Upwelling systems of the world

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Jochen Kämpf · Piers Chapman Upwelling Systems of the World A Scientific Journey to the Most Productive Marine Ecosystems Upwelling Systems of the World Phytoplankton blooms in an upwelling area in the Pacific Ocean off the California coast Image source NASA http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view.php?id=4317 [accessed 2/06/2016] Jochen Kämpf Piers Chapman • Upwelling Systems of the World A Scientific Journey to the Most Productive Marine Ecosystems 123 Piers Chapman Texas A&M University College Station, TX USA Jochen Kämpf Flinders University Adelaide, SA Australia ISBN 978-3-319-42522-1 DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-42524-5 ISBN 978-3-319-42524-5 (eBook) Library of Congress Control Number: 2016945937 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland Preface To early explorers and fishermen, the ocean seemed to be limitless, teeming with vast quantities of fish and other food organisms However, as people got to know the ocean better, they realized that not all regions were the same Large portions of the oceans in fact contained little marine life, while other regions, particularly along certain coasts, were much more productive The most productive regions were found along the west coast of the main continents, in what are now known as eastern boundary currents, and these regions, which account for only about % of the global ocean, produce about 20 % of the global fish catch The four main eastern boundary systems are those off California/Oregon/Washington in the North Pacific, Peru and Chile in the South Pacific, off northwest Africa and Portugal in the North Atlantic, and off South Africa and Namibia in the South Atlantic These upwelling systems have long provided large quantities of fish and are also known to support seabirds and mammals such as whales and fur seals We now know that a number of other upwelling systems exist throughout the global ocean, some of which are year-round features, whereas others occur on a seasonal basis Recently, a number of reviews of individual systems have appeared in the scientific literature, some concentrating on physics and chemistry, others on biology, but we not know of any consolidated text that covers all of them Because of their importance in global productivity, biogeochemical cycles and food-web dynamics under exposure to global climate change, we believe that such an interdisciplinary book covering all important upwelling systems of the word is needed to describe their similarities and differences We hope that this book will fill the gap and that you, the reader, will enjoy this scientific journey to the most productive ecosystems of the world Writing a book always takes a lot longer than anticipated, and this is particularly true of scientific books While the World Wide Web makes it relatively easy to find information, it also complicates matters because of the enormous number of research papers that have been written about the different upwelling systems v vi Preface Undoubtedly we may have missed papers that some of you regard as being of supreme importance, but we have tried our best to cover all the major advances in the four major eastern boundary currents and give a good overview of the other upwelling regions We welcome any suggestions you may have to improve this book for future editions Adelaide, Australia College Station, USA May 2016 Jochen Kämpf Piers Chapman Contents Preliminaries 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Large Marine Ecosystems 1.3 Life in the Ocean 1.4 Basics of Marine Ecology 1.4.1 Types of Marine Life Forms 1.4.2 Controls of the Marine Food Web 1.4.3 Spatial and Temporal Scales 1.5 Light, Nutrients and Oxygen in the Sea 1.5.1 Photosynthesis 1.5.2 Light 1.5.3 Oxygen 1.5.4 Nutrients 1.5.5 Nutrient Limitation 1.5.6 Mechanisms Limiting Phytoplankton