinic, Milan, Italy CONTRIBUTORS Sidhartha D Ray  Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manchester University College of Pharmacy, Fort Wayne, IN, USA Mir Wais Sekandarzad  Fellow in Pain Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital Associate Lecturer, University of Queensland Medical School David M Rayner  Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe University, VIC, Australia David Serisier  Mater Research, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia; Mater Health Services, Brisbane, Australia Reuben Reich  Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, USA Leslie Robinson-Bostom  Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, USA Clive Rosendorff  Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; The James J Peters VA Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA Teijo I Saari  Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care, Emergency Care, and Pain Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland Amir Sajjadi  ST5 in Old Age Psychiatry In-patient units, The Mount Hospital, Leeds and York Partnerships-NHS Foundation Trust Century Way Leeds West Yorkshire LS15 8ZB,UK vii Oscar Ozmund Simooya  Copperbelt University Health Services, Kitwe, Zambia Jonathan Smithson  School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales; Black Dog Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia Magdalena Stankiewicz  Chair and Department of Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Division, Medical University of Silesia, Zabrze, Poland Kimberly A Toussaint  Temple University, School of Pharmacy Garry M Walsh  Immunity, Infection and Inflammation Programme, Division of Applied Medicine, School of Medicine & Dentistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, UK Carmelo Scarpignato  Clinical Pharmacology & Digestive Pathophysiology Unit, Department of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43125 Parma, Italy M Wilkie  The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, UK Stephan A Schug  Chair of Anaesthesiology, Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Anaesthesiology Unit, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Director of Pain Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital H.W Zhang  School of Chinese Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, NT, Hong Kong SAR, PR China C Williams  Department of Anaesthesia, 12th Floor, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool, UK Preface Side Effects of Drugs: Annual (SEDA) is a yearly publication focussing on existing, new and evolving side effects of drugs encountered by physicians, pharmacists, nurse practitioners, advisors of poison control centres and a broad range of health care professionals This thirty-sixth edition of SEDA includes analyses of the side effects of drugs using case-based principles which include encounters identified during bedside clinical practice over the 18 months since the previous edition SEDA seeks to summarize the entire body of relevant medical literature into a single ­volume with dual goals of being comprehensive and of identifying emerging trends and themes in medicine as related to side effects and adverse effects With a broad range of topics authored by practising clinicians, SEDA provides a comprehensive, reliable reference to be used in clinical practice The majority of the chapters include relevant case studies that are not only fact-based but also have a forward-looking, learning-based focus suitable for practitioners as well as students in training The nationally and internationally known contributors believe that this educational source can be used to stimulate an active learning environment in multiple settings Each chapter in this volume has been reviewed by experienced clinical educators, actively practising clinicians and scientists to ensure the accuracy and timeliness of the information The overall goal is to provide a framework of understanding in the intellectual approaches in analysing implications of the case studies and their appropriateness when dispensing medications, as well as interpreting adverse drug reactions, toxicity and outcomes resulting from medication errors Efforts were made to emphasize the side effects without ignoring the significance of adverse drug reactions and/ or toxicity after medication therapy The broad range of topics authored and reviewed by actively practising clinicians presents a rich source of incidents encountered in clinical practice All the chapters are based on relevant case studies and resultant drug therapy outcomes Efforts will be intensified in subsequent editions to accentuate further understanding of the intellectual approaches in analysing implications of the case studies and its appropriateness after dispensing medications The collective wisdom of Prof Aronson (the immediate past editor) and the combined expertise of the many authors and reviewers were vital in the creation of a volume of this breadth Reviewing the appropriateness, timeliness and organization of this edition consumed an enormous amount of energy by the authors, reviewers and the editorial team, which we hope will facilitate the flow of information both inter-professionally among health practitioners, professionals in training, and students, and will ultimately improve patient care Scanning for accuracy, rebuilding and reorganizing information between each edition is not an easy task; therefore, the editors have the difficult task of accepting or rejecting information The editorial team will consider this undertaking worthwhile if this publication helps to provide better patient care; fulfills the needs of the health care professionals in sorting out side effects of medications, medication errors or adverse events and has stimulated interest among those working and studying medicine, pharmacy, nursing, physical therapy, chiropractic, and those working in the basic therapeutic arms of pharmacology, toxicology, medicinal chemistry and pathophysiology The new editor is grateful to Prof Aronson, all the contributors and reviewers, and will continue to maintain the legacy of this publication by building on their hard work The editor would also like to extend special thanks for the support and expert editorial assistance provided by Prof Joshua Gray during the compilation of this work Sidhartha D Ray Editor xiii Special Reviews in SEDA-36 Pharmacogenomics and antiepileptic medications (Chapter 7) Opioid abuse epidemic and the role of take-home naloxone (Chapter 8) Tiotropium bromide (Chapter 16) Glycopyrronium bromide (Chapter 16) Aclidinium bromide (Chapter 16) Angioedema and drugs that target the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (Chapter 20) Coformulated elvitegravir/cobicistat/FTC/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate–the ‘Quad Pill’ (marketed as stribild) (Chapter 29) Tolerance of high dose rifampicin (Chapter 30) Second-generation effects:pregnancy (Chapter 32) Vaccines in the immunocompromised (Chapter 32) Interactions: drug–drug (Chapter 32) Respiratory (Chapter 37) Blinatumomab (Chapter 37) Obinutuzumab (Gazyva®; GA 101; R7159; Afutuzumab) (Chapter 37) New mechanism for cardiotoxicity (Chapter 45) xv 85 107 247 249 249 280 414 445 470 471 477 570 572 578 686 Table of Essays, Annuals 1–35 SEDA Author Country Title M.N.G Dukes The Netherlands The moments of truth K.H Kimbel Germany Drug monitoring: why care? L Lasagna USA Wanted and unwanted drug effects: The need for perspective M.N.G Dukes The Netherlands The van der Kroef syndrome J.P Griffin, P.F D'Arcy UK Adverse reactions to drugs—the information lag I Bayer Hungary Science vs practice and/or practice vs science E Napke Canada Adverse reactions: some pitfalls and postulates M.N.G Dukes Denmark The seven pillars of foolishness W.H.W Inman UK Let's get our act together 10 S Van Hauen Denmark Integrated medicine, safer medicine and “AIDS” 11 M.N.G Dukes Denmark Hark, hark, the fictitious dogs bark 12 M.C Cone Switzerland Both sides of the fence 13 C Medawar UK On our side of the fence 14 M.N.G Dukes, E Helsing Denmark The great cholesterol carousel 15 P Tyrer UK The nocebo effect—poorly known but getting stronger 16 M.N.G Dukes Denmark Good enough for Iganga? 17 M.N.G Dukes Denmark The mists of tomorrow 18 R.D Mann UK Databases, privacy, and confidentiality—the effect of proposed legislation on pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety monitoring 19 A Herxheimer UK Side effects: Freedom of information and the communication of doubt 20 E Ernst UK Complementary/alternative medicine: What should we about it? 21 H Jick USA Thirty years of the Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program in relation to principles and methods of drug safety research 22 J.K Aronson, R.E Ferner UK Errors in prescribing, preparing, and giving medicines: Definition, classification, and prevention 23 K.Y Hartigan-Go, J.Q Wong Philippines Inclusion of therapeutic failures as adverse drug reactions 24 IPalmlund UK Secrecy hiding harm: case histories from the past that inform the future 25 L Marks UK The pill: untangling the adverse effects of a drug 26 D.J Finney UK From thalidomide to pharmacovigilance: a Personal account 26 L.L Iversen UK How safe is cannabis? 