Progress in brain research, volume 229

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Serial Editor Vincent Walsh Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience University College London 17 Queen Square London WC1N 3AR UK Editorial Board Mark Bear, Cambridge, USA Medicine & Translational Neuroscience Hamed Ekhtiari, Tehran, Iran Addiction Hajime Hirase, Wako, Japan Neuronal Microcircuitry Freda Miller, Toronto, Canada Developmental Neurobiology Shane O’Mara, Dublin, Ireland Systems Neuroscience Susan Rossell, Swinburne, Australia Clinical Psychology & Neuropsychiatry Nathalie Rouach, Paris, France Neuroglia Barbara Sahakian, Cambridge, UK Cognition & Neuroethics Bettina Studer, Dusseldorf, Germany Neurorehabilitation Xiao-Jing Wang, New York, USA Computational Neuroscience Elsevier Radarweg 29, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, United Kingdom 50 Hampshire Street, 5th Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States First edition 2016 Copyright # 2016 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher’s permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our website: www.elsevier.com/permissions This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein) Notices Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein ISBN: 978-0-444-63701-7 ISSN: 0079-6123 For information on all Elsevier publications visit our website at https://www.elsevier.com/ Publisher: Zoe Kruze Acquisition Editor: Kirsten Shankland Editorial Project Manager: Hannah Colford Production Project Manager: Magesh Kumar Mahalingam Cover Designer: Greg Harris Typeset by SPi Global, India Contributors J Bernacer Mind-Brain Group (Institute for Culture and Society, ICS), University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain V Bonnelle University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom A Bourgeois Laboratory for Behavioral Neurology and Imaging of Cognition, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland C Burrasch €beck, Lu €beck, Technische Universit€ at Dresden, Dresden; University of Lu Germany L Chelazzi University of Verona; National Institute of Neuroscience, Verona, Italy T.T.-J Chong Macquarie University; ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW; Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia P.J Currie Reed College, Portland, OR, United States C Eisenegger Neuropsychopharmacology and Biopsychology Unit, Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria B Eitam University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel L Font Area de Psicobiologı´a, Universitat Jaume I, Castello´n, Spain J Gottlieb Kavli Institute for Brain Science, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States R Handermann Mauritius Hospital, Meerbusch, Germany U Hegerl Research Center of the German Depression Foundation; University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany J Held University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich; Cereneo, Center for Neurology and Rehabilitation, Vitznau, Switzerland v vi Contributors L Hellrung Technische Universit€ at Dresden, Dresden, Germany E.T Higgins Columbia University, New York, NY, United States C.B Holroyd University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada M Husain University of Oxford; John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom P Kenning €sseldorf, Du €sseldorf, Germany Heinrich-Heine-University Du S Knecht Mauritius Hospital, Meerbusch; Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical €sseldorf, Du €sseldorf, Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Du Germany N.B Kroemer Technische Universit€ at Dresden, Dresden, Germany M Lopes Inria and Ensta ParisTech, Paris, France A.B Losecaat Vermeer Neuropsychopharmacology and Biopsychology Unit, Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria A Luft University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich; Cereneo, Center for Neurology and Rehabilitation, Vitznau, Switzerland E Luis Neuroimaging Laboratory, Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain K Lutz University Hospital of Zurich; Institute of Psychology, University of Zurich, Zurich; Cereneo, Center for Neurology and Rehabilitation, Vitznau, Switzerland P Malhotra Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, London, United Kingdom I Martinez-Valbuena Mind-Brain Group (Institute for Culture and Society, ICS), University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain M Martinez Neuroimaging Laboratory, Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain I Morales Reed College, Portland, OR, United States Contributors O Nafcha University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel E Olgiati Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, London, United Kingdom P.-Y Oudeyer Inria and Ensta ParisTech, Paris, France S.Q Park €beck, Lu €beck, Germany University of Lu M.A Pastor Mind-Brain Group (Institute for Culture and Society, ICS); Neuroimaging Laboratory, Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA); Clı´nica Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain R Pastor Reed College, Portland, OR, United States; Area de Psicobiologı´a, Universitat Jaume I, Castello´n, Spain N Pujol Clı´nica Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain D Ramirez-Castillo Mind-Brain Group (Institute for Culture and Society, ICS), University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain I Riecˇansky´ Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute of Normal and Pathological Physiology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia; Social, Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience Unit, Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria C Russell Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom D Soto Basque Center on Cognition, Brain and Language, San Sebastian; Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao, Spain S Strang €beck, Lu €beck, Germany University of Lu T Strombach €sseldorf, Du €sseldorf, Germany Heinrich-Heine-University Du B Studer Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, €sseldorf, Du €sseldorf; Mauritius Hospital, Heinrich-Heine-University Du Meerbusch, Germany vii viii Contributors C Ulke Research Center of the German Depression Foundation, Leipzig, Germany A Umemoto Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan H Van Dijk Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, €sseldorf, Du €sseldorf, Germany Heinrich-Heine-University Du P Vuilleumier Laboratory for Behavioral Neurology and Imaging of Cognition, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland M Widmer University Hospital of Zurich; Neural Control of Movement Lab, ETH Zurich, Zurich; Cereneo, Center for Neurology and Rehabilitation, Vitznau, Switzerland N Ziegler Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Preface Motivation, the driving force of our behavior, is relevant to all aspects of human life and the question how motivation can be enhanced is likewise ubiquitous As a consequence, motivation is a prominent topic in the psychological, educational, neuroscience, and economic literature and has been subject to both extensive theoretical consideration and empirical research Yet, motivation and its neural mechanisms are not yet fully understood, and the demand for new tools to enhance motivation in