Blooms 1.5.7 Nutrient Regeneration 1.6 The Carbon Cycle and Oceanic Carbon Pumps 1.6.1 Overview 1.6.2 The Role of Upwelling in the Carbon Cycle 1.7 Early Scientific Expeditions 1.8 Long-Term Scientific Monitoring Programs 1.9 Summary References 1 5 11 11 11 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 24 25 26 27 27 The Functioning of Coastal Upwelling Systems 2.1 The Physics of Coastal Upwelling 2.1.1 Description of the Upwelling Process 2.1.2 Wind Stress and Ekman Transport 2.1.3 The Upwelling Index 2.1.4 Physical Timescales of the Upwelling Process 31 31 33 35 36 37 vii viii Contents 2.1.5 Significance of Upwelling Jets 2.1.6 Coastal Upwelling Regimes 2.1.7 Indicators of Upwelling 2.1.8 Other Upwelling Mechanisms 2.1.9 Location of Significant Upwelling Regions 2.2 The Biogeochemistry of Coastal Upwelling Systems 2.2.1 General Description 2.2.2 Nitrogen Production by Anaerobic Oxidation of Ammonia 2.2.3 The Role of Silica 2.2.4 Upwelling and Carbon Fluxes 2.3 The Ecology of Coastal Upwelling Systems 2.3.1 Biological Response to Coastal Upwelling Events 2.3.2 The Significance of Upwelling Shadows 2.3.3 Timing and Duration of Phytoplankton Blooms 2.4 Theories on High Fish Production 2.4.1 Bakun’s Triad 2.4.2 The “Optimal Environmental Window” Hypothesis 2.4.3 Lasker’s Hypothesis of a “Calm Ocean” 2.4.4 Cushing’s “Match/Mismatch” Hypothesis 2.5 Marine Food Web Structure in Coastal Upwelling Systems 2.6 Summary References Large-Scale Setting, Natural Variability and Human Influences 3.1 The Large-Scale Setting, Water Masses and Ventilation 3.1.1 Wind-Driven Circulation and Nutricline Structure 3.1.2 Source Depth of Upwelled Water and Water Masses 3.1.3 Water Mass Properties of Upwelling Water 3.2 Seasonal Variability 3.3 Climate Variability and Climate Change 3.3.1 Modes of Climate Variability 3.3.2 Interference with Other Physical Processes 3.3.3 Impacts of Climate Change 3.4 Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia 3.5 Exploitation of Marine Resources 3.5.1 Key Locations of Commercial Fisheries 3.5.2 Variability of Forage Fish Stocks 3.5.3 Overexploitation 3.6 Summary References 39 40 41 43 46 47 47 51 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 56 57 58 58 59 60 61 67 67 67 68 70 72 73 73 80 81 82 84 84 86 87 90 90 Contents ix The California Current Upwelling System 4.1 Introduction 4.2 History of the Region 4.3 Physical Controls 4.3.1 Large-Scale Physical Controls 4.3.2 Basic Description of the CCS 4.4 Water Masses 4.5 Circulation Patterns and Variability 4.5.1 Overview 4.5.2 Key Coastal Currents 4.5.3 The Onset of the Upwelling Season 4.5.4 Circulation in the Southern California Bight 4.5.5 Eddies and Filaments 4.6 Influence of Continental Discharges 4.7 Chemical and Biological Features 4.7.1 Biological Productivity 4.7.2 Seasonality 4.7.3 Spatial Differences 4.7.4 Zooplankton 4.7.5 Increase in Hypoxia off Oregon and Washington 4.7.6 Features of Northern California and Iron Limitation 4.7.7 Features of Southern California 4.7.8 Features of Baja California 4.7.9 Other Features 4.7.10 Harmful Algae Blooms 4.7.11 Historical Large-Scale Biological Changes 4.8 Fisheries 4.9 Climate Change Impacts in the CCS 4.9.1 Overview 4.9.2 Shoaling of Aragonite Saturation Horizon 4.10 Summary References 97 97 100 103 103 105 109 112 112 113 114 115 115 119 122 122 123 124 127 130 133 135 136 137 138 139 140 143 143 147 148 149 The Peruvian-Chilean Coastal Upwelling System 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Cultural, Social and Economic Relevance 5.3 History of Discovery 5.4 Bathymetry and Atmospheric Forcing 5.5 Physical Oceanography 5.6 Regional Aspects 161 161 163 165 166 167 170 10.3 Research Gaps and Enigmas 419 Fig 10.11 Census of Marine Life Tagging of Pacific Predators (TOPP) Positions of all TOPP animals, color-coded based on species group: blue tunas (yellowfin, bluefin and albacore), orange pinnipeds (northern elephant