27 J.K Aronson UK Louis Lewin—Meyler's predecessor 27 H Jick USA The General Practice Research Database 28 J.K Aronson UK Classifying adverse drug reactions in the twenty-first century 29 M Hauben, A Bate USA/Sweden Data mining in drug safety 30 J.K Aronson UK Drug withdrawals because of adverse effects 31 J Harrison, P Mozzicato USA MedDRA®: The Tale of a Terminology 32 K Chan Australia Regulating complementary and alternative medicines 33 Graham Dukes Norway Third-generation oral contraceptives: time to look again? 34 Yoon K Loke UK An agenda for research into adverse drug reactions 35 J.K Aronson UK Observational studies in assessing benefits and harms: Double standards? xvii Mechanistic and Clinical Descriptions of Adverse Drug Reactions Adverse drug reactions are described in SEDA using two complementary systems, EIDOS and DoTS [1–3] These two systems are illustrated in Figures and and general templates for describing reactions in this way are shown in Figures 3–5 Examples of their use have been discussed elsewhere [4–8] EIDOS The EIDOS mechanistic description of adverse drug reactions [3] has five elements: the Extrinsic species that initiates the reaction (Table 1); the Intrinsic species that it affects; the Distribution of these species in the body; the (physiological or pathological) Outcome (Table 2), which is the adverse effect; the Sequela, which is the adverse reaction Extrinsic species This can be the parent compound, an excipient, a contaminant or adulterant, a degradation product, or a derivative of any of these (e.g a metabolite) (for examples see Table 1) Intrinsic species This is usually the endogenous molecule with which the extrinsic species interacts; this can be a nucleic acid, an enzyme, a receptor, an ion channel or transporter, or some other protein Distribution A drug will not produce an adverse effect if it is not distributed to the same site as the target species that mediates the adverse effect Thus, the pharmacokinetics of the extrinsic species can affect the occurrence of adverse reactions Outcome Interactions between extrinsic and intrinsic species in the production of an adverse effect can result in physiological or pathological changes (for examples see Table 2) Physiological changes can involve either increased actions (e.g clotting due to tranexamic acid) or decreased actions (e.g bradycardia due to beta-adrenoceptor antagonists) Pathological changes can involve cellular adaptations (atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia and neoplasia), altered cell function (e.g mast cell degranulation in IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions) or cell damage (e.g cell lysis, necrosis or apoptosis) Sequela The sequela of the changes induced by a drug describes the clinically recognizable adverse drug reaction, of which there may be more than one Sequelae can be classified using the DoTS system • • • • • DOTS In the DoTS system (SEDA-28, xxvii–xxxiii; 1,2) adverse drug reactions are described according to the Dose at which they usually occur, the Time-course over which they occur, and the Susceptibility factors that make them more likely, as follows: • Relation to dose •Toxic reactions (reactions that occur at supratherapeutic doses) •Collateral reactions (reactions that occur at standard therapeutic doses) •Hypersusceptibility reactions (reactions that occur at subtherapeutic doses in susceptible individuals) • Time course •Time-independent reactions (reactions that occur at any time during a course of therapy) •Time-dependent reactions -Immediate or rapid reactions (reactions that occur only when drug administration is too rapid) -First-dose reactions (reactions that occur after the first dose of a course of treatment and not necessarily thereafter) -Early tolerant and early persistent reactions (reactions that occur early in treatment then either abate with continuing treatment, owing to tolerance, or persist) xix 758 glycoprotein IIb–IIIa inhibitors, 533 See also eptifibatide glycopyrronium bromide, 249 gold, 305 salts, 305 gonadorelin See Gonadotropins gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists, 661 gonadotropins anaphylaxis, 660 clinical trial, 660 GnRH agonists, 661 observational study, 661 granisetron, 544 granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), 563 filgrastim, 563 granulocytes, 485 growth hormone receptor antagonists, 664 guanfacine, 286 guanidines chlorhexidine, 340 PHMB, 341 PHMG, 341 H HA See hyaluronic acid hair dye, 212–213 HAL See hexaminolevulinate halogenated vapours desflurane, 139 halogens iodophors, 342–343 polyvinylpyrrolidone (povidone), 343 povidone-iodine, 343 sodium hypochlorite, 342 tosylchloramide, 342 haloperidol, 40, 68 heparin gastrointestinal system, 530 immunologic system, 531 increasing risk of bleeding, 729 liver transplant patients, 729 resistance, 531 second-generation effects, 531 susceptibility factors, 531 hERG See human Ether-a-go-go related Gene herpes zoster vaccine, 474 elderly, 475 immune-mediated diseases, 475 ophthalmic organs and systems, 474 pregnancy, 474 transplant patients, 474 HES See hydroxyethyl starch hexaminolevulinate (HAL), 219 histamine H2 receptor antagonists cimetidine, 545 famotidine, 545 ranitidine, 545 HLA See human leucocyte antigen HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors See statins homocysteine, 192 hopantenic acid, 506 hormonal contraceptives arterial disease, 618 EC, 618–619 INDEX OF DRUGS meta-analysis, 618 thromboembolism events, 618 hormone replacement therapy (HRT), 617 breast cancer, 617–618 CHD, 616 CVD, 617 psychological function, 617 psychotic symptoms, 617 UI, 617 WHI, 616 HPV vaccine See human papilloma virus vaccine HRT See hormone replacement therapy 5HT3 receptor antagonists granisetron, 544 ondansetron, 544 palonosetron, 544 HU See hydroxyurea human Ether-a-go-go related Gene (hERG), 540 human growth hormone (hGH) See somatropin human leucocyte antigen (HLA), 565 human papilloma virus vaccine (HPV vaccine), 466 HIV, 467 SLE, 467 syncope, 467 VTE, 467 hyaluronic acid (HA), 213 atrophic vaginitis, 214 chronic shoulder pain, 214 knee pain, 213 hydralazine, 284 hydrocodone abuse, 109 drug administration, 109–110 susceptibility factors, 110 hydrocortisone, 222 hydroxycarbamide, 214–215 hydroxychloroquine metabolism, 394 sensory systems, 394 skin, 395 hydroxyethyl starch (HES), 487, 734 health care professionals, 734 as plasma volume expanders, 734 hydroxyurea (HU), 215–216 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), 510–511 hydroxyzine, 236–237 I ibuprofen bleeding, 124t cardiovascular problems, 119–120 haematologic problems, 120 heart failure, 124t myocardial infarction, 124t nonfatal death, 124t obstruction, 124t perforation, 124t stroke, 124t ICS See inhaled glucocorticoids idarubicin, 683, 687 IFNs See interferons IFNα-2a See interferon α-2a IFNα-2b See interferon α-2b IL See interleukins iloperidone, 68–69 iloprost, 611–612 hypertension, 611–612 Raynaud’s phenomenon, 612 scleroderma, 612 imipenem, 358–359 imipramine, 20 imiquimod observational studies, 431 psychiatric system, 432 skin, 431 immunoglobulins anti-D immunoglobulin, 492–493 IVIG, 488–492 subcutaneous immunoglobulin, 492 IMTO See iodometomidate indacaterol, 188, 246–247 indapamide, 292 indigocarmine, 735 indinavir, 425 indocyanine CM, 735 ICG + DL therapy, 735 infectious agent transmission, 495 bacteria, 495 fungi, 496 HHV-8, 495 prion diseases, 496 protozoa, 496 viruses, 495 infliximab cardiovascular system, 575 histoplasma infection, 576 infliximab-induced germinoma, 576 nervous system, 576 observational studies, 575 respiratory system, 576 skin, 576 tuberculosis, 576 influenza vaccines, 467 cancer, 472 children susceptibility factors, 468 drug administration, 468 elderly susceptibility factors, 468 GBS, 469 HD, 472 IBD, 471 immunologic system, 469 inborn errors of metabolism, 472 JIA, 472 multiple sclerosis and autoimmune rheumatic disease, 472 narcolepsy, 469–470 neurological system, 469 pregnancy, 470 pulmonary sarcoid, 472 quadrivalent influenza vaccines, 469 respiratory disease, 472–473 sickle cell disease, 473 sjogrens, 472 transplant recipients, 471 inhaled glucocorticoids (ICS), 241 See also nasal glucocorticoids asthma, 241 759 INDEX OF DRUGS COPD, 241, 243 ear, 244 endocrine problems, 243 fetotoxicity, 244 fluticasone/vilanterol groups, 242 fungal infections, 243 growth in childhood, 244 mometasone vs., 242 musculoskeletal effects, 244 mycobacterial infections, 243 neuropsychiatric problems, 243 nose, 244 oral cavity, 244 pharynx, 244 placebo vs, 241, 242t respiratory problems, 242 skin, 244 throat, 244 injection analysis of patient, 734–735 procedures, 735 insulin dosage regimens, 646 hypoglycaemia, 646 long-term effects, 647 oedema, 645 oxidative state, 646 preparations, 645 tumorigenicity, 645 weight insulin therapy, 646 intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 514–515 interferon alpha, 564 endocrine system, 565 eosinophilic gastroenteritis, 565 IFN-induced cardiotoxicity, 564 ischaemic colitis, 566 nervous system, 564 neuromuscular function, 564–565 observational studies, 564 psychiatric treatment, 565 respiratory system, 564 sarcoidosis, 566 skin, 566 Stevens–Johnson syndrome, 564 thyroid dysfunction, 565 interferon beta cardiovascular system, 566 liver, 567 nervous system, 566–567 pulmonary sarcoidosis, 566 skin/respiratory, 567 interferon α-2a (IFNα-2a), 564 ischaemic colitis, 566 thyroid dysfunction, 565 interferon α-2b (IFNα-2b), 564 thyroid dysfunction, 565 interferons (IFNs), 564 IFN-induced cardiotoxicity, 564 interferon alpha, 564 interferon beta, 