education, health, and work settings remains high This volume provides an up-to-date overview over theoretical and experimental work on motivation, discusses recent findings about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying motivation and goaldirected behavior, and presents novel approaches targeting motivation in clinical and nonclinical application settings It contains a mix of review articles and new original research studies, and crosses the boundaries of and connects findings from a range of scientific disciplines, including psychology, economics, behavioral and cognitive neurosciences, and education The volume is structured into four sections: The first section discusses theories of motivation Strombach and colleagues (Chapter 1) review extant psychological and economic theories of motivation and converse the similarities and differences in how motivation is conceptualized in these two scientific traditions Chapters and present two novel, nonexclusive models of motivation The first model, proposed by Studer and Knecht (Chapter 2), defines motivation for a given activity as a product of the anticipated subjective benefits and anticipated subjective costs of (performance of) the activity This benefit–cost model incorporates core concepts of previous motivation theories and allows deriving strategies for how motivation might be increased in application settings Meanwhile, Nafacha et al (Chapter 3) focus on the motivation underlying habitual behavior and propose that habitual behavior is motivated by the control it provides over ones environment They discuss the intrinsic worth of control and in which circumstances an activity may attain control-based motivational value The second section of this volume covers the assessment of motivation One tradition in motivation research is to use questionnaire-based qualitative measures But, this approach has some limitations, including that questionnaires can only be used to measure motivation in humans, and that these measures rely on adequate insight of responders In Chapter 4, Chong et al present an alternative approach to the assessment of motivation, namely use of objective measures of motivation derived from effort-based decision-making paradigms This behavioral assessment approach allows identifying motivation deficits in clinical populations and investigating neurobiological mechanisms of motivation in both human and nonhuman animals (see also Chapters 5–9) Section of this volume covers current knowledge about the neurobiological underpinnings of motivation Chapter by Bernacer et al presents new original work on the valuation of physical activity in sedentary individuals and on the neural xxi xxii Preface correlates of the subjective cost of physical effort Kroemer and colleagues (Chapter 6) argue that signal fluctuations in a mesocorticolimbic network underlie and give rise to intraindividual fluctuations in motivation and effort production The authors review extant empirical support for this proposition and discuss how novel functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques will enable further testing of the suggested neurobehavioral model Morales and colleagues (Chapter 7) focus on motivation for seeking and consumption of food Their chapter reviews the current knowledge about the role of opioid signaling in food motivation gained through laboratory experiments in animals and presents new original data on the effects of opioid receptor antagonists upon food motivation and effort-related behavior Umemoto and Holroyd (Chapter 8) explore the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in motivated behavior and theorize that this brain structure contributes to the motivation-related personality traits reward sensitivity and persistence They also present new data from a behavioral experiment in support of this theory Vermeer et al (Chapter 9) review evidence for the involvement of sex hormones testosterone and estradiol in motivation for partaking in competitions and in performance increases during competitions They describe how competition-induced testosterone can have long-lasting effects upon behavior and discuss how testosterone might enable neuroplasticity in the adult brain In the final chapter of Section 3, Hegerl and Ulke (Chapter 10) describe the clinical symptom fatigue and its neurobiological correlates They discuss clinical, behavioral, and neurobiological support for why distinguishing between “hyperaroused fatigue” (observed in major depression) and “hypoaroused fatigue” (occurring in the context of inflammatory and immunological processes) is important and propose a clinical procedure to achieve this separation The fourth section of this volume showcases recent research on enhancing motivation in education, neurorehabilitation, and other application domains In Chapter 11, Oudeyer et al argue that curiosity and learning progress act as intrinsic motivators that foster exploration and memory retention, and discuss how this mechanism can be utilized in education technology applications Strang et al (Chapter 12) review recent work on the use of monetary incentives as a motivation enhancement tool in the context of (laboratory) task performance, prosocial behavior, and health-related behavior, and debate the conditions under which this approach is and is not effective Meanwhile, new research by Widmer et al (presented in Chapter 13) tested whether augmentation of striatal activation during a motor learning task through strategic employment of performance feedback and of performance-dependent monetary reward can strengthen motor skill acquisition and consolidation Chapters 14 and 15 investigate how motivation influences perception and attention Bourgeois et al (Chapter 14) discuss how reward-signaling stimuli attract and bias attention, and which neural mechanisms underlie this impact of motivation upon attention In Chapter 15, Paresh and colleagues then elaborate on how these effects Preface can be utilized in the treatment of spatial neglect, a disorder of attention common in stroke patients They cover previous evidence on the effectiveness of motivational stimulation in reducing attention deficits and present a new original study examining the impact of monetary incentives on attentional orienting and task engagement in patients with neglect In Chapter 16, we present a proof-of-concept study which shows that competition can be used as a tool to enhance intensity and amount of (self-directed) training in stroke patients undergoing neurorehabilitation Chapter 17 by Chong and Husain reviews extant clinical and laboratory evidence for the use of dopaminergic medication in the treatment of apathy, a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by diminished motivation They also discuss how effortbased decision-making paradigms could be used as more objective endpoint measures in future treatment studies In Chapter 18, Knecht and Kenning explore how insights gained in neuroeconomic and marketing research into motivation and behavior offer new avenues and models for health facilitation and meeting the challenge of lifestyle-mediated chronic disease We hope that this volume will not only provide an up-to-date account on motivation but also help to integrate knowledge gained in the covered disciplines and research fields and to connect basic research on the neurobiological foundations