seals, California sea lions and northern fur seals), red sharks (salmon, white, blue, common thresher and mako), purple seabirds (Laysan and black-footed albatrosses and sooty shearwaters), green sea turtles (leatherback and loggerhead) and black cetaceans (blue, fin, sperm and humpback whales) Taken from Block et al (2011) and Weeks (2004) similarly suggested that variations in the abundance of sardines in the Benguela might be responsible for episodic anoxia and the production of hydrogen sulphide through increased deposition of phytoplankton carbon at times of low sardine abundance Neither of these hypotheses has been confirmed, and they are difficult to study given that other factors (e.g., changes in coastal winds or climate variability) often dominate the changes in oxygen levels in coastal waters 10.4 Future Research Given that many important parameters and processes, such as changes in the microbial loop, species composition, sub-surface phytoplankton production, zooplankton composition, etc cannot be derived from satellite observations, in situ observations within upwelling systems will continue to be needed for the foreseeable future This requires the coordination of existing in situ monitoring programs and the development of new ones Hence, this epoch of the anthropocene should be accompanied by an intensification of observational efforts in order to 420 10 Comparison, Enigmas and Future Research understand the dramatic changes in marine ecosystems that are expected to dominate the upcoming decades While most of the basic physical mechanisms governing upwelling regions are reasonably well understood by now, there are many aspects inherent to these systems that are barely known, in particular how they will respond to anthropogenic global warming and associated changes of the carbonate system Even more basic questions, such as what percentage of organic carbon production is transferred to the sediments in each upwelling system, or the size of the zooplankton populations in the different systems, have very large error bars on their estimates The enigmas listed above also provide many potential research opportunities, although these are biased towards the four large eastern boundary upwelling systems Our knowledge of even the basic controls and parameters within the other upwelling systems covered in this book is even more uncertain Finally, we return to the importance of upwelling systems to humans and perhaps the most important reason for continued research on them The harvesting of marine food resources from upwelling systems is substantial, and the economic and social benefits that result are extremely significant for many developed and developing countries It is currently unknown how these benefits will change in the global warming scenario, and that is why continued and intensified scientific effort has never been as important as it is for this generation References Adey, W.H., and R.S Steneck 2001 Thermogeography over time creates biogeographic regions: A temperature/space/time-integrated model and an abundance-weighted test for benthic marine algae Journal of 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301, 372 Front, 251, 267, 286, 290, 301 Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, 74 Antarctic Circumpolar Wave (AACW), 74 oscillation, 263 Antofagasta, 163, 177, 192 Arabian Sea, 81, 193, 333–335, 337, 340, 341 Arafura Sea, 328, 329, 350 Aragonite, 22, 147, 149 Arctic oscillation, 73 ARGO floats, 26, 397 Autotrophs, 4, 7, 59 B Bacteria, 4, 5, 190, 192, 364, 416 Bahia Magdalena, 136 Baja California, 97, 103, 105, 110, 112, 115, 117, 123, 149, 402 aragonite saturation, 148, 149 current flows, 105, 113 harmful algal blooms (HAB), 138 productivity, 136, 144 zooplankton, 127 Bakun’s triad, 57 Balboa, Vasco Nunez de, 101 Baltic Sea, 82 Banda Sea, 44 Baroclinic compensation, 33 Bay of Bengal, 81, 341, 413 Bay of Biscay, 220, 232 Bay of