566 meta-analysis, 564 interleukins (IL), 567 IL-2, 567 IL-21, 567 IL-2R, 574 intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), 488 cardiovascular factor, 490 comparative studies, 489 formulations, 492 haematologic system, 491 infection risk, 491 nervous system, 491 observational studies, 489 placebo-controlled studies, 489 respiratory system, 491 reviews, 489 risk factors for thromboembolic complications, 489t sensory system, 491 skin, 491 systematic reviews, 490 iodinated radiocontrast-induced nephropathy, 698 See also Contrastinduced nephropathy (CIN) iodine dietary iodine, 637 endocrine factor, 343 immunologic factor, 342 radioactive iodine 125, 638 radioactive iodine 131, 637–638 iodometomidate (IMTO), 703–704 iodophors, 342–343 IPA See isopropylantipyrine ipilimumab immunologic/endocrine, 577 liver, 577 nervous system, 577 observational studies, 576–577 respiratory system, 577 skin, 577 ipratropium bromide, 247 iPTH See intact parathyroid hormone iron intravenous, 735–736 oral iron supplementation, 735 iron salts adverse reactions diagnosis, 306 genetic susceptibility factors, 306 observational studies, 305 respiratory system, 306 tumorigenicity, 305 urinary tract, 305 isobaric bupivacaine, 169 isoflurane liver, 139–140 metal metabolism, 140 nervous system, 140 isoniazid, 448 endocrine factor, 448 hepatotoxicity, 449 musculoskeletal system, 449 neurotoxicity, 449 psychiatry system, 449 isopropylantipyrine (IPA), 119 isotretinoin (IST), 208, 216–217, 224 IST See isotretinoin itraconazole See voriconazole ivermectin, 460 observational studies, 460 placebo-controlled studies, 460 IVIG See intravenous immunoglobulin K ketamine acute pain, 146 bipolar disorder, 153 chronic pain, 146–147 depression, 151–153 migraine, 147 nervous system, 149 neuromuscular problems, 148 OCD symptoms, 153 paediatric pain, 147 propofol vs., 157 psychiatric factors, 151 PTCD, 153 sensory system, 151 for status epilepticus, 147–148 urinary tract, 150–151 use for out-of-hospital trauma analgesia, 150 use in emergency department, 148–149 ketoconazole, 383 ketolides solithromycin, 370–371 telithromycin, 371 ketotifen, 233 kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), 700 Kmax See methoxetamine (MXE) L L-FABP See liver-type fatty acid-binding protein labetalol, 268–269 lacosamide, 86, 90 laevonorgestrel (LNG), 618 lambrolizumab observational studies, 578 PD-1, 577 lamivudine, 416 combination studies, 416–417 second generation effects, 417 skin, 417 lamotrigine, 91 isolated oral clefts, 88 teratogenicity, 88 lansoprazole gastrointestinal system, 548 immunologic control, 548 respiratory system, 547–548 skin, 549 laropiprant, 679–680 laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), 218 laser therapies chemical peels, 217–218 LSCM, 218 melasma, 217 latanoprost, 612 ocular treatment, 713 latex gloves BAT determinations, 736 in hydrophobic allergens, 736 NRL allergy, 736 for protein extraction, 736 760 laxatives comparative studies, 552 sodium phosphate-containing laxatives, 552 LCZ696, 283 lead (Pb), 307 adverse drug reactions diagnosis, 308 cardiovascular system, 307 contamination, 309 death, 307 genotoxicity, 308 monitoring therapy, 307 nervous system, 308–309 pregnancy, 307 respiratory system, 307 susceptibility factors, 307–308 leflunomide, 131, 594 cardiovascular disease, 131 genetic factors, 134–135 immunologic disease, 133 infection risk, 134 liver, 132 multiorgan failure, 134 skin, 132 teratogenicity, 134 leukotriene modifiers montelukast, 251–252 leuprolide, 631 levamisole, 460 observational studies, 460–461 levetiracetam fluid balance, 92 formulations, 93 genetic factors, 93 hematologic factors, 92 immunologic factors, 92 nervous system, 92 observational studies, 91–92 pancreas, 92 psychiatric factors, 92 psychological factors, 92 skin, 92 urinary tract, 92 levocetirizine, 234 levodopa dosage regimens, 196–197 formulations, 196 gastrointestinal problems, 194 hair, 194 malignant syndrome, 195 mouth and teeth, 194 nervous system, 192 neuromuscular function, 192 psychiatric disorder, 194 sensory systems, 193 systematic reviews, 192 trichophagia, 194 levofloxacin See also moxifloxacin endocrine, 367 haematologic systems, 367 musculoskeletal system, 367 nervous system, 367 psychiatric system, 367 sensory systems, 367 skin, 367 studies, 366–367 INDEX OF DRUGS levopromazine (methotrimeprazine), 69 levosimendan, 258 levothyroxine hypersensitivity, 636 observational studies, 635–636 placebo-controlled studies, 635 pregnancy, 636 lidocaine, 170 linagliptin, 649 lincosamides clindamycin, 371 linezolid (LNZ), 452 BDQ, 453 clofazimine, 453 CS, 453 dapsone, 454 delamanid, 454 haematologic system, 373 haematology, 453 hyperbilirubinaemia, 454 hypersensitivity reaction, 454 metabolic system, 373 myopathy, 453 nervous system, 374 paediatric system, 373 studies, 373 urinary tract, 373 liraglutide gastrointestinal treatment, 651 metabolism, 651 pancreatitis, 651 placebo-controlled study, 650–651 psychiatric treatment, 651 tumorigenicity, 651 lisinopril, 282 lithium batteries, 29 brain, 32–33 breast milk, 33 cardiac, 32 cardiovascular effect, 29–30 diabetes insipidus, 31 electrophysiology, 30 leukocytosis, 32 levels to clinical response, 28 neuroprotective, 28 parathyroid, 31 plants, 33 pregnancy, 32 psoriasis, 32 renal insufficiency, 31–32 research activity, 28–29 reversible neurotoxicity, 30 TBUT, 30 thyroid, 30–31 tremor, 30 utility in bipolar disorder, 27 liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), 700–701 lixivaptan, 668 LNG See laevonorgestrel LNZ See linezolid lopinavir, 426 lorazepam, 55 lornoxicam, 127 loxapine, 69 LSCM See laser scanning confocal microscopy lubiprostone gastrointestinal system, 541 open-label studies, 541 lucatumumab, 578 IgG1 antibody, 578 observational studies, 578 M M-ket See methoxetamine (MXE) macrogol (polyethylene glycol), 553, 740 mineral and metal metabolism, 553 observational studies, 553 macrolides azithromycin, 371–372 clarithromycin, 372 erythromycin, 373 magnesium (Mg), 737 AA, 736 meta-analysis, 736–737 therapy for cerebral vasospasm, 737 magnesium salts, 309 gastrointestinal system, 554 hypotension and dyspnea, 554 mineral and metal metabolism, 553 manganese (Mn), 310, 703 drug abuse, 310–311 nervous system, 310 mannitol, 294 maprotiline, 21 maraviroc, 430 marijuana, 40–41 MDMA See 3, 4-methylenedioxymetamfetamine mebendazole, 461 medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), 616 breast-feeding, 624 breasts, 624 DMPA recipients, 623–624 endometriosis-associated pain, 624 infection risk, 624 QT prolongation, 623 weight gain, 624 mefloquine, 395 melatonin assessments, 738 with cancer cachexia, 737 literature reviews, 664–665 open-label trial, 665 placebo-controlled trial, 665 receptors, 737 sleep disorders, 664–665 for sleep disorders, 737 meloxicam, 126–127 memantine, 198 meningococcal C-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MnCC-TT vaccine), 477–478 meningococcal vaccines, 476 HIV, 476 pregnancy, 476 menthol, 739 mepivacaine, 170 mercurial salts, 311 cardiovascular system, 311 fetotoxicity, 311 INDEX OF DRUGS nervous system, 312–313 observational studies, 312 urinary tract, 312 mercury, 311 cardiovascular system, 311 fetotoxicity, 311 nervous system, 312–313 observational studies, 312 urinary tract, 312 meropenem, 358 mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, mesalamine), 555 cardiovascular system, 556 immunologic system, 556 kidney, 556 nervous system, 555–556 respiratory system, 556 ulcerative colitis, 557 metal antagonists, 323 deferasirox, 323–325 drug administration, 327–328 organ toxicitiy, 331–333 organs and systems, 325–326 susceptibility factors, 326 metals aluminium, 297–298 antimonials, 298 antimony, 298 arsenic, 298–301 beryllium, 301 calcium salts, 301–303 chromium, 303 cobalt, 303–304 copper, 304 gold, 305 gold salts, 305 iron salts, 305–306 lanthanum carbonate, 306 lead, 307–309 magnesium salts, 309 manganese, 310–311 mercurial salts, 311–313 mercury, 311–313 nickel, 313–314 potassium salts, 314 silver salts and derivatives, 314 strontium salts, 315 titanium, 315 zinc, 315 metamfetamine See amphetamine metformin acid–base balance, 648 decreasing hepatic glucose production, 695 multiorgan failure, 647 placebo-controlled trial, 647–648 renal function, 647 reproductive system, 648 susceptibility factors, 648 therapy, 695 toxicity, 647 transporters, 648 methadone administration, 110 breast-feeding, 110 cardiac arrhythmias, 110 ear, 110 nervous system, 110 nose, 110 pregnancy, 110 respiratory abnormalities, 110 susceptibility factors, 110 throat, 110 methazolamide, 289 methotrimeprazine See levopromazine methoxetamine (MXE), 50–51, 154 overdose, 154 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(ethylamino) cyclohexanone See methoxetamine (MXE) methylamphetamine See amphetamine methyldopa, 286 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine See 3,4-methylenedioxymetamfetamine (MDMA) 3,4-methylenedioxymetamfetamine (MDMA), See also cannabinoids; cocaine body temperature, 50 cardiovascular disease, 41–43 electrolyte balance, 47–48 gastrointestinal disorder, 37–41 infant, 48–49 methoxetamine, 50–51 musculoskeletal disorder, 46–47 nervous system, 46 pancreas, 43 psychiatric disorder, 41, 46 second-generation effects, 45–46 methylene blue as diagnostic agent, 739 in malaria studies, 738 tissue necrosis, 738 methylphenidate cases, studies, 2–3 methylxanthines, metoclopramide cardiovascular