of motivation, clinical work on motivation deficits, and application research To aid this integration, we reflect on connections between and conclusions derived from the various lines of research presented in the final chapter of this volume (Chapter 19) We also outline open questions for future motivation research Bettina Studer Stefan Knecht xxiii CHAPTER Common and distinctive approaches to motivation in different disciplines T Strombach*,1, S Strang†,1,2, S.Q Park†, P Kenning* € € *Heinrich-Heine-University Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany † € € University of Lubeck, Lubeck, Germany Corresponding author: Tel.: +49-451-3101-3611; Fax: +49-451-3101-3604, e-mail address: sabrina.strang@uni-luebeck.de Abstract Over the last couple of decades, a body of theories has emerged that explains when and why people are motivated to act Multiple disciplines have investigated the origins and consequences of motivated behavior, and have done so largely in parallel Only recently have different disciplines, like psychology and economics, begun to consolidate their knowledge, attempting to integrate findings The following chapter presents and discusses the most prominent approaches to motivation in the disciplines of biology, psychology, and economics Particularly, we describe the specific role of incentives, both monetary and alternative, in various motivational theories Though monetary incentives are pivotal in traditional economic theory, biological and psychological theories ascribe less significance to monetary incentives and suggest alternative drivers for motivation Keywords Incentives, Intrinsic motivation, Extrinsic motivation, Drives, Motives INTRODUCTION Motivation describes goal-oriented behavior and includes all processes for initiating, maintaining, or changing psychological and physiological activity (Heckhausen and Heckhausen, 2006) The word “motivation” originates from the Latin verb “movere,” meaning “to move” (Hau and Martini, 2012), which effectively describes what motivation is—the active “movement” of an organism in reaction to a stimulus These authors contributed equally to this paper Progress in Brain Research, Volume 229, ISSN 0079-6123, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2016.06.007 © 2016 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved References 2.3 SOCIAL INFLUENCES ON MOTIVATION AND GROUP BEHAVIOR Psychological theories and contemporary economic models recognize the importance of social factors in determining motivation and guiding behavior Social approval, fairness, reciprocity, social status, and reputation have all been postulated to be strong motivators of human behavior (see Losecaat Vermeer et al., 2016, this volume; Strombach et al., 2016, this volume, for reviews of the relevant literature) Furthermore, social comparison is known to affect the subjective valuation of extrinsic benefits and costs (eg, Ba´ez-Mendoza and Schultz, 2013; Bault et al., 2011; Grygolec et al., 2012) and perception of one’s own skill and performance (Corcoran et al., 2011; Vostroknutov et al., 2012) Previous research has also shown that humans not only take their own benefits and costs into account, but also what benefits and costs their actions bring for others (eg, Crockett et al., 2014) Note, however, that these lines of research focus on how social factors affect motivation and behavior of an individual A topic that received less attention in this volume, and in neuroscience research on motivation in general, is what drives motivation and behavior of groups Of course, a group can simply be seen as multiple individuals, each with their own motivation But in every-day life, we also observe situations where the motivation and behavior of group members appear to arise, or at least be enhanced, though an interactive dynamic Think for instance of eruptions of violence in crowds of soccer supporters Such group dynamics are deliberated in the social psychology literature For instance, it has been shown that group interaction enhances individuals’ propensity to take risks (“risky-shift phenomenon”; Kogan and Wallach, 1967) and polarize individuals’ attitudes (eg, Keating et al., 2016; Myers and Lamm, 1976) Future research might examine how such group dynamics fit into current psychological and economic models of motivation, and how they might be utilized for motivation enhancement Further, it would be interesting for future studies to assess the neurobiological correlates of such interactional social influences upon motivation and behavior REFERENCES Ba´ez-Mendoza, R., Schultz, W., 2013 The role of the striatum in social behaviour Front Neurosci 7, 1–14 Bault, N., Joffily, M., Rustichini, A., Coricelli, G., 2011 Medial prefrontal cortex and striatum mediate the influence of social comparison on the decision process Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A 108, 16044–16049 Bernacer, J., Martinez-Valbuena, I., Martinez, M., Pujol, N., Luis, E., Ramirez-Castillo, D., Pastor, M.A., 2016 Chapter 5—Brain correlates of the intrinsic subjective cost of effort in sedentary volunteers In: Studer, B., Knecht, S (Eds.), Progress in Brain Research, vol 229 Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 103–123 Chong, T.T.-J., Bonnelle, V., Husain, M., 2016 Chapter 4—Quantifying motivation with effort-based decision-making paradigms in health and disease In: Studer, B., Knecht, S (Eds.), Progress in Brain Research, vol 229 Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 71–100 447 448 CHAPTER 19 Concluding remarks Chong, T.T.-J., Husain, M., 2016 Chapter 17—The role of dopamine in the pathophysiology and treatment of apathy In: Studer, B., Knecht, S (Eds.), Progress in Brain Research, vol 229 Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 389–426 Clarke, H.F., Robbins, T.W., Roberts, A.C., 2008 Lesions of the medial striatum in monkeys produce perseverative impairments during reversal learning similar to those produced by lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex J Neurosci 28, 10972–10982 Corcoran, K., Crusius, J., Mussweiler, T., 2011 Social comparison: motives, standards, and mechanisms In: Chadee, D (Ed.), Theories in Social 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of the polarizing influence of group discussion J Exp Soc Psychol 65, 52–58 Kogan, N., Wallach, M.A., 1967 Risky-shift phenomenon in small decision-making groups: a test of the information-exchange hypothesis J Exp Soc Psychol 3, 75–84 Kroemer, N.B., Burrasch, C., Hellrung, L., 2016 Chapter 6—To work or not to work: Neural representation of cost and benefit of instrumental action In: Studer, B., Knecht, S (Eds.), Progress in Brain Research, vol 229 Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 125–157 Lepper, M.R., Greene, D., Nisbett, R.E., 1973 Undermining children’s intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: a test of the “overjustification” hypothesis J Pers Soc Psychol 28, 129 Losecaat Vermeer, A.B., Riecˇansky´, I., Eisenegger, C., 2016 Chapter 9—Competition, testosterone, and adult neurobehavioral plasticity In: Studer, B., Knecht, S (Eds.), Progress in Brain Research, vol 229 Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 213–238 References Manohar, S.G., Husain, M., 2016 Human ventromedial prefrontal lesions alter incentivisation by reward Cortex 76, 104–120 Morales, I., Font, L., Currie, P.J., Pastor, R., 2016 Chapter 7—Involvement of opioid signaling in food preference and motivation: studies in laboratory animals In: Studer, B., Knecht, S (Eds.), Progress in Brain Research, vol 229 Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 159–187 Myers, D.G., Lamm, H., 1976 The group polarization phenomenon Psychol Bull 83, 602–627 Nafcha, O., Higgins, E.T., Eitam, B., 2016 Chapter 3—Control feedback as the motivational force behind habitual behavior In: Studer, B., Knecht, S (Eds.), Progress in Brain Research, vol 229 Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 49–68 Oudeyer, P.