Concepcion, 163, 170 Benguela (Angola), 255 Benguela Current Upwelling System, 44, 47, 52, 181, 224, 251 atmospheric controls, 258 birds and mammals, 297 carbon fluxes, 286, 410 chemistry, 276 circulation, 268 climate change, 300 current patterns, 284 dust inputs, 261, 405 eddies and rings, 265 fishery, 255, 256, 289, 413 harmful algal blooms, 297 mining industry, 257 Niño, 262, 267, 295, 299 nutrients and oxygen, 277, 283, 285 origin of, 256 primary productivity, 281, 400, 408 river inputs, 253 upwelling tongues, 275 variability, 263, 271, 278, 295 water masses, 263 whaling, 256 winds, 258 zooplankton, 284 Benthos, 7, 190 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 J Kämpf and P Chapman, Upwelling Systems of the World, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-42524-5 425 426 Bering Sea, 47, 379 Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS), 26 Biological pump, 20, 24, 25, 135 Black Sea, 82 Blue whiting, 230, 236 Bodega Bay, 117 Bonney Upwelling, 329 Bonplant, A, 165 Bottom boundary layer, 113 Brazil Current upwelling, 315, 316, 346 British Columbia, 133, 143, 146 C Cabo de Roca, 219 Cabo Frio, 44, 346 Cabo San Lazaro, 105 Cabo San Lucas, 111 Calcification, 22 Calcite, 22 Calcium carbonate pump, 21 saturation horizon, 23 California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI), 26, 100, 112, 123, 127, 133, 135, 136, 138–140, 144, 148, 149, 416 survey grid, 101, 112, 128 California Current Upwelling System, 16, 44, 47, 97–149 aragonite saturation horizon, 147, 149 biological productivity, 123, 146, 398, 409 carbon cycle, 135, 410 circulation in southern California Bight, 115 cross-shelf transport, 117, 125 ecosystem changes, 139, 144 eddies and filaments, 115 fishery, 102, 143 flow rates, 113 harmful algal blooms, 138 history of settlement, 102 hypoxia, 130 interannual variability, 108 iron limitation, 133, 135 nutrient losses, 108 nutrient variability, 123, 126 relaxation periods, 117 research programs, 112 river discharges, 119 sea level variability, 108 spring transition, 114 upwelling rate, 117 water masses, 109 Index wind stress, 103 zooplankton, 127 Calm ocean hypothesis, 58 Calvin-Benson cycle, 11 Campeche Bank, 344, 376 Canary Current, 16, 47, 184, 203, 204, 282 bathymetry, 209, 210, 218 carbon chemistry, 206 circulation, 214 climate and atmospheric forcing, 209 coastal transition zone, 219, 225, 232 dust inputs, 213, 401, 407 eddies in, 225 eddy corridor, 223, 225 filaments, 219, 222 fisheries agreements, 204 fish stocks, 87, 236, 237 hypoxia in, 207 Islands, 207, 213, 214, 219, 240, 385 nutrients and water masses, 220 physical oceanography, 214 productivity, 222, 225, 281, 400 seasonal variability, 399 wind regime, 224 zooplankton, 227 CANIGO, 206 Cannery Row, 99 Cao, Diego, 255 Cape Agulhas, 206, 251, 265, 272, 292, 294, 302 Cape Basin, 263, 301 Cape Blanc, 207, 210, 212, 217, 219, 220, 231, 232, 238 Cape Blanco, 105, 116, 125 Cape Bojador, 210, 231 Cape Columbine, 252, 253, 255, 259, 272, 273, 277, 278, 281, 289, 293, 297, 302 Cape Cross, 257, 259 Cape Farewell, 332 Cape Ferret, 217 Cape Finisterre, 212, 217, 220, 239 Cape Frio, 251, 253, 259, 278, 301 Cape Ghir (Guir), 209, 210, 219, 222, 240 Cape Juby, 219, 222, 238 Cape Mendocino, 97, 102, 105, 112, 117, 135 Cape Ortegal, 217 Cape Point, 259, 261, 266, 270, 273, 278, 281, 293, 302 Cape St Vincent (Cabo Sao Vicente), 212, 219 Cape Sim, 207, 238 Cape Town, 253, 255, 260, 270, 275, 277, 301 Cape Verde (Vert), 209, 217, 232 Frontal Zone, 218–220, 222 Carbonate minerals, 4, 147, 415 Index Carbon cycle, 19, 24, 52, 135, 189, 410 dioxide, 19, 48, 52, 126, 136, 147, 179, 192, 286 fixation, fluxes along equator, 369 fluxes in Arabian Sea, 339 fluxes in Benguela Current, 287, 289 fluxes in California Current, 124 fluxes in East China Sea, 321 fluxes in Mediterranean Sea, 348 fluxes in Peru-Chile Current, 187 pumps, 4, 19 Caribbean Sea, 343 upwelling system, 344 Carnegie