system, 543 dosage regimens, 542 drug-induced movement disorders, 543 hypertension, 543 nervous system, 542 Parkinson’s disease, 542–543 metoprolol, 269 metronidazole, 382, 398 controlled studies, 399 nervous system, 398–399 mexxy See methoxetamine (MXE) micafungin, 389 miconazole, 383 microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor, 680 midazolam, 55 propofol vs., 157 mifepristone abortion, 626 clinical uses, 625 early pregnancy, 626 myoma, 625 open-label pilot study, 626 UPA, 626–627 uterine fibroids, 625 761 migraine treatment drugs, 277 minocycline, 348 haematologic factor, 349 liver, 349 musculoskeletal system, 350 neurologic factor, 349 skin, 349–350 mirtazapine haematological disease, 22 nervous system, 21–22 miscellaneous antibacterial drugs aminoglycosides, 363–365 antimicrobial drugs, 375–376 fluoroquinolones, 363–364 glycopeptides, 368–370 ketolides, 370–371 lincosamides, 371 macrolides, 371–373 oxazolidinones, 373–374 polymyxins, 374 streptogramins, 375 trimethoprim, and co-trimoxazole, 375 misoprostol (PGE1 analogue), 612 mitiglinide, 651 MMF See mycophenolate mofetil MMP See mucous membrane pemphigoid MnCC-TT vaccine See meningococcal C-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine modafinil, 4–5 mometasone formoterol vs., 242 ICS vs., 242 montelukast cardiovascular risk, 251 congenital anomalies, 251 immunological effect, 251 neuropsychiatric side-effects, 251 skin, 252 sleep talking, 251 sleep walking, 251 morphine, 111 mouth rinses See mouthwashes mouthwashes, 218–219 moxetumomab pasudotox observational studies, 578 recombinant immunotoxin, 578 moxifloxacin cardiovascular factors, 368 electrolyte imbalance, 368 haematologic systems, 368 musculoskeletal system, 368 nervous system, 368 studies, 367–368 MPA See medroxyprogesterone acetate mucolytic drugs, 253 mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP), 592 mustard seeds, 721 MXE See methoxetamine mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), 593 haematologic, 594 immunosuppression-induced colitis, 594 infectious disease, 594 observational study, 594 open-label multicenter exploratory, 594 N-desethyl-amodiaquine (DEAQ), 393 762 N naftidrofuryl oxalate, 276 naloxone, 107 naltrexone, 114 naproxen, 127 bleeding, 124t heart failure, 124t myocardial infarction, 124t nonfatal death, 124t obstruction, 124t perforation, 124t stroke, 124t nasal glucocorticoids, 245 See also inhaled glucocorticoids (ICS) nasopharyngitis vilanterol, 247 natalizumab nervous system, 578 skin, 578 natural moxibustion chronic asthma, 721 nefopam, 128 nelfinavir chemoradiotherapy in cancer treatment, 427 pregnancy, 426–427 nepafenac, 712 neuromuscular blocking agents succinylcholine, 173 neutrophil-gelatinase-assosiated lipocalin (NGAL), 700 nevirapine (NVP), 409 liver, 422 observational studies, 421 second generation effects, 422 skin, 422 susceptibility factors, 422–423 NGAL See neutrophil-gelatinase-assosiated lipocalin NGM See norgestimate niacin, 679–680 niacin + statin, 676 nicardipine, 271 nickel genotoxicity, 313 immunologic factor, 313 platinum, 313–314 skin, 313 nicorandil, 270 nicotinic acid derivatives, 679–680 nifedipine mouth and teeth, 271–272 respiratory system, 272 urinary tract, 272 nimesulide gastrointestinal, 128 in gout treatment, 128–129 nervous system, 128 tramadol, 128 nimotuzumab humanised IgG1 mAb against, 579 observational studies, 579 nitrates, organic, 270 nitroglycerin, 270 nitrous oxide, 144–145 INDEX OF DRUGS non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (NPLD), 683 nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic drugs, 55 nonpeptide inhibitors, 283–284 nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsNSAIDs), 119 and COX-2 selective inhibitors, 120–124 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), 119, 226 noradrenaline (norepinephrine), 184 norepinephrine See noradrenaline norgestimate (NGM), 615–616 NPLD See non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin NSAID See nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs nsNSAIDs See nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs nutritional supplements, 719 NVP See nevirapine O obinutuzumab, 578–579, 579b OCT1 See organic cation transporter octreotide castration-resistant prostate cancer, 667 drug-induced hepatitis, 667 long-term infusion in infants, 667–668 oral vs subcutaneous administration, 667 placebo-controlled trials, 667 oestradiol valerate E2V/DNG, 616 insulin levels, 616 novel oestrogen, 615–616 steroid use, 616 oestrogen DES, 615 HRT, 616–618 oestradiol valerate, 615–616 receptor modulators, 619–622 ofloxacin, 368 25-OHD See 25-hydroxyvitamin D olanzapine controlled studies, 69 elevated triglycerides, 59 gastrointestinal treatment, 70 haematologic treatment, 70 hair, 70 immunologic treatment, 70 metabolic syndrome, 59 metabolism, 70 nervous system, 69 open-label studies, 69 psychiatric treatment, 70 somnolence, 61 systematic review, 69 olopatadine, 233, 237 olsalazine haematologic system, 557 ulcerative colitis, 557 omeprazole case series, 549 muscular system, 549–550 skin, 550 ondansetron cardiovascular system, 544 nervous system, 544 opioids deaths, 107 overdoses, 107 receptor agonists, 108 organic cation transporter (OCT1), 648 ornithine, 516 oseltamivir, 431 oxatomide, 237 oxazolidinones, 373–374 oxcarbazepine, 93 oxicams lornoxicam, 127 meloxicam, 126–127 piroxicam, 127 oxycodone abuse, 111 breast-feeding, 111 pregnancy, 111 skin, 111 oxytocin comparative studies, 665 intranasal, 666 meta-analysis, 665 morbidity, 666b placebo-controlled trial, 666 P palifermin bone marrow transplantation, 567 gastrointestinal disorders, 567 lung cancer, 567 paliperidone haematologic treatment, 71 nervous system, 71 observational studies, 70 sexual function, 71 palonosetron, 544 panfacial volumisation, 740 pantoprazole cardiovascular system, 550 haematologic system, 550 immunologic system, 551 kidney, 550–551 pancreas, 551 pantothenic acid, 506 papaverine, 112 parathyroid hormone (PTH), 510–511, 666 parenteral nutrition (PN), 516–517 See also total parenteral nutrition (TPN) allergic reaction, 520 aluminium toxicity, 520 comparative studies, 517 death, 521 infection risk, 520 liver, 519 observational studies, 516–517 refeeding syndrome, 519 refractory liver dysfunction, 522 systematic reviews, 517 parenteral nutrition solutions (PNS), 520 763 INDEX OF DRUGS paroxetine endocrine, 17 granuloma annulare, 17 lower GI bleeding, 16 patch test, 698 PCP See phencyclidine PCV See polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy PDT See photodynamic therapy pegfilgrastim, 563 pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), 683 penicillins amoxicillin, 351–352 haematologic system, 353 immunologic factor, 353 skin, 353 urinary tract, 353 perampanel, 93 peripheral vasodilators, 277 perospirone, 71 peroxisome proliferator activated dual receptor agonists, 655 perphenazine, 71 pertussis vaccine, 478 pertuzumab, 580b humanised IgG1κ, 579 observational studies, 580 PGAs See prostaglandin analogues PGE1 analogue See misoprostol phencyclidine (PCP), 50 phenobarbital age, susceptibility factors, 94 genetic factors, 94 tumorigenicity, 93–94 phenol, 343 phenolic compounds, 343 phenothiazines, 61 phentermine, phenylephrine, 186b phenytoin genetic factors, 94 hematologic factors, 94 immunologic disease, 94 mouth, 94 nervous system, 94 physiological factors, 95 respiratory abnormalities, 94 skin, 94 teeth, 94 PHMB See polyhexamethylene biguanidine phosphates gastrointestinal system, 554 mineral and metal metabolism, 554 side effects, 554 phosphodiesterase inhibitors roflumilast, 252–253 phosphodiesterase type inhibitors, 277 photodynamic therapy (PDT), 219, 709–710 biliary tract, 219 bladder, 219 eyes, 220 paget disease, 219 pioglitazone anti-inflammatory treatment, 654 bladder cancer, 653 fluid balance, 654 fractures, 654 gastrointestinal treatment, 653 heart failure, 653 sexual function, 653 tumorigenicity, 653 piroxicam, 127 pixantrone (PIX), 685 plasma substitutes dextrans, 487 etherified starches, 487 gelatin, 487–488 PLD See pegylated liposomal doxorubicin PLLA See poly-l-lactic acid PN See Parenteral nutrition pneumococcal vaccines, 477–478 PNS See parenteral nutrition solutions poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), 740 for panfacial volumisation, 740 Polyethylene glycol See macrogol Polygoni Multiflori Radix, 721 polyhexamethylene biguanidine (PHMB), 341 polymyxins, 374 polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), 220 polyvinylpyrrolidone (povidone), 343 posaconazole, 383 postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists β-blockers, 286 tamsulosin, 286 potassium channel activators, 270 molluscum contagiosum, 740 salts, 314 therapeutic hypothermia, 741 ventricular fibrillation, 741 ventricular tachycardia, 741 PPIs See proton pump inhibitors prasugrel long-term effects, 535 PRI-VASP, 536 susceptibility factors, 535–536 praziquantel (PZQ), 459, 461 observational studies, 461–462 randomised studies, 462 prednisolone, 220 childhood nephrotic syndrome, 221 dengue infection, 222 polymyositis treatment, 220 treatment effect, 221 variability in dose-adjusted exposure, 220 prednisone, 220, 222 pregabalin, 86, 95 presynaptic alpha-adrenoceptor agonists clonidine, 285 methyldopa, 286 prilocaine, 171 primidone, 93–94 age, susceptibility factors, 94 genetic factors, 94 tumorigenicity, 93–94 pristinamycin, 375 probucol, 700 progestogens drospirenone, 622–623 medroxyprogesterone, 623–624 promethazine, 233, 237–238 propafenone, 263 propofol balanced propofol sedation vs., 157 barbiturates vs., 156 benzodiazepines vs., 157 cardioprotective effects, 141 cardiovascular problem, 158 dexmedetomidine vs., 156–157 dosage regimen, 159 effect on thermoregulation preservation, 142 emergence characteristics, 141–142 etomidate vs., 156 fospropofol vs., 155–156 haemodynamic changes, 141–142 ketamine vs., 157 metabolic factors, 159 midazolam vs., 157 nervous system, 158 postoperative sedation effects, 142 uses, 155 propranolol, 269–270 propylthiouracil (PTU), 637 prostaglandin analogues (PGAs), 611–612 proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), 545–546 blood, 547 immunologic system, 547 mineral and metal metabolism, 547 observational studies, 546 systematic reviews, 546 pseudoephedrine, 185–186 pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP), 332 PTCP See pseudothrombocytopenia PTH See parathyroid hormone PTU See propylthiouracil PUVA, 224 pyrazinamide (PZA), 446–447, 452 pyridoxine, 506 PZA See pyrazinamide PZQ See praziquantel Q quadrivalent influenza vaccines, 469 quetiapine cardiovascular system, 72 controlled studies, 71 endocrine treatment, 72 gastrointestinal treatment, 72 haematologic treatment, 72 hypersomnia, 60 metabolic treatment, 72 musculoskeletal treatment, 72 nervous system, 72 observational studies, 71–72 psychiatric treatment, 72 sensory systems, 72 urinary tract, 72 quinine, 396 R RA See retinoic acid rabeprazole liver, 551 mineral and metal metabolism, 551 nervous system, 551 764 radioactive iodine 125, 638 raloxifene heart failure, 727 invasive breast cancer, 620 mineral balance, 620 osteoporosis, 620–621 prevention of osteoporotic fracture, 620 raltegravir hypersensitivity, 429 medicinal herbs, 430 musculoskeletal system, 429 nervous system, 429 observational studies, 428 pregnancy, 429 randomised studies, 428 urinary tract, 429 ramipril, 282 ranibizumab, 580 cardiovascular blood vessels, 711 cardiovascular heart, 711 immunoreactivity, 712 intravitreal injection, 580 neoplastic disease, 712 retrospective studies, 710 sensory system, 709–710 sensory systems, 580 ranitidine, 545 ranolazine, 263 liver, 264 nervous system, 264 susceptibility factors, 263 rapamycin See sirolimus rasburicase, 131 haematologic problem, 131 leflunomide, 131 musculoskeletal problem, 131 respiratory abnormalities, 132 RBV See ribavirin recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) See alteplase regadenoson, 258 remifentanyl, 112 renal replacement therapy (RRT), 734 gelatin, 734 repeated open application tests (ROATs), 515 retigabine (ezogabine), 86, 96 retinoic acid (RA), 224 ATRA, 224–225 IST, 224 role in Cushing disease, 225 RFB See rifabutin ribavirin (RBV), 409–410, 412 riboflavin, 506 ricin bean, 721 rifabutin (RFB), 450–451 rifampicin (RMP), 154, 445, 450 anaphylaxis, 448 DRESS syndrome, 448 endocrine factor, 448 flu-like syndrome, 445 genetic susceptibility, 447 haematology, 448 hepatotoxicity, 445–446 liver, 446–447 RPT, 446 skin, 447 INDEX OF DRUGS rifamycins Emb, 451–452 fluoroquinolones, 452 LNZ, 452–453 PZA, 452 rifabutin, 450–451 rifampicin, 450 rifapentine (RPT), 446 rilpivirine, 423 rimonabant, risperidone amenorrhoea, 59 cardiovascular treatment, 73 controlled studies, 73 endocrine, 74 immunologic treatment, 74 metabolic treatment, 74 musculoskeletal treatment, 74 nervous system, 74 observational studies, 73 sensory systems, 74 sexual function treatment, 74 side effects, 60 susceptibility factors, 74–75 ritodrine respiratory problem, 188 ritodrine-induced agranulocytosis, 188, 189b ritonavir, 427 rituximab infusion reactions, 581 pneumocystis, 581 psoriasis, 581 respiratory system, 581 rivaroxaban, 532 rivastigmine, RMP See rifampicin ROATs See repeated open application tests rofecoxib, 126 roflumilast, 252 cardiovascular effect, 252 gastrointestinal effect, 252 neuropsychiatric effect, 252–253 respiratory effect, 252 romiplostim chronic immune thrombocytopenia, 568 ropinirole dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome, 199 ropivacaine, 171 rosiglitazone cardiovascular treatment, 654 decreased bone formation, 654 drug withdrawal, 654 steady-state plasma concentration, 654 tumorigenicity, 654 rosuvastatin + colesevelam hypercholesterolemia, 677 rotavirus vaccine gastrointestinal organs and systems, 473 HIV, 474 RPT See rifapentine RRT See renal replacement therapy rufinamide, 96 S SADBE See squaric acid dibutylester salbutamol acid base balance, 189 misuse, 189 oral salbutamol vs tulobuterol patch, 190 urinary tract, 190 salicylates acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), 127 miscellaneous drugs, 127 salmeterol, 246 salt supplement, 741 pericardial effusion response, 741 sclerotherapy, 742–743 sanfu moxibustion See natural moxibustion sapropterin, 507 saroglitazar, 655 saxagliptin, 649 Sedaplus® Saft, 236 selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), 315 selenium, 314 selenium sulphite dandruff and scalp infections, 743 shampoos, 743 semisodium (divalproex), 97 drug withdrawal, 98 endocrine, 98 fetotoxicity, 98 formulations/dosage regimens, 98–99 genetic factors, 98 immunologic factors, 98 liver, 98 metabolism, 98 nervous system, 97 nutrition, 98 observational studies, 97 pancreas, 98 respiratory abnormalities, 97 senna senna-induced diarrhoea, 553 skin, 552–553 SERMs See selective oestrogen receptor modulators serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), 505 sertindole, 75 sertraline dermatological disease, 18 hepatic disease, 18 lactation, 18–19 neonatal serotonergic overstimulation, 18–19 neurological disease, 17–18 neurological disease, 18 serum creatinine (SCr), 698 sevelamer, 743 sevoflurane cardioprotective effects, 141 comparative studies, 141 effect on thermoregulation preservation, 142 emergence characteristics, 141–142 haemodynamic changes, 141–142 nervous system, 143 postoperative sedation effects, 142 INDEX OF DRUGS response surface modelling studies, 142–143 systematic reviews, 140–141 sibutramine, silicon keratopathy (SK), 218 silicone oil (SiO), 743 BCVA, 743 retinal detachment, 743 siltuximab human–mouse chimeric mAb, 581 observational studies, 581–582 silver colloidal solution, 722 silver salts and derivatives, 314 simvastatin cataract, 678 SiO See silicone oil sirolimus (rapamycin), 594 abdominal pain, 594 anaemia, 594 aphthous stomatitis, 594 arthralgia, 594 diarrhoea, 594 dyspnoea, 594 haematology, 595 hypercholesterolaemia, 594 hyperlipidaemia, 594 kidney, 596 mouth ulcers, 594 neurological effect, 595 observational studies, 595 oedema, 594 retrospective study, 595 skin, 595–596 sitagliptin double-blind safety trial of, 650 metabolism, 649 pancreas, 650 respiratory system, 650 type diabetes patients, 649 sitaxsentan, 285 SK See silicon keratopathy skeletal muscle relaxants baclofen, 173–174 sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), 208 sodium picosulphate, 553 solithromycin, 370–371 somatostatin, 666–668 somatropin carcinogenicity, 663 GH therapy, 662–663 increased intraocular pressure, 664 longitudinal study, 663 metabolic changes, 662 Omnitrope, 663 placebo-controlled study, 662 renal transplant rejection, 664 scoliosis, 663 sleep apnoea, 661–662 SP See sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine SPF See sun protection factor spironolactone electrolyte balance, 292–293 gastrointestinal factor, 293 gynaecomastia, 293 urinary system, 293 squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE), 208 SSRI See serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor statins cancer, 679 case-control study, 678 cataract, 678 dementia, 678 diabetes mellitus, 679 musculoskeletal, 679 nicotinic acid derivatives, 679–680 pancreas, 679 psychiatric treatment, 678–679 skin, 679 SNP, 678 stavudine, 417 stem cells additives, 497 death, 497 immunologic system, 496–497 nervous system, 496 observational studies, 496 respiratory system, 496 tumorigenicity, 497 steroids, 226–227 stimulants bisacodyl, 552 senna, 552–553 sodium picosulphate, 553 streptogramins pristinamycin, 375 streptokinase Guillain–Barré syndrome, 533 strodium ranelate bone formation, 743 cardiovascular disease, 744 osteoporosis, 744 strontium salts, 315 subcutaneous immunoglobulin, 492 succinylcholine, 173 malignant hyperpyrexia, 173 sulfasalazine cardiovascular system, 557 ulcerative colitis, 557 sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), 395 sulphonylureas in body weight, 652 glibenclamide, 652 gliclazide, 652 glimepiride, 652–653 glipizide, 653 hepatocellular cancer, 652 sulpiride, 75 sun protection factor (SPF), 227 sunscreens, 227–228 sympathetic nervous system guanfacine, 286 presynaptic alpha-adrenoceptor agonists, 285–286 synthetic cannabinoids, 41 T TAC See tacrolimus TACE See transarterial chemoembolisation tacrolimus (TAC), 596 bone, 596 diltiazem, 597 765 haematology, 597 liver transplantation, 597 nervous system, 596 observational study, 596 ointment, 596 TB, 596 toxicity, 596 tafluprost ocular treatment, 713 talc, 744 tamoxifen breast cancer, 621 ductal carcinoma, 621 heart failure, 621 long-term toxicity, 621 MMMT, 621 reducing risk of CHD, 621 tumorigenicity, 621–622 tamsulosin, 286 tannic acid, 228 teicoplanin cardiovascular factors, 368–369 haematologic systems, 369 urinary tract, 369 telaprevir comparative studies, 410 gastrointestinal factor, 411 haematological factor, 411 neurological factor, 411 observational studies, 410 skin, 411 telavancin, 369 telbivudine comparative studies, 413 musculoskeletal system, 413 observational study, 412–413 pregnancy, 413 telithromycin, 371 telmisartan, 29 temsirolimus mouth, 598 open-label study, 597 skin, 598 tenofovir endocrine factor, 418 gastrointestinal factor, 419 liver, 419 mouth, 418 musculoskeletal system, 419 nervous system, 418 psychiatric system, 418 second generation effects, 419–420 skin, 419 urinary tract, 419 terbinafine, 381 terlipressin, 669 tesofensine, testosterone, 628 tetanus-diptheria-acellular pertussis vaccine, 478–479 tetracycline, 350 tetrahydrobiopterin, 507 thiamine, 507–508 thiazolidinediones (glitazones), 653–654 thienopyridines, 533–536 766 thiopurines Crohn disease, 598 in inflammatory bowel disease, 598 liver, 598 malignancy, 598 mouth, 598 skin, 598 third generation antiepileptic medications, 86 thrombolytic drugs, 532–533 Thrombopoietin-receptor agonists, 495–496 tigatuzumab human–mouse mAb, 582 observational studies, 582 tigecycline death, 350–351 gastrointestinal diseases, 350 timolol-brimonidine ocular burning, 714 tiotropium bromide death and vascular events, 247–248 handihaler vs respimat, 248 impact vs LABA, 248 side effects, 248 tirofiban fatal intracerebral haemorrhages, 533 titanium, 315 tizanidine, 176 tobramycin, 365 tocilizumab infection risk, 582 UGT1A1 polymorphism, 582 tocopherol See vitamin E tolvaptan, 668 topiramate eye, 96 fetotoxicity, 97 nutrition, 97 observational studies, 96 psychiatric, 97 psychological disease, 97 sweat glands, 97 torsemide, 291 total parenteral nutrition (TPN), 516–517 See also parenteral nutrition (PN) bilateral pleural effusions, 517 essential fatty acid deficiency, 518 hypoglycaemia, 519 selenium deficiency with neurological deficits, 518 tramadol, 112–113 tranexamic acid cardiovascular system, 536 nervous system, 536 transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE), 690–691 trastuzumab breast cancer, 582–583 cardiomyopathy, 583, 685–686 cardiotoxicity, 686 cardiovascular system, 582 liver, 583 nervous system, 583 travoprost, 714 tremelimumab INDEX OF DRUGS humanised IgG2 mAb, 583 observational studies, 583 tribendimidine, 462 trichloracetic acid, 228 triclosan, 342 trientine, 333 trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, 375 triptans, 277 Tripterygium Wilfordii Radix (common threewingnut root, leigongteng) for autoimmune diseases, 722 U UBM See ultrasound biomicroscopy UFC See urinary free cortisol ulipristal acetate (UPA), 618–619, 626 gynaecological conditions, 626–627 prevents progestin, 626 unwanted pregnancies prevention, 627 ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), 708–709 UPA See ulipristal acetate uricase, 128–129 urinary free cortisol (UFC), 225 ustekinumab skin, 583 V vaccines, 725 See also bacterial vaccines; viral vaccines bacterial vaccines, 476 global approach, 466 robust AEFI, 465–466 viral vaccines, 466 valaciclovir comparative studies, 408 gastrointestinal factor, 408–409 nervous system, 408 second-generation effects, 409 valganciclovir, 404 comparative studies, 405 eye, 406 infection risk, 406 monitoring therapy, 406 observational studies, 405 susceptibility factors, 406 valproate sodium drug withdrawal, 98 endocrine, 98 Fetotoxicity, 98 formulations/dosage regimens, 98–99 genetic factors, 98 immunologic factors, 98 liver, 98 metabolism, 98 nervous system, 97 nutrition, 98 observational studies, 97 pancreas, 98 respiratory abnormalities, 97 valproic acid (VPA), 86 teratogenicity, 88 valproic acid and olanzapine, 70 valsartan, 283 vancomycin haematologic systems, 370 immunologic systems, 370 nervous system, 370 skin, 370 studies, 369 urinary tract, 369–370 varicella vaccine, 474 elderly, 475 immune-mediated diseases, 475 ophthalmic organs and systems, 474 pregnancy, 474 transplant patients, 474 vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), 707 vasopressin, 669–670 See also desmopressin blood pressure, 670 cardiac surgery, 669 hyponatraemia, 670 placebo-controlled trial, 670 vasopressin receptor antagonists, 668 See also conivaptan; lixivaptan; tolvaptan VD See vitamin D VDS See vitamin D analogoues plus topical steroids VEGF See vascular endothelial growth factor venlafaxine hypertension, 19 verapamil, 272 videolaryngostroboscopy (VLS), 226 vigabatrin, 99 vigilance promoting drugs armodafinil, 4–5 modafinil, 4–5 vilanterol, 247 vilazodone, 21–22 toxicity, 23 vildagliptin, 650 viral vaccines See also bacterial vaccines; vaccines hepatitis B vaccine, 466 HPV vaccine, 466 influenza vaccines, 467 Japanese encephalitis vaccine, 475–476 MMR vaccine, 473 rotavirus vaccine, 473 varicella vaccine and herpes zoster vaccine, 474 yellow fever vaccine, 475 vitamin A observational studies, 503 systematic reviews, 503 toxicity, 503–504 vitamin B12 See cobalamins vitamin C, 508 vitamin D (VD), 228 comparative studies, 509 diverse studies, 727 drug-combination studies, 509 hypercalcaemia, 511 metabolism, 510 observational studies, 508–509 placebo-controlled trials, 510 767 INDEX OF DRUGS submandibular pain, 514–515 supplementation, 728 systematic reviews, 510 toxicity, 513 vitamin D analogoues plus topical steroids (VDS), 228 vitamin E comparative studies, 515 drug-combination studies, 515 skin, 515 vitamin K, 515 VLS See videolaryngostroboscopy volociximab chimeric mAb, 583 observational studies, 583 voriconazole, 383, 591 cardiovascular system, 384 EIDOS and DoTS descriptions, 385f–386f electrolyte balance, 384 endocrine, glucose control, 384 liver, 384 nervous system, 384 pancreas, 384 periostitis, 385b–386b pregnancy, 385 skin, 384 tumorigenicity, 385 urinary tract, kidneys, 384 VPA See valproic acid W water-soluble intravascular iodinated contrast agents, 695, 696t drug interactions, 695 endocrine, 696 gastrointestinal, 697 management of adverse reactions, 697 nervous system, 695–696 salivary glands, 697 susceptibility factors and prevention, 697–698 types of reactions, 695 X xenon, 145 Z ZDV See zidovudine zhenjujiangya tablet hypertension, 719 zidovudine (ZDV), 409, 419 gastrointestinal factor, 418 haematologic factor, 418 long term effects, 418 metabolism, 417 skin, 418 zinc, 315 ziprasidone akathisia, 59 body temperature, 76 cardiovascular, 75 controlled studies, 75 metabolism, 75–76 mouth, 76 nervous system, 75 sexual function, 76 teeth, 76 zolpidem, 56, 233 zonisamide, 100 zopiclone, 56 zotepine, 76 Index of Drug-Drug Interactions A acorus calamus and CBZ, 89 Acyclovir and penicillin, 353 AEDs and antiretroviral medications, 88 AEDs and contraceptives, 88 AEDs and olanzapine, 88 albumin and tolvaptan, 483 alfentanil and propofol, 158 allopurinol and furosemide, 291 almorexant and simvastatin, 678 alprazolam and oxycodone, 112 ambrisentan and cytochrome P450, 284 amitriptyline and VPA, 99 amlodipine and tacrolimus, 271 amodiaquine and efavirenz, 394 antipsychotics and benzodiazepines, 65 antiretroviral medications and AEDs, 88 aprepitant and quetiapine, 544–545 aripiprazole and quetiapine, 59–60 aripiprazole and ziprasidone, 59 artemether and dihydroartemisinin, 425 artemether-lumefantrine and etravirine, 421 asenapine and olanzapine, 61 atazanavir and disulfiram, 424 atorvastatin and boceprevir, 410 azathioprine and mesalazine, 555 B bedaquiline and efavirenz, 421 benzodiazepines and antipsychotics, 65 boceprevir and atorvastatin, 410 bosentan and telaprevir, 285 bosutinib and lansoprazole, 547 buprenorphine and CYP3A4 inhibitor, 113 buprenorphine/naloxone and raltegravir, 429 C calcium carbonate phosphate binders and pantoprazole, 550 carbamazepine and olanzapine, 70 carbapenems and meropenem, 358 CBZ and Acorus calamus, 89 CBZ and food, 89 CBZ and Ginkgo biloba, 89 CBZ and levetiracetam, 86 CBZ and zonisamide, 86 celecoxib and fluvoxamine, 110 cephalexin and zinc, 358 cerivastatin and clopidogrel, 535 cibenzoline and cyclosporine, 262 ciclosporin A (CsA) and voriconazole, 591 ciclosporin and danoprevir, 427 ciprofloxacin and methotrexate, 366 clarithromycin and fentanyl, 109 clobazam and N-desmethylclobazam, 54 clonidine hydrochloride and ­hydrochlorothiazide, 719 clopidogrel and cerivastatin, 535 clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), 545–546 cloxacillin and warfarin, 530 clozapine and perazine, 68 clozapine and pregabalin, 95 cobicistat and elvitegravir, 415 contraceptives and AEDs, 88 corticosteroid and tacrolimus, 597 cotrimoxazole and nevirapine, 422 cyclosporine and cibenzoline, 262 cyclosporine and warfarin, 383 CYP1A2 inhibitors and tizanidine, 176 CYP3A4 inducer and sorafenib, 611 CYP3A4 inhibitor and buprenorphine, 113 cytochrome P450 (CYP) and ambrisentan, 284 cytochrome P450 (CYP) and lapatinib, 611 D dabigatran etexilate and verapamil, 272 danoprevir and ciclosporin, 427 dapsone and warfarin, 530 deferiprone and deferoxamine, 329 deferoxamine and deferiprone, 329 N-desmethylclobazam and clobazam, 54 desvenlafaxine and venlafaxine, 425 dexamethasone and lapatinib, 611 dexamethasone and phenytoin, 95 dexmedetomidine and propofol, 144, 159 dihydroartemisinin and artemether, 425 disulfiram and atazanavir, 424 dolutegravir and rifampicin, 428 domperidone and ketoconazole, 541 doxycycline and warfarin, 348 E efavirenz and amodiaquine, 394 efavirenz and bedaquiline, 421 elvitegravir and cobicistat, 415 ertapenem and tacrolimus, 359 esomeprazole and ulipristal, 627 ethanol and retigabine, 96 etravirine and artemether-lumefantrine, 421 F fenofibrate and rosiglitazone, 654–655 fentanyl and clarithromycin, 109 fentanyl and propofol, 143–144 flecainide and lidocaine, 170 fluoxetine and paroxetine, 269 fluticasone and ketoconazole, 245 fluvoxamine and celecoxib, 110 furosemide and allopurinol, 291 G gabapentin and magnesium oxide, 539 gabapentin and olanzapine, 70 769 ginkgo biloba and CBZ, 89 glibenclamide and topiramate, 652 glimepiride and isoniazid, 653 H haloperidol and quetiapine, 60 hepatitis A/B vaccine and MenACWY, 477 hydrochlorothiazide and clonidine ­hydrochloride, 719 I IFNβ and statin, 567 intramuscular haloperidol and intramuscular olanzapine, 60 intramuscular levopromazine and ­intramuscular olanzapine, 60 intramuscular ziprasidone and ­intramuscular haloperidol, 60 isoniazid and glimepiride, 653 K ketamine and morphine, 111 ketamine and norketamine, 154 ketoconazole and domperidone, 541 ketoconazole and fluticasone, 245 ketoconazole and vilanterol, 245 L lamotrigine and levetiracetam, 86 lamotrigine and olanzapine, 70 lansoprazole and bosutinib, 547 lapatinib and cytochrome P450 (CYP), 611 lapatinib and dexamethasone, 611 lersivirine and VPA, 99 levetiracetam and CBZ, 86 levetiracetam and lamotrigine, 86 levetiracetam and olanzapine, 70 levetiracetam and VPA, 87 lidocaine and flecainide, 170 lidocaine and propofol, 159 linezolid and SSRIs, 374 liposomal amphotericin B and posaconazole, 382 lithium and telmisartan, 283 M magnesium oxide and gabapentin, 539 MDMA and moclobemide, 49–50 MenACWY and hepatitis A/B vaccine, 477 6-mercaptopurine and mesalazine, 555 meropenem and carbapenems, 358 mesalazine and 6-mercaptopurine, 555 mesalazine and azathioprine, 555 methadone and telaprevir, 111 methotrexate and ciprofloxacin, 366 methyl salicylate and thymol, 343 methylfolate and placebo groups, 505 770 metoprolol and propafenone, 263 moclobemide and MDMA, 49–50 morphine and ketamine, 111 N nevirapine and cotrimoxazole, 422 nicardipine and tacrolimus, 271 norketamine and ketamine, 154 nortriptyline and topiramate, 97 O olanzapine and AEDs, 88 olanzapine and asenapine, 61 olanzapine and carbamazepine, 70 olanzapine and gabapentin, 70 olanzapine and lamotrigine, 70 olanzapine and levetiracetam, 70 olanzapine and oxcarbazepine, 70 olanzapine and valproic acid, 70 olanzapine and VPA, 99 olanzapine and ziprasidone, 59 omeprazole and tacrolimus, 549 oxcarbazepine and olanzapine, 70 oxcarbazepine and sertraline, 93 oxycodone and alprazolam, 112 P paliperidone and risperidone, 61 pantoprazole and calcium carbonate phosphate binders, 550 paroxetine and fluoxetine, 269 penicillin and acyclovir, 353 perazine and clozapine, 68 perphenazine and terbenafine, 71 phenobarbital and VPA, 86 phenytoin and dexamethasone, 95 phenytoin and VPA, 86–87 placebo groups and methylfolate, 505 posaconazole and liposomal amphotericin B, 382 pregabalin and clozapine, 95 propafenone and metoprolol, 263 propofol and alfentanil, 158 propofol and dexmedetomidine, 144, 159 INDEX OF DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS propofol and fentanyl, 143–144 propofol and lidocaine, 159 propofol and remifentanil, 157–158 propofol and rifampicin, 159–160 proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel, 545–546 Q quetiapine and aprepitant, 544–545 quetiapine and aripiprazole, 59–60 quetiapine and haloperidol, 60 quetiapine and VPA, 99 quetiapine and ziprasidone, 59 R raltegravir and buprenorphine/naloxone, 429 remifentanil and propofol, 157–158 retigabine and ethanol, 96 rifampicin and dolutegravir, 428 rifampicin and propofol, 159–160 risperidone and paliperidone, 61 rosiglitazone and fenofibrate, 654–655 S selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and linezolid, 374 sertraline and oxcarbazepine, 93 simvastatin and almorexant, 678 sorafenib and CYP3A4 inducer, 611 statin and IFNβ, 567 T tacrolimus and amlodipine, 271 tacrolimus and corticosteroid, 597 tacrolimus and ertapenem, 359 tacrolimus and nicardipine, 271 tacrolimus and omeprazole, 549 telaprevir and bosentan, 285 telaprevir and methadone, 111 telaprevir and warfarin, 530 telmisartan and lithium, 283 terbenafine and perphenazine, 71 thiazide diuretics and vitamin D, 513 thymol and methyl salicylate, 343 thyroxine and warfarin, 636 tizanidine and CYP1A2 inhibitors, 176 tolvaptan and albumin, 483 topiramate and glibenclamide, 652 topiramate and nortriptyline, 97 torsemide and (S)-warfarin, 291 tramadol and vitamin K antagonists, 113 U ulipristal and esomeprazole, 627 V valproic acid and olanzapine, 70 venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine, 425 verapamil and dabigatran etexilate, 272 vilanterol and ketoconazole, 245 vitamin D and thiazide diuretics, 513 vitamin K antagonists and tramadol, 113 voriconazole and ciclosporin A (CsA), 591 VPA and amitriptyline, 99 VPA and ethosuximide and lamotrigine, 86 VPA and lersivirine, 99 VPA and olanzapine, 99 VPA and phenobarbital, 86 VPA and phenytoin, 86 VPA and quetiapine, 99 VPA and zotepine, 99 W warfarin and cloxacillin, 530 warfarin and cyclosporine, 383 warfarin and dapsone, 530 warfarin and doxycycline, 348 warfarin and telaprevir, 530 warfarin and thyroxine, 636 (S)-warfarin and torsemide, 291 Z zinc and cephalexin, 358 ziprasidone and aripiprazole, 59 ziprasidone and olanzapine, 59 ziprasidone and quetiapine, 59 zonisamide and CBZ, 86 zotepine and VPA, 99 Index of Adverse Effects and Adverse Reactions Note: Page numbers followed by “b”, “f” and “t” indicate boxes, figures and tables respectively A AA See atrial arrhythmia abdominal discomfort diethylcarbamazine, 459 ketoconazole, 383 abdominal distension acarbose, 647 lubiprostone, 541 meloxicam, 126–127 abdominal pain atomoxetine, calcium salts, 540 deferasirox, 324–325 deferoxamine, 328 donepezil, 6–7 (18F)flutemetamol, 704 eltrombopag, 426 emergency contraception, 619 eslicarbazepine, 89 fluconazole, 383 hydroxycarbamide, 214 leflunomide, 131 levodopa, 192 linezolid, 373 liraglutide, 651 macrogol, 553 meloxicam, 126–127 methylphenidate, 2–3 metronidazole, 398 modafinil, 4–5 moxifloxacin, 367–368 mycophenolate mofetil, 594 octreotide, 667 octreotide, 667 praziquantel, 461–462 saroglitazar, 655 sibutramine, sirolimus, 594 somatostatin, 667 telithromycin, 371 tigatuzumab, 582 vitamin D, 509 abnormal behavior levetiracetam, 92 abnormal dreams rilpivirine, 423 abnormal liver function tests telithromycin, 371 abnormal sensation in eye latanoprost, 713 abortion mifepristone, 626 abscess diethylcarbamazine, 459 abuse oxycodone, 111 ACEI See angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 120, 730 ACG See angle-closure glaucoma ACIP See Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices acne vulgaris cosmetic moisturizers, 207 Xinhuang tablet, 718 acneiform eruption, 16 acneiform rash nimotuzumab, 579 aconite, 719–720 acquired brain injury domperidone, 541–542 activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), 12 ACTs See artemisinin-based combination therapies acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), 469 acute encephalitis oxatomide, 237 acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), 359, 381, 454 acute hyponatraemia doxylamine, 235 acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM), 352 acute interstitial nephritis (AIN), 119, 353 cetirizine, 235 acute kidney injury (AKI), 56, 119, 290, 698 cidofovir, 402 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), 204, 688 acute myocardial infarction alpha-1-antitrypsin, 486 factor VIIa, 493 moxifloxacin, 367–368 acute myocardial ischemia adrenaline, 183 acute pain ketofol, 146 Acute Physiology, Age, and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE), 536 acute psoriasis compound Indigo Naturalis pill/capsule/ tablet, 717–718 acute rectal bleeding tranexamic acid, 536 acute renal failure intravenous immunoglobulin, 488 rifampicin, 450 acute renal injury trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, 375 acute urinary retention (AUR), 638 771 AD See Alzheimer’s disease; atopic dermatitis ADCC See antibody-dependent cellmediated cytotoxicity ADE See adverse drug event ADEM See acute disseminated encephalomyelitis ADHD See attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder adiponectin, 29 ADRs See adverse drug reactions adverse drug event (ADE), 646–647, 683 adverse drug reactions (ADRs), 1–2, 65, 446 adverse effects (AEs), 620 adverse event following an immunisation (AEFI), 725 adverse events (AEs), 619 adverse events following immunisation (AEFI), 465–466 adverse reactions (AR), 725 adverse warfarin-related events (AWEs), 529 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 470 AEFI See adverse event following an immunisation; adverse events following immunisation AEs See adverse effects; adverse events AF See atrial fibrillation AFFIRM See Atrial Fibrillation Follow-Up Investigation of Rhythm Management age-standardised incidence rates (ASIRs), 300 AGEP See acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis aggression dextroamphetamine, 1–2 lamotrigine, 86 levetiracetam, 86 levetiracetam, 91–92 methylphenidate, 2–3 agitation caffeine, gabapentin, 87 methoxetamine, 51 methylphenidate, 2–3 sevoflurane, 142 valproate sodium and semisodium, 99 vitamin D, 508–509 agranulocytosis cibenzoline, 261 clozapine, 67 AIM See acute infectious mononucleosis AIN See acute interstitial nephritis AISA See autoimmune syndrome induced by adjuvants 772 akathisia paliperidone, 70 perphenazine, 71 suicidality, 62 ziprasidone, 75 AKI See acute kidney injury ALAD See delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 86, 506, 592 everolimus, 592 saxagliptin, 649 alanine transaminase See alanine aminotransferase (ALT) albuminuria d-penicillamine, 330–331 all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), 204 allergic conjunctivitis nepafenac, 712 allergic oedema moxifloxacin, 367–368 allergic purpura diammonium glycyrrhizinate, 720 allergic reaction diammonium glycyrrhizinate, 720 factor IX, 494 factor VIIa, 493 intravenous immunoglobulin, 490 parenteral nutrition, 520 telithromycin, 371 allergic shock diammonium glycyrrhizinate, 720 allogenic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT), 607 alloHCT See allogenic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation alopecia albendazole, 458 d-penicillamine, 330–331 entecavir, 411–412 alpha-1-antitrypsin, 486 ALT See alanine aminotransferase altered mood tesofensine, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), 2–3, 726 aluminium, 726 memantine, 198 amenorrhoea with lacteal secretion diammonium glycyrrhizinate, 720 AML See acute myeloid leukaemia amnesia moxifloxacin, 367–368 retigabine, 96 ANA See antinuclear antibody anaemia boceprevir, 409–410 brentuximab vedotin, 573 cixutumumab, 573–574 everolimus, 592–593 foscarnet, 403 interferon alpha, 564 linezolid, 373 lucatumumab, 578 obinutuzumab, 579, 579b octreotide, 667 siltuximab, 581–582 sirolimus, 594 INDEX OF ADVERSE EFFECTS AND ADVERSE REACTIONS telaprevir, 410 telavancin, 369 temsirolimus, 597 tigatuzumab, 582 anaphylactic reactions, 398 intravenous immunoglobulin, 488 anaphylactoid reactions, 697 anaphylaxis, 738 alteplase, 532 moxifloxacin, 367–368 palonosetron, 544 thiamine, 507 ANCA See anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody androgen receptors (ARs), 628 angina octreotide, 667 angioedema proton pump inhibitors, 546 rifampicin, 450 thiamine, 507 angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), 700 angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), 279 angle-closure glaucoma (ACG), 289 anorexia diethylcarbamazine, 459 donepezil, 6–7 fluconazole, 383 interferon alpha, 564 methylphenidate, 2–3 tigatuzumab, 582 topiramate, 96 zonisamide, 100 anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA), 130 anti-TNF-alpha treatment, 732b antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), 578 antinuclear antibodies d-penicillamine, 330–331 antinuclear antibody (ANA), 639 AntiPlatelet Trialists’ Collaboration (APTC), 123 anxiety alpha-1-antitrypsin, 486 donepezil, 6–7 enzalutamide, 629 gabapentin, 87 iloperidone, 68–69 intravenous immunoglobulin, 488 linezolid, 373 lisdexamphetamine, 1–2 methylphenidate, 2–3 retigabine, 96 rimonabant, APACHE See Acute Physiology, Age, and Chronic Health Evaluation II aphasia diammonium glycyrrhizinate, 720 donepezil, 6–7 nimotuzumab, 579 aphthous stomatitis sirolimus, 594 APKD See autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease apolipoprotein E gene (APOE), 312 appetite, decreased atomoxetine, boceprevir, 410 CBZ, 86 donepezil, 6–7 HER3, 575 lisdexamphetamine, 1–2 methylphenidate, 2–3 zonisamide, 86 appetite, increased modafinil, 4–5 quetiapine, 71 risperidone, 73 APTC See AntiPlatelet Trialists’ Collaboration APTT See activated partial thromboplastin time AR See adverse reactions ARB See angiotensin receptor blockers area under the curve (AUC), 358 Aristolochiae Fangchi Radix, 720 arrhythmia adrenaline, 180b levetiracetam, 91 MDMA, potassium, 741 ARs See androgen receptors artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), 393 arterial disease, 618 arterial thrombotic events (ATE), 618 arthralgia belimumab, 570 d-penicillamine, 330–331 diethylcarbamazine, 459 intravenous immunoglobulin, 488 meloxicam, 126–127 sibutramine, sirolimus, 594 somatropin, 662–663 vitamin D, 509 Xinhuang tablet, 718 ASA See acetylsalicylic acid ASD See autism spectrum disorders aseptic meningitis intravenous immunoglobulin, 488–490 ipilimumab, 576–577 ASIA See autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants ASIRs See age-standardised incidence rates aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 506 aspiration pneumonia enteral nutritionnteral, 522 AST See aspartate aminotransferase asthenia donepezil, 6–7 lambrolizumab, 578 lixivaptan, 668 quetiapine, 72 ranolazine, 263 somatropin, 663 telaprevir, 411 vitamin D, 508–509 asthma acute adverse reactions, 697–698 INDEX OF ADVERSE EFFECTS AND ADVERSE REACTIONS bimatoprost, 713 budesonide, 204 ICS, 241 asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis factor VIIa, 493 asymptomatic hypokalaemia conivaptan, 668 asymptomatic PE factor VIIa, 493 ataxia methoxetamine, 51 oxcarbazepine, 93 perampanel, 93 retigabine, 96 valproate sodium and semisodium, 99 ATD-induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH), 447 ATDH See ATD-induced hepatotoxicity ATE See arterial thrombotic events atopic dermatitis (AD), 208 ATRA See all-trans retinoic acid atrial arrhythmia (AA), 736 magnesium, 736 atrial fibrillation (AF), 616–617 anidulafungin, 388 fibrin, 733 hormone replacement therapy, 616–617 levetiracetam, 91 levosimendan, 258 moxifloxacin, 367–368 Atrial Fibrillation Follow-Up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM), 629 atrophic vaginitis, 214 HA, 214 attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 2, 14, 310–311 AUC See area under the curve AUR See acute urinary retention autacoids dextrans, 487 factor VIIa, 493 gelatin, 488 autism spectrum disorders (ASD), 14 autoimmune syndrome induced by adjuvants (AISA), 466 autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA), 725 automatic nerve function, 723 autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (APKD), 668 tolvaptan, 668 AWEs See adverse warfarin-related events B baboon syndrome See symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) back pain carlumab, 573 elotuzumab, 574–575 eslicarbazepine, 89 intravenous immunoglobulin, 488 methylphenidate, 2–3 saroglitazar, 655 sibutramine, tolvaptan, 668 bacterial pneumonia cidofovir, 402 telaprevir, 410 BAL See bronchoalveolar lavage balance disorder lacosamide, 90 BCVA See best-corrected visual acuity BDNF See brain-derived neurotrophic factor behavioural symptoms of Alzheimers donepezil, 6–7 best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), 743 bilateral partial salpingectomy (BPS), 623–624 bilateral pleural effusions TPN, 517 bilateral vestibulopathy (BV), 354 biliary tract atazanavir, 424 PDT, 219 binucleated cell (BNC), 308 bipolar disorder ketamine, 153 bispecific T-cell-engaging (BiTE), 572 BiTE See bispecific T-cell-engaging black cohosh (Cimifuga racemosa), 720 bladder PDT, 219 pioglitazone, 653 rosiglitazone, 654 BLCs See blood lead concentrations bleeding adalimumab therapy, 568 cidofovir, 402 clopidogrel, 533 coxib, 124t dabigatran, 531–532 diclofenac, 124t etonogestrel, 623 ibuprofen, 124t meloxicam, 126–127 naproxen, 124t postinjection delirium sedation syndrome, 65 blepharitis levofloxacin, 367 BLLs See blood lead levels blood creatine phosphokinase bezafibrate, 675 ezetimibe, 675 blood lead concentrations (BLCs), 308 blood lead levels (BLLs), 307 blood potassium vilanterol, 247 blood pressure (BP), 279 asenapine, 60 desvenlafaxine, 19 donepezil, 6–7 etonogestrel, 622 fibrin, 733 GC treatment, 604 intravenous immunoglobulin, 488 vasopressin, 670 blood stream infections parenteral nutrition, 516–517 blue-grey pigmentation amiodarone, 260 773 blurred vision eslicarbazepine, 89 retigabine, 96 BMD See bone mineral density BMI See body mass index BNC See binucleated cell body inflammation praziquantel, 462 body mass index (BMI), 492, 615, 635–636, 687 body pain saroglitazar, 655 body temperature fibrin, 733 IL-2, 567 MDMA, 50 bone fracture levetiracetam, 91 bone marrow transplantation palifermin, 567 bone mineral density (BMD), 302 bone pain pegfilgrastim, 563 TAC, 596 vitamin D, 509 BOOP See bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia bowel habits, change in sapropterin, 507 tetrahydrobiopterin, 507 bowel ischemia enteral nutritionnteral, 522 BP See blood pressure BPS See bilateral partial salpingectomy bradycardia donepezil, 6–7 levofloxacin, 366–367 magnesium salts, 309 nefopam, 128 brain lithium, 32–33 haemorrhage, 11–12 brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 28–29 breast cancer exemestane, 620 HRT, 617–618 liraglutide, 651 melatonin, 665 ondansetron, 544 raloxifene, 620 tamoxifen, 621 trastuzumab, 582–583 breast density bazedoxifene plus, 620 breast milk lithium, 33 breastfeeding AEDs, 88 medroxyprogesterone, 624 methadone, 110 oxycodone, 111 breasts bicalutamide, 629 medroxyprogesterone, 624 organ toxicitiy, 331–332 ... contamination of an intravenous anesthetic, propofol N Engl J Med 1995;333(3):147–54 How to Use This Book THE SCOPE OF THE SIDE EFFECTS OF DRUGS ANNUALS Volumes in the Side Effects of Drugs Annual. .. range of health care professionals This thirty-sixth edition of SEDA includes analyses of the side effects of drugs using case-based principles which include encounters identified during bedside.. .SIDE EFFECTS OF DRUGS ANNUAL VOLUME 36 A worldwide yearly survey of new data in adverse drug reactions Editor Sidhartha D Ray, PhD., FACN Manchester University College of Pharmacy,
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: Side effects of drugs annual volume 36 , Side effects of drugs annual volume 36

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn

Nhận lời giải ngay chưa đến 10 phút Đăng bài tập ngay