-Y., Gottlieb, J., Lopes, M., 2016 Chapter 11—Intrinsic motivation, curiosity and learning: theory and applications in educational technologies In: Studer, B., Knecht, S (Eds.), Progress in Brain Research, vol 229 Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 257–284 Pelletier, L.G., Fortier, M.S., Vallerand, R.J., Tuson, K.M., Briere, N.M., Blais, M.R., 1995 Toward a new measure of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation in sports: the sport motivation scale (sms) J Sport Exerc Psychol 17, 35–53 Prevost, C., Pessiglione, M., Metereau, E., Clery-Melin, M.-L., Dreher, J.-C., 2010 Separate valuation subsystems for delay and effort decision costs J Neurosci 30, 14080–14090 Salamone, J.D., Correa, M., 2012 The mysterious motivational functions of mesolimbic dopamine Neuron 76, 470–485 Salamone, J., Correa, M., Farrar, A., Mingote, S., 2007 Effort-related functions of nucleus accumbens dopamine and associated forebrain circuits Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 191, 461–482 Skinner, B.F., 1963 Operant behavior Am Psychol 18, 503 Strang, S., Park, S., Strombach, T., Kenning, P., 2016 Chapter 12—Applied economics: the use of monetary incentives to modulate behavior In: Studer, B., Knecht, S (Eds.), Progress in Brain Research, vol 229 Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 285–301 Strombach, T., Strang, S., Park, S.Q., Kenning, P., 2016 Chapter 1—Common and distinctive approaches to motivation in different disciplines In: Studer, B., Knecht, S (Eds.), Progress in Brain Research, vol 229 Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 3–23 Studer, B., Knecht, S., 2016 Chapter 2—A benefit–cost framework of motivation for a specific activity In: Studer, B., Knecht, S (Eds.), Progress in Brain Research, vol 229 Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 25–47 Studer, B., Manes, F., Humphreys, G., Robbins, T.W., Clark, L., 2015 Risk-sensitive decision-making in patients with posterior parietal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex injury Cereb Cortex 25, 1–9 Studer, B., Van Dijk, H., Handermann, R., Knecht, S., 2016 Chapter 16—Increasing selfdirected training in neurorehabilitation patients through competition In: Studer, B., Knecht, S (Eds.), Progress in Brain Research, vol 229 Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 367–388 Toppen, J.T., 1965 Effect of size and frequency of money reinforcement on human operant (work)behavior Percept Mot Skills 20, 259–269 Treadway, M.T., Buckholtz, J.W., Cowan, R.L., Woodward, N.D., Li, R., Ansari, M.S., Baldwin, R.M., Schwartzman, A.N., Kessler, R.M., Zald, D.H., 2012 Dopaminergic mechanisms of individual differences in human effort-based decision-making J Neurosci 32, 6170–6176 Vallerand, R.J., Pelletier, L.G., Blais, M.R., Briere, N.M., Senecal, C., Vallieres, E.F., 1992 The academic motivation scale: a measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education Educ Psychol Meas 52, 1003–1017 449 450 CHAPTER 19 Concluding remarks Vostroknutov, A., Tobler, P.N., Rustichini, A., 2012 Causes of social reward differences encoded in human brain J Neurophysiol 107, 1403–1412 White, R.W., 1959 Motivation reconsidered: the concept of competence Psychol Rev 66, 297–333 Widmer, M., Ziegler, N., Held, J., Luft, A., Lutz, K., 2016 Chapter 13—Rewarding feedback promotes motor skill consolidation via striatal activity In: Studer, B., Knecht, S (Eds.), Progress in Brain Research, vol 229 Elseiver, Amsterdam, pp 303–323 Index Note: Page numbers followed by “f ” indicate figures, “t” indicate tables, “b” indicate boxes, and “np” indicate footnotes A Aberrant behavior, 345–346 Abulia, 391t ACC See Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) Accept/reject task, in human, 78f, 83–86 Action control, 130, 139–140, 146–147 Action identification theory (AIT), 56 Active learning, 257–258, 266–268, 270f, 273–274 Active teaching, 279–280 Activity intrinsic benefit of, 445–446 specific model vs generalized motivation impairment, 446 Adenosine receptor modulation, 128–129 AIT See Action identification theory (AIT) Akinetic mutism, 391t Amantadine, 401 Amygdala, 134–135 in motivational attention, 338 Androgen receptors (ARs), 217–218 in neuronal plasticity, 223–224 Anergia, 391t Anhedonia, 390, 391t Anorexia nervosa, 63–64 Antagonism, dopamine, 167–168 Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 128, 136, 190–192, 204–208, 397 behavior, 201 vs questionnaire scores, 202–203, 203t questionnaire, 197, 199–200, 199–200t statistical analysis, 197–199 task design, 195–197, 196f Apathetic behavior, in animals, 397–400 Apathy, 73–74, 73t, 83–85, 84f, 92, 344–345, 390–391, 391t clinical impact of, 393–394 as common and debilitating, 393–394 depression and, 392–393 diagnostic criteria for, 392t dopamine in treatment of human, 400–413, 400t dopaminergic deficit in human lead to, 396–397 as independent of cognitive dysfunction, 393 levodopa on, 402 nonselective dopamine augmentation in, 401–402 in Parkinson’s disease (PD), 397 reward sensitivity in, 403–407, 404–405f Appetitive behavior, 161–162, 164–165 Apple-gathering task, 84f, 409, 410–411f Arc-pointing task, 305–307, 314–316, 319–320 training, 311–313 Arousal theory of motivation, ARs See Androgen receptors (ARs) Artificial intelligence, 276 Athymhormia, 391t Attention, 344 motivational, 331–333 amygdala in, 338 motivational signals modulate selective visual, 326–331 Attentional blink (AB) paradigm, 350 Attentional selection, 325–328 neural bases of value-driven, 333–338 Attention deficit, motivational modulation of, 347–350 framing exercises, 347 monetary incentive, 349–350 positive and aversive motivation, 348–349 sound environment, 348 Autoactivation deficit, 391t Avolition, 391t B Basolateral amygdala (BLA), 128 BDNF See Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Behavior apathetic, in animals, 397–400 appetitive, 161–162, 164–165 changes, 429–431, 435 consummatory, 161–162 data analysis and curve fitting, 111–112 food-motivated, 169–174 group, 447 habitual- vs goal-directed, 58–59 incentivizing prosocial, 294–296 motivated, 161–162, 394 laboratory animal research in, 164–167 newborns exhibit sucking, result of fMRI task, 116 reward-based, 390 task, 109f Behaviorism, 451 452 Index Benefit–cost framework of motivation, 442–443 Berlyne’s informational approach, to curiosity and intrinsic motivation, 261–262 Biological motives, 5–9 BLA See Basolateral amygdala (BLA) Brain arousal, 240–243 and drive, 242f Brain correlate, of effort discounting, 116–117 Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 224 Brain disease, motivation in, 344–345 Brain, motivation in, 444–445 Brain state change behavior, 145–146 Bupropion, 398 C cACC See Caudal ACC (cACC) Cancer-related fatigue, 244–245 Cardiorespiratory endurance training, 370 Caudal ACC (cACC), 190–194, 204 Caudate nucleus (CD), 334–335, 336f Challenge hypothesis, 217 Chronic stress model, 244 Cognitive control, 190 Cognitive dissonance reduction, 260 Cognitive domain, 76f Cognitive dysfunction, apathy as independent of, 393 Cognitive effort process vs physical effort process, 91 Cognitive evaluation theory, 290 Comparator model, 51–52 Competence, motivation for, 260–261, 268 Competition, 214–215 Competitiveness, long-term effects, 222–223 Computational model, 274 of action selection and regulation, 50–57 for motor action selection, 51–52 Conditioned reinforcers, Conditioned stimulus (CS), 163–164 Consciousness, motivational attention require, 331–333 Consumer-friendliness marketing strategies, 433–434 Consummatory behavior, 161–162 Contextual cueing definition, 330–331 modulation of, 330–331 Control feedback, 56–57 Crowding out effect, 288–291 Crowding out phenomena, 288–289 CS See Conditioned stimulus (CS) Curiosity driven reinforcement learning, 268–272, 270f fosters learning, 257–259 and learning, 266–268, 266f LP-driven, 272–273 primary rewards activated by, 262–263 in psychology, 259–262 qualitative theories of, 268 Cybernetic model, 51f of goal-directed behavior, 50–51 D D-amphetamine, 398 DASS See Depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS) Decision making, 427–429, 432 and action performance, 104 discounting factors in, 105–106 effort-based, 75, 78f, 166, 174 task, 110f value-based, 105 Delta receptor, 168–169 Depression and apathy, 392–393 hyperaroused fatigue in context of, 245–247 Depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS), 85–86 Diminished motivation, disorder of, 73t Discounting factor, in decision making, 105–106 Disorders of diminished motivation, 391t DMPFC, 118–119 Dopamine, 217b, 444–445 agonist, receptor-specific, 402–403 antagonism, 167–168 effects of on metrics of motivation, 413 on reward sensitivity in apathy, 403–407, 404–405f on subclinical effort hypersensitivity, 409–413, 410–411f on subclinical reward insensitivity, 407–409, 408f mesocorticolimbic, 394–396 nonpharmacological means of increasing, 415 nonspecific effects of, 398 on objective metrics of motivation, 403–413 presynaptic concentrations of, 401 receptor specificity, 413–414 effects, 398–400 on reward sensitivity in apathy, 403–407 role in reinforcement, 167–168 to specific populations, 414 Index in treatment apathetic behavior in animals, 397–400 of human apathy, 400–413 Dopamine neuron, 263, 305, 344 in substantia nigra (SN), 134 Dopamine receptor, 398–399 Dopaminergic (DA) cells, 262–263 Dopaminergic deficit in human lead to apathy, 396–397 in nonhuman animals, 394–396 Dopaminergic effect, 128–129 Dopaminergic function modulation, 217–219 Dopaminergic midbrain, 133–134 Dopaminergic reward system, 334 Dopaminergic signal, 334–338 Dopaminergic system, 262–263 Dorsal attentional network, 325–326 Dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen), 133 Drive-reduction theory, 6–7 Drives as motives, 6–7 Drug adherence, 431–434 Dual-alternative design, 78f in human, 81–82 in nonhuman animal, 79–80 E Eating disorder, 160, 174–175 Economics and motivation, 13–17 Economics and psychology, 17–19 EDT See Effort-discounting theory (EDT) EEfRT See Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT) Effort brain regions subserving allocation of, 130–136 dopaminergic effects on, 128–129 neuroeconomic perspective on, 127–128 neuromodulation of, 128–130 Effort-based decision-making, 78f process, 166, 174 task, 83, 93 Effort-dependent operant test, 164 Effort discounting brain correlates of, 116–117 and correlation with lifestyle, 115–116 function, 82f paradigm in animal, 83 fixed and progressive ratio, 77–79 Effort-discounting task challenges of, 87–90 fatigue on effort discounting, 90 probability discounting control, 87 temporal discounting control, 89 Effort-discounting theory (EDT), 37 Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT), 412 Effort-free food preference test, 170–171, 171np Effort-free preference intake test, 164 Emotion, 161–163 Emotional motivation, 348–349 Endogenous opioid system (EOS), 168–169, 174–175 Episodic reinforcement learning, 271np Ergoline derivatives, 400t Estrogen receptors (ERs), 224–225 Estrogen receptors alpha (ER-a), 217–218 Estrogen receptors beta (ER-b), 217–218 Expectancy value theory, 33–34 Extrinsic motivation, 9–10, 288–289, 304 defined, 259 vs intrinsic motivation, 442–443 Extrinsic reward, 304 F Fatigue, 239–240, 391t cancer-related, 244–245 as clinical symptom, 240–241 hyperaroused, 241f clinical relevance, 247–248 in context of depression, 245–247 features of, 247t hypoaroused, 241f, 243–245 clinical relevance, 247–248 features of, 247t in immunological and inflammatory process, 243–245 poststroke, 245 FEAT See FMRI Expert Analysis Tool (FEAT) Feedback, 289–290 motivation and, 57–63 outcome vs existence of control, 62t Festinger’s theory of cognitive dissonance, 260 Fixed ratio (FR) paradigm, 77–79 FMRI Expert Analysis Tool (FEAT), 112 Food intake, 160–164 neurobiology of, 167–174 Food-motivated behavior, 169–174 Food preference, 165, 170–171 test, 170–171, 171np 453 454 Index Freud’s motivation theory, Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) setting, 112–115 task, behavioral result, 116 G GABAergic neuron activation, 128–129 Gain/Loss Effort Task, 412 Generalized estimating equation (GEE) model, 376 Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM), 312–313 Generalized motivation impairment vs activityspecific model, 446 Generalized regression technique, 412–413 General linear model (GLM), 113–115, 113t GLMM See Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) Global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ), 107–108 Goal-directed behavior cybernetic model of, 50–51 vs habitual-directed behavior, 58–59 GPAQ See Global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ) Group behavior, 447 H Habit, birth of, 60–61 Habitual- vs goal-directed behavior, 58–59 Health behavior, incentivizing, 296–297 Health behavior motivation implementation, 429–431 marketing model of customers, 430t medical model of patients, 430t perspectives, 434–435 strategies, 431–434 translation into practice, 434 Hemodynamic response function (HRF), 113 Hierarchical reinforcement learning (HRL), 190 HRL-ACC theory, 191–193, 204 Hippocampus-dependent learning modulation, 258 HRL See Hierarchical reinforcement learning (HRL) Human accept/reject task in, 83–86 cognitive effort in, 76f decision making model, 427–428 dual-alternative design in, 81–82 reward pathway in, 395f Human primates, value-based modulation, 333–334 Huntington’s disease, 396–397 Hyperaroused fatigue, 241f clinical relevance, 247–248 in context of depression, 245–247 features of, 247t Hypersensitivity, effects of dopamine, 409–413, 410–411f Hypersomnia, 245 Hypoaroused fatigue, 241f, 243–245 clinical relevance, 247–248 features of, 247t in immunological and inflammatory process, 243–245 I Incentive salience hypothesis, 163–164 Incentive salience model, liking vs wanting, 163–164 Incentivizing health behavior, 296–297 Incentivizing prosocial behavior, 294–296 Incongruity, optimal, 260 Inflammatory response model, 244 Inhibitor, monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B), 401 Instincts as motives, Instinct theory, Intelligent tutoring system (ITS), 276, 278–279 Intracranial self-stimulation, 167–168 Intrinsically motivated reinforcement learning, 269 Intrinsic benefit of activity, 445–446 Intrinsic motivation, 9–10, 214–215, 257–259, 288–292, 304, 445–446 Berlyne’s informational approach to curiosity and, 261–262 competence-based, 268 defined, 259 vs extrinsic motivation, 442–443 knowledge-based, 268 in psychology, 259–262 Intrinsic reward, 304 ITS See Intelligent tutoring system (ITS) K Kappa receptor, 168–170 Knowledge-based intrinsic motivation, 268 Knowledge of performance, 305–310, 307–309f, 313–314, 317–318 L Landmark task, 356–360, 357–358f aim, 351–352 method, 352, 353t experimental task, 352 task A and B, 352–355, 354f LARS See Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS) Index L-DOPA, 129, 133 Learning curiosity and, 266–268, 266f intrinsically motivated exploration scaffolds efficient multitask, 273–274 reinforcement curiosity-driven, 268–272, 270f episodic, 271np intrinsically motivated, 269 Learning progress (LP)-driven curiosity, 272–273 Learning progress (LP) hypothesis, 265–268, 266–267f Levodopa on apathy, 402 Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS), 85 Locus coeruleus (LC), 245–246 M MAO-B inhibitors See Monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitors Maslow’s model, 12 Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), 275–276 Matlab physIO Toolbox, 311–312 Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), 81, 83, 84f, 409, 410–411f McClelland’s theory, 13 Memory retention, 257–259 Mesocorticolimbic system, 394–396, 395f Metabolic cost, as constraint in effort expenditure, 136–138 Methylphenidate, 402 MN See Motor neglect (MN) Model-free approach, 127–128 Monetary incentive, 286–289, 293f, 298 differential effect of, 295 impact of, 291–292, 294–295 as motives, 14–15 Monetary reward, 285–286, 289–290, 304–314 Money destroys prosociality, 294–295 Monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitors, 401–402 Motivated behavior, 161–162, 394 laboratory animal research in, 164–167 concurrent feeding lever-pressing/chow intake task, 166–167 intake test, 165 operant procedure, 165–166 Motivated cueing approach, 59 Motivation, 72–74, 217b, 214–215, 161–163, 291–293 See also specific types of motivation arousal theory of, attention, practical implications, 360 aversive, 348–349 benefit–cost framework of, 442–443 biological, 5–9 in brain, 344–345, 444–445 categories, 5f for competence, 260–261 from control, 52–54 definition, 3–5 detecting subclinical deficits in, 85 disorders of diminished, 73t, 391t dissecting the components of, 83 dopamine on objective metrics of, 403–413 drives as, 6–7 economics and, 13–17 effects of dopamine on metrics of, 413 as effort for reward, 74–77 emotional, 348–349 experimental approaches to measure, 215–216 extrinsic vs intrinsic, 442–443 and feedback, 57–63 in healthy individuals and patients, 73t impairment in, 390 instincts as, monetary incentives as, 14–15 network, 146–147 neural substrates of, 85 operant conditioned, 7–8 performance as, 15 physiological arousal as, 8–9 positive, 348–349 preferences as, 15–17 proposed benefit-cost framework of, 26–32, 28f, 31f challenge of subjectivity and state dependency, 30–32 subjective benefit, 27–29 subjective cost, 29 psychological, 9–13 as result of benefit–cost comparison, 29–30 for self-actualization, 11–12 self-determination, 11 social, 12–13 social influences on, 447 value of stimuli, 331–332 Motivational attention amygdala in, 338 require consciousness, 331–333 Motivational impairment, in spatial neglect (SN), 345–347 Motivational modulation, of attention deficits, 347 framing exercises, 347 monetary incentive, 349–350 positive and aversive motivation, 348–349 sound environment, 348 455 456 Index Motivational signals modulate selective visual attention, 326–331 cross-modal integration, 331 individual differences in reward sensitivity, 331 modulation of contextual cueing, 330–331 reward-based learning alters, 329–330 Motivation–behavior relationship, 30 Motivation theory, effort-discounting theory (EDT), 37 expectancy value theory, 33–34 influencing factors, 35–36t self-determination theory (SDT), 32–33 temporal motivation theory (TMT), 34–37 Motor action selection, computational model for, 51–52 Motor control influential models of, 51–52 vs subjective value (SV), 110f Motor neglect (MN), 346–347 Motor skill acquisition, training and, 316 Motor skill learning behavioral results, 313–316 behavior analysis, 312–313 consolidation, 317–319 fMRI measurement, 310–311 imaging data analysis, 311–312 limitations, 319–320 motor task, 306–310 participants, 305–306 study design, 306 Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), 240–241 Multitask learning, intrinsically motivation, 273–274 Mu-opioid receptor, 168–174 Mutism, akinetic, 391t MVC See Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) N NAcc See Nucleus accumbens (NAcc) Neglect motivation attention studies in, 360 motor, 346–347 spatial, motivational impairment in, 345–347 Neophobia, 264–265 Neurobiology of food intake, 167–174 Neuroeconomic perspective on effort, 127–128 Neuroeconomic research, 37–38 Neuroendocrinological factor, 216–217 Neurofeedback, 142–143 Neuromodulation of effort, 128–130 Neuronal plasticity, 214, 223, 225, 227–229 androgen receptors (ARs) role in, 223–224 estrogen receptor (ERs) role in, 224–225 Neurorehabilitation patient self-directed training in, 367–368, 381–384 collected measures, 375–376 conditions, 374 conventional bicycle trainer, 375 data processing and statistical analysis, 376–377 ethical approval and consent, 371 participants, 371–372, 372f, 373t perceived exertion, 378 posttrial interview, 381 procedure, 373 randomization of order of experimental conditions, 375 study design and setting, 370 training performance, 377–381, 378f, 380f training performance measurement, 375 wheel-chair compatible bicycle trainer, 375 Neurorehabilitative training, 367–368 Newborns exhibit sucking behavior, Noise, effortful control of, 138–140, 140f Nonergoline derivatives, 400t Nonhuman animal dopaminergic deficit in, 394–396 dual-alternative design in, 79–80 Nonhuman primate, value-based modulation in visual cortex of, 333–334 Nonselective dopamine augmentation, in apathy, 401–402 Not in my backyard (NIMBY) projects, 295 Novel oculomotor reward sensitivity task, 407–409, 408f Nucleus accumbens (NAcc), 128, 131–133, 394–396 O Operant conditioned motives, 7–8 Operant conditioning, 286–287 Operant paradigm, 78f Opioid, 167 endogenous, 168–169, 174–175 precursor, 168–169 receptor, 168–169, 172f signaling, 169–174 Optimal incongruity, 260 Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), 262–263 Index P Parkinson’s disease (PD), 86f, 130, 344–345, 393, 396–397 apathy in, 397 treatment of, 400t Patient led training, 367–368 Patient–physician interaction model, 427–428 Pavlovian learning system, 163–164 PD See Parkinson’s disease (PD) Performance feedback, 304–305, 307–309f, 318–319 Persistence Scale (PS), 197 Physical domain, 76f Physical effort process vs cognitive effort process, 91 Physiological arousal as motive, 8–9 Positive reinforcer, 160–161 Poststroke fatigue, 245 Prefrontal cortex, 394–396 Primary reinforcers, Probabilistic diffusion tractography, 403–406 Progressive ratio (PR) paradigm, 77–79 Proposed benefit-cost framework, of motivation, 26–32, 28f, 31f application examples, 38–39 adding new extrinsic benefits to activity, 39 boosting the intrinsic benefit of activity, 38–39 increasing value and expectancy of instrumental outcomes, 40–41 reducing extrinsic costs by eliminating attractive alternatives, 41–42 reducing perceived intrinsic costs, 41 challenge of subjectivity and state dependency, 30–32 motivation–behavior relationship, 30 as result of benefit–cost comparison, 29–30 subjective benefit, 27–29 subjective cost, 29 Prosocial behavior, 294–296 Prospect theory, 104 Psychic akinesia, 391t Psychological contract theory, 291 Psychological motives, 9–13 Psychological theory, 18 Psychology curiosity in, 259–262 economics and, 17–19 intrinsic motivation in, 259–262 Psychomotor retardation, 391t R rACC See Rostral ACC (rACC) Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm, 87 Real-time fMRI (rt-fMRI), 126–127 Receptor-specific dopamine agonists, 402–403 Reinforcement, 160–161, 160np approach, dopamine role in, 167–168 Reinforcement learning curiosity-driven, 268–272, 270f intrinsically motivated, 269 Reinforcer, 7, 160–162 Reinforcing stimuli, 160–161 Repeated transmagnetic stimulation (rTMS), 135 Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project, 241–242 Response vigor, 126, 129–130, 139–140, 146–147 Reversible inertia, 391t Reward, 130, 160np, 344 association-based paradigm, 327–328, 327f based behavior, 390 based learning alter, 329–330 dopaminergic, 334 insensitivity, 407–409, 408f monetary, 285–286, 289–290 motivation as effort for, 74–77 pathway in humans, 395f stimuli signaling, 344–345 task-contingent, 289–290 task-noncontingent, 289–290 Reward effect, in neglect patient, 333, 351–360 Reward prediction error (RPE), 227 Reward-related learning effect, 305 Reward sensitivity in apathy, 403–407, 404–405f individual differences in, 331 task, novel oculomotor, 407–409, 408f Risk discounting, 105–106, 108–110, 113, 117, 120 Rostral ACC (rACC), 191–194, 204–205, 207 RPE See Reward prediction error (RPE) rTMS See Repeated transmagnetic stimulation (rTMS) S SANS See Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), 390 Schizophrenia, 390 SDT See Self-determination theory (SDT) Secondary reinforcers, 7–8 Sedentary lifestyle, 107–108, 115–118 457 458 Index Self-actualization motives, 11–12 Self-determination motive, 11 Self-determination theory (SDT), 32–33 Self-directed training in neurorehabilitation patients, 367–368, 381–384 collected measures, 375–376 conditions, 374 conventional bicycle trainer, 375 data processing and statistical analysis, 376–377 ethical approval and consent, 371 participants, 371–372, 372f, 373t perceived exertion, 378 posttrial interview, 381 procedure, 373 randomization of order of experimental conditions, 375 study design and setting, 370 training performance, 377–381, 378f, 380f training performance measurement, 375 wheel-chair compatible bicycle trainer, 375 Self-regulation, 50–51 Self-stimulation, intracranial, 167–168 Sense of agency, 52, 56 Sensory cortex, 334 Shared labor, simulated network of, 141–142 SMA See Supplementary motor area (SMA) Snaith–Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS), 197 Social contagion, of health behavior, 433 Social influence, on motivation, 447 Social motives, 12–13 Spatial neglect (SN), motivational impairment in, 345–347 Standard economic theory, 294 Stimuli signaling reward, 344–345 Stroke, 345, 347–348, 351 Subjective value (SV) vs motor control, 110f Subsequent competitiveness modulation, 219–221 Substantia nigra (SN), 130, 133–134 dopamine neurons in, 134 Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) neurons, 336f Supplementary motor area (SMA), 85, 135 T Task-contingent reward, 289–290 Task-noncontingent rewards, 289–290 Temporal motivation theory (TMT), 34–37 Testosterone influences competitiveness via modulation of dopaminergic function, 217–219 and metabolites, 221f substantial influence of, 216–217 T-maze procedure, 398 TMT See Temporal motivation theory (TMT) Trial-by-trial brain states, as predict action, 142–145 V Value-based modulation, in visual cortex, 333–334 Ventral striatum, 131–133, 304 Ventral tegmental area (VTA), 133–134, 217–218 Ventromedial frontal (VMF) cortex, 338 Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), 105–106, 116, 118–120, 134 Video games, educational technologies and, 275–279, 277f Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig (VIGALL), 241, 243–245 Visual attention, motivational signals modulate selective, 326–331 Visual cortex, value-based modulation in, 333–334 vmPFC See Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) Vocal development, 272–273 Voluntary task-selection experiment, 195, 196f VTA See Ventral tegmental area (VTA) W Winner effect, 216, 221f, 222–223, 225 Y Yerkes–Dodson law, Z Zone-of-proximal development (ZPD), 278f ZPDES algorithm, 276–278 Other volumes in PROGRESS IN BRAIN RESEARCH Volume 167: Stress Hormones and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: Basic Studies and Clinical Perspectives, by E.R de Kloet, M.S Oitzl and E Vermetten (Eds.) – 2008, ISBN 978-0-444-53140-7 Volume 168: Models of Brain and Mind: Physical, Computational and Psychological Approaches, by R Banerjee and B.K Chakrabarti (Eds.) – 2008, ISBN 978-0-444-53050-9 Volume 169: Essence of Memory, by W.S Sossin, J.-C Lacaille, V.F Castellucci and S Belleville (Eds.) – 2008, ISBN 978-0-444-53164-3 Volume 170: Advances in Vasopressin and Oxytocin – From Genes to Behaviour to Disease, by I.D Neumann and R Landgraf (Eds.) – 2008, ISBN 978-0-444-53201-5 Volume 171: Using Eye Movements as an Experimental Probe of Brain Function—A Symposium in Honor of Jean B€uttner-Ennever, by Christopher Kennard and R John Leigh (Eds.) – 2008, ISBN 978-0-444-53163-6 Volume 172: Serotonin–Dopamine Interaction: Experimental Evidence and Therapeutic Relevance, by Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Vincenzo Di Matteo and Ennio Esposito (Eds.) – 2008, ISBN 978-0-444-53235-0 Volume 173: Glaucoma: An Open Window to Neurodegeneration and Neuroprotection, by Carlo Nucci, Neville N Osborne, Giacinto Bagetta and Luciano Cerulli (Eds.) – 2008, ISBN 978-0-444-53256-5 Volume 174: Mind and Motion: The Bidirectional Link Between Thought and Action, by Markus Raab, Joseph G Johnson and Hauke R Heekeren (Eds.) – 2009, 978-0-444-53356-2 Volume 175: Neurotherapy: Progress in Restorative Neuroscience and Neurology — Proceedings of the 25th International Summer School of Brain Research, held at the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, August 25–28, 2008, by J Verhaagen, E.M Hol, I Huitinga, J Wijnholds, A.A Bergen, G.J Boer and D.F Swaab (Eds.) –2009, ISBN 978-0-12-374511-8 Volume 176: Attention, by Narayanan Srinivasan (Ed.) – 2009, ISBN 978-0-444-53426-2 Volume 177: Coma Science: Clinical and Ethical Implications, by Steven Laureys, Nicholas D Schiff and Adrian M Owen (Eds.) – 2009, 978-0-444-53432-3 Volume 178: Cultural Neuroscience: Cultural Influences On Brain Function, by Joan Y Chiao (Ed.) – 2009, 978-0-444-53361-6 Volume 179: Genetic models of schizophrenia, by Akira Sawa (Ed.) – 2009, 978-0-444-53430-9 Volume 180: Nanoneuroscience and Nanoneuropharmacology, by Hari Shanker Sharma (Ed.) – 2009, 978-0-444-53431-6 Volume 181: Neuroendocrinology: The Normal Neuroendocrine System, by Luciano Martini, George P Chrousos, Fernand Labrie, Karel Pacak and Donald W Pfaff (Eds.) – 2010, 978-0-444-53617-4 Volume 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Gossard, Rejean Dubuc and Arlette Kolta (Eds.) – 2011, 978-0-444-53825-3 Volume 189: Gene Expression to Neurobiology and Behaviour: Human Brain Development and Developmental Disorders, by Oliver Braddick, Janette Atkinson and Giorgio M Innocenti (Eds.) – 2011, 978-0-444-53884-0 459 460 Other volumes in PROGRESS IN BRAIN RESEARCH Volume 190: Human Sleep and Cognition Part II: Clinical and Applied Research, by Hans P.A Van Dongen and Gerard A Kerkhof (Eds.) – 2011, 978-0-444-53817-8 Volume 191: Enhancing Performance for Action and perception: Multisensory Integration, Neuroplasticity and Neuroprosthetics: Part I, by Andrea M Green, C Elaine Chapman, John F Kalaska and Franco Lepore (Eds.) – 2011, 978-0-444-53752-2 Volume 192: Enhancing Performance for Action and Perception: Multisensory Integration, Neuroplasticity and Neuroprosthetics: Part II, by Andrea M Green, C Elaine Chapman, John F Kalaska and Franco Lepore (Eds.) – 2011, 978-0-444-53355-5 Volume 193: Slow Brain Oscillations of Sleep, Resting State and Vigilance, by Eus J.W Van Someren, Ysbrand D Van Der Werf, Pieter R Roelfsema, Huibert D Mansvelder and Fernando H Lopes da Silva (Eds.) – 2011, 978-0-444-53839-0 Volume 194: Brain Machine Interfaces: Implications For Science, Clinical Practice And Society, by Jens Schouenborg, Martin Garwicz and Nils Danielsen (Eds.) – 2011, 978-0-444-53815-4 Volume 195: Evolution of the Primate Brain: From Neuron to Behavior, by Michel A Hofman and Dean Falk (Eds.) – 2012, 978-0-444-53860-4 Volume 196: Optogenetics: Tools for Controlling and Monitoring Neuronal Activity, by Thomas Kn€opfel and Edward S Boyden (Eds.) – 2012, 978-0-444-59426-6 Volume 197: Down Syndrome: From Understanding the Neurobiology to Therapy, by Mara Dierssen and Rafael De La Torre (Eds.) – 2012, 978-0-444-54299-1 Volume 198: Orexin/Hypocretin System, by Anantha Shekhar (Ed.) – 2012, 978-0-444-59489-1 Volume 199: The Neurobiology of Circadian Timing, by Andries Kalsbeek, Martha Merrow, Till Roenneberg and Russell G Foster (Eds.) – 2012, 978-0-444-59427-3 Volume 200: Functional Neural Transplantation III: Primary and stem cell therapies for brain repair, Part I, by Stephen B Dunnett and Anders Bj€orklund (Eds.) – 2012, 978-0-444-59575-1 Volume 201: Functional Neural Transplantation III: Primary and stem cell therapies for brain repair, Part II, by Stephen B Dunnett and Anders Bj€orklund (Eds.) – 2012, 978-0-444-59544-7 Volume 202: Decision Making: Neural and Behavioural Approaches, by V.S Chandrasekhar Pammi and Narayanan Srinivasan (Eds.) – 2013, 978-0-444-62604-2 Volume 203: The Fine Arts, Neurology, and Neuroscience: Neuro-Historical Dimensions, by Stanley Finger, Dahlia W Zaidel, Franc¸ois Boller and Julien Bogousslavsky (Eds.) – 2013, 978-0-444-62730-8 Volume 204: The Fine Arts, Neurology, and Neuroscience: New Discoveries and Changing Landscapes, by Stanley Finger, Dahlia W Zaidel, Franc¸ois Boller and Julien Bogousslavsky (Eds.) – 2013, 978-0-444-63287-6 Volume 205: Literature, Neurology, and Neuroscience: Historical and Literary Connections, by Anne Stiles, Stanley Finger and Franc¸ois Boller (Eds.) – 2013, 978-0-444-63273-9 Volume 206: Literature, Neurology, and Neuroscience: Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders, by Stanley Finger, Franc¸ois Boller and Anne Stiles (Eds.) – 2013, 978-0-444-63364-4 Volume 207: Changing Brains: Applying Brain Plasticity to Advance and Recover Human Ability, by Michael M Merzenich, Mor Nahum and Thomas M Van Vleet (Eds.) – 2013, 978-0-444-63327-9 Volume 208: Odor Memory and Perception, by Edi Barkai and Donald A Wilson (Eds.) – 2014, 978-0-444-63350-7 Volume 209: The Central Nervous System Control of Respiration, by Gert Holstege, Caroline M Beers and Hari H Subramanian (Eds.) – 2014, 978-0-444-63274-6 Volume 210: Cerebellar Learning, Narender Ramnani (Ed.) – 2014, 978-0-444-63356-9 Volume 211: Dopamine, by Marco Diana, Gaetano Di Chiara and Pierfranco Spano (Eds.) – 2014, 978-0-444-63425-2 Volume 212: Breathing, Emotion and Evolution, by Gert Holstege, Caroline M Beers and Hari H Subramanian (Eds.) – 2014, 978-0-444-63488-7 Volume 213: Genetics of Epilepsy, by Ortrud K Steinlein (Ed.) – 2014, 978-0-444-63326-2 Volume 214: Brain Extracellular Matrix in Health and Disease, by Asla Pitk€anen, Alexander Dityatev and Bernhard Wehrle-Haller (Eds.) – 2014, 978-0-444-63486-3 Other volumes in PROGRESS IN BRAIN RESEARCH Volume 215: The History of the Gamma Knife, by Jeremy C Ganz (Ed.) – 2014, 978-0-444-63520-4 Volume 216: Music, Neurology, and Neuroscience: Historical Connections and Perspectives, by Franc¸ois Boller, Eckart Altenm€uller, and Stanley Finger (Eds.) – 2015, 978-0-444-63399-6 Volume 217: Music, Neurology, and Neuroscience: Evolution, the Musical Brain, Medical Conditions, and Therapies, by Eckart Altenm€uller, Stanley Finger, and Franc¸ois Boller (Eds.) – 2015, 978-0-444-63551-8 Volume 218: Sensorimotor Rehabilitation: At the Crossroads of Basic and Clinical Sciences, by Numa Dancause, Sylvie Nadeau, and Serge Rossignol (Eds.) – 2015, 978-0-444-63565-5 Volume 219: The Connected Hippocampus, by Shane O’Mara and Marian Tsanov (Eds.) – 2015, 978-0-444-63549-5 Volume 220: New Trends in Basic and Clinical Research of Glaucoma: A Neurodegenerative Disease of the Visual System, by Giacinto Bagetta and Carlo Nucci (Eds.) – 2015, 978-0-444-63566-2 Volume 221: New Trends in Basic and Clinical Research of Glaucoma: A Neurodegenerative Disease of the Visual System, by Giacinto Bagetta and Carlo Nucci (Eds.) – 2015, 978-0-12-804608-1 Volume 222: Computational Neurostimulation, by Sven Bestmann (Ed.) – 2015, 978-0-444-63546-4 Volume 223: Neuroscience for Addiction Medicine: From Prevention to Rehabilitation - Constructs and Drugs, by Hamed Ekhtiari and Martin Paulus (Eds.) – 2016, 978-0-444-63545-7 Volume 224: Neuroscience for Addiction Medicine: From Prevention to Rehabilitation - Methods and Interventions, by Hamed Ekhtiari and Martin P Paulus (Eds.) – 2016, 978-0-444-63716-1 Volume 225: New Horizons in Neurovascular Coupling: A Bridge Between Brain Circulation and Neural Plasticity, by Kazuto Masamoto, Hajime Hirase, and Katsuya Yamada (Eds.) – 2016, 978-0-444-63704-8 Volume 226: Neurobiology of Epilepsy: From Genes to Networks, by Elsa Rossignol, Lionel Carmant and Jean-Claude Lacaille (Eds.) – 2016, 978-0-12-803886-4 Volume 227: The Mathematical Brain Across the Lifespan, by Marinella Cappelletti and Wim Fias (Eds.) – 2016, 978-0-444-63698-0 Volume 228: Brain-Computer Interfaces: Lab Experiments to Real-World Applications, by Damien Coyle (Ed.) – 2016, 978-0-12-804216-8 461 ... converging knowledge and findings from different disciplines and schools within disciplines has resulted in significant progress toward understanding motives underlying human behavior, more (interdisciplinary)... London, Charing Cross Hospital, London, United Kingdom I Martinez-Valbuena Mind -Brain Group (Institute for Culture and Society, ICS), University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain M Martinez Neuroimaging Laboratory,... stimulation in reducing attention deficits and present a new original study examining the impact of monetary incentives on attentional orienting and task engagement in patients with neglect In Chapter
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