expedition, 165 CASCEX program, 112 CCE-LTER, 100, 112 Census of Marine Life, 396, 419 Chaetognaths, 7, 60 Challenger expedition, 25 Changjiang River, 321 Charleston Bump, 374 Chlorophyll-a, 41, 123, 133, 136, 170, 174, 175, 177, 178, 181, 223, 225, 272, 276, 277, 279, 282, 284, 285, 300, 339, 344–346, 350, 401, 407, 408, 412, 414 Chloroplasts, 11 Chub mackerel, 141, 181, 186, 231, 233 CINECA, 206, 227 Climate change impacts, 81, 143, 415, 419 Climate variables, 73 Cnidarians, Coastally trapped waves, 44 Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment (CODE), 112, 115 Coastal Ocean Processes Program (COOP), 112 Coastal Transition Zone experiment, 115 Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems Analysis program (CUEA), 112, 206 COAST program, 112 Coccolithophores, 5, 22, 138 Columbia River, 98, 102, 112, 117, 119, 126, 133, 137, 149, 407 Columbus, Christopher, 206 Compensation depth, 12 Concepcion, 166, 177, 191 Continental shelf pump, 48, 191 Continuous plankton recorder survey, 26 Cook, James, 102 Copepods, 7, 59, 338 in Benguela Current, 286 in California Current, 131 in Canary Current, 228 427 in Peru-Chile Current, 179, 407 life cycles, 10 Coquimbo Bay, 163, 170, 177 Coriolis force, 31, 33 Coriolis parameter, 32, 35, 404 Costa Rica Dome, 371 Crustacea, 5, 14, 59, 283 CUEA program, 25, 399 Cunene River, 252, 275, 292 D Da Gama, Vasco, 255 Dead zones, 14 Denitrification, 49, 51, 404, 412, 417 Density front, 38 Diatoms, 5, 59 in California Current, 123 nutrient requirements, 52 Diaz, Bartolemeu, 255 Diffusion, Dinoflagellates, 5, 84, 283 Discovery expeditions, 25, 256, 276 Downwelling, 37, 222, 223 Drake, Sir Francis, 102 Dune Point, 294 Dynamic uplift, 43 E East China Sea, 48, 68, 321, 350, 376, 385, 413, 417 Ecosystem changes in Benguela Current, 296 in California current, 139 in Canary Current, 236 Ecuador, 162, 166, 187 Eddies, 10, 33, 39, 42, 45, 373, 379, 382 in Benguela Current, 265 in California current, 115 in Canary Current, 217, 234 mesoscale, 39, 54 Ekman, V.W., 34 divergence, 133, 169, 373 drift, 35, 36, 38, 173, 220, 349 forcing, 266 layer, 33, 35, 36, 40, 41, 44, 46, 373, 376 pumping, 118, 327, 339, 404, 408 spiral, 35 transport, 35, 36, 41, 44, 52, 81, 98, 103, 117, 125, 163, 173, 178, 181, 211, 223, 240, 269, 277, 348, 373, 376, 381, 387, 403, 404, 408 El Niño, 8, 11, 52, 56, 262, 367, 397, 405, 417 effect on Humboldt Current, 162, 163, 165, 167, 175, 181, 182, 403, 412 428 El Niño (cont.) intensity, 74 variability, 75 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), 74, 104, 139, 143, 149, 161, 169, 172, 237, 253, 262, 263, 273, 299, 326, 366, 400 Ensenada, 105 Equatorial Upwelling, 366 ESTOC, 240 EUMELI, 206 Euphausiids, 60, 127, 189, 291, 338, 407, 418 Euphotic depth, 12 Euphotic zone, 1, 4, 54 Eutrophication, 82 Eyre Peninsula, 330 F Farewell Spit, 332 Fick’s law, 20 Filaments, 40, 42, 98, 105 in Arabian Sea, 339 in Benguela Current, 273, 286 in Canary Current, 219, 220, 240 in Peru-Chile Current, 170 Findlater Jet, 333 Fish and fisheries, 5, 339 effect on carbon cycle, 418 fish stock variability, 86, 237 forage fish, 8, 55, 57, 86, 180, 230, 418 in Arafura Sea, 327 in Benguela Current, 289, 348 in California Current, 141 in Canary Current, 229, 236 in Caribbean Sea, 344 in Mediterranean Sea, 348 in Oyashio, 378 in Peru-Chile Current, 180 major fishing areas, 84 off Spain, 234 on Brazil shelf, 347 on Grand Banks, 380 overfishing, 86, 141, 149, 184, 185, 289, 297, 329, 380 production, 56, 87, 413 recruitment, 88 Fluorescence line height, 42, 414 Foraminifera, 6, 22 Fraser River, 98, 119 F ratio, 18, 135, 282 G Galapagos Islands, 162, 169, 385 Galathea expedition, 25 Georges Bank, 385 Index Geostrophic balance, 33 flow, 33, 36 Gibraltar, 217 Gilchrist, J.D., 256 Grand Banks, 47, 380, 386 Great Australian Bight, 329, 374, 397 Great Whirl, 335, 337 Guangdong, 318 Guinea Current upwelling system, 382 dome, 372 Gulf of Cadiz, 207, 210, 229, 230, 232, 401 Gulf of California, 138 Gulf of Guayaquil, 166 Gulf of Guinea, 236, 382 Gulf of Mexico, 77, 137, 316 upwelling, 344, 372 Gulf of Ulloa, 136 Gulf St Vincent, 329, 330 H Hake, 140, 182, 231, 279, 289, 291, 292, 295 Harmful algal blooms, 82, 222 in Benguela, 283, 297 in East China Sea, 322 in California Current, 138 Hawaii ocean time-series (HOTS), 26 Heceta, Don Bruno de, 102 Heceta Bank, 125 Henry’s law, 20 Herodotus, 206, 255 Herring, 140, 317, 338 Heterotrophs, Heyerdahl, Thor, 206 Hondeklip Bay, 259 Horse mackerel, 181, 230, 232, 233, 289, 292, 293 Hovden’s Cannery, 100 Humboldt Current Upwelling System, 51, 123, 191, 233, 123, 191, 399 See also Peru-Chile Current I Iberian coast, 203, 209, 215, 220, 240 Peninsula, 206, 212, 218, 401, 411 ICES, 227 IDOE, 206 IMECOCAL, 100, 112, 136 Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), 74 Indonesian Seas upwelling, 325 Internal deformation radius, 38 International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE), 25, 333 Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), 167, 212, 213, 368 Index Iquique, 177 Irish Sea, 47, 86 Iron deficiency, 16 in Antarctic, 364 in California Current, 16, 133, 135 in Canary Current, 16 in Humboldt Current, 16, 178 in North Pacific, 72 J Jack mackerel, 140, 147, 182 Jarvis Island, 385 Jellyfish, 7, 299 Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), 25, 333, 366 Juan de Fuca canyon, 106 Eddy, 122, 126, 139 Plume, 119, 126 K Kangaroo Island Pool, 330, 331 Krill, 7, 418 L La Jolla, 137 Lamberts Bay, 293 La Nina, 52, 136, 138, 142, 145, 169, 186, 259, 367, 405 Large Marine Ecosystems, 2, 161, 207, 318, 320, 322, 326, 331, 343, 344, 347, 348, 351, 363, 379, 388, 397, 398 Law of the Minimum, 16 Law of the Sea, 232, 252 Length scales, Light, 11, 381 Little Ice Age, 210, 412, 417 Luderitz, 253, 257, 258, 270, 272, 280, 289, 293, 301 Luzon Strait, 319 M Mackerel, 140, 230, 320, 328 Madagascar upwelling, 376 Match-mismatch hypothesis, 58 Mauritania, 204, 209, 211, 222, 227 current, 219 fishery, 229, 235 gyre, 217 Medieval Warm period, 210 Mediterranean Sea upwelling, 350 Mejillones Bay, 171, 177 peninsula, 163, 171 MESCAL program, 112 429 Mesoscale eddies, 10 Metazoans, 5, 59 Meteor expedition, 25, 277 Mississippi River, 344, 372 Mode waters, 70, 71 Molluscs, 7, 59 Monterey, 102, 110, 117 Applied Research Institute, 101 Aquarium, 100 Bay, 55, 105, 125, 137, 139 Morocco, 203, 210, 227, 409 fishery, 230, 232 Mossel Bay, 255 Mowe cruise, 276 Myctophids, 9, 338 N Namibia, 252, 253, 255, 256, 261, 272, 275–278, 281, 291, 292, 294, 295, 298, 300, 409 Nekton, Nepheloid layer, 44 New Zealand upwelling, 316, 332, 351 Nitrate reduction, 49 Nitrogen fixation, 371 North Atlantic Drift, 214 Oscillation (NAO), 73 subtropical gyre, 217 Northern California Coastal Study (NCCS), 112 North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, 79, 104, 108, 143 high pressure system, 103 Nutricline, 15, 41, 67, 80, 81, 124, 144, 169, 368, 409 Nutrients, 15 along equator, 366 concentrations, 15, 40, 403 cycling, 47 In Antarctic, 364 in Arabian Sea, 339 In Benguela, 280–283, 285 in California Current, 125 in Canary Current, 220, 223, 225 in East China Sea, 323 in Gulf of Mexico, 343 in Mediterranean Sea, 348 in Peru-Chile Current, 187 in South Australian upwelling system, 330 limitation, 4, 16 loss from shelf, 108 regeneration, 18, 189 supply from rivers, 120 430 Nutrients (cont.) supply to upwelling systems, 48, 120, 398 tidal mixing, 385 O Ocean acidification, 23, 81, 415 Ocean currents Agulhas Current, 265, 300, 373, 374, 400 Angola Current, 268, 286 Antarctic Circumpolar Current, 67, 167, 364 Brazil Current, 265, 373 California Countercurrent, 114 California Undercurrent, 110, 113, 135, 137 China Coastal Current, 322 Costa Rica Coastal Current, 110, 371 Davidson Current, 98, 106, 113 D’Urville Current, 333 East African Coastal Current, 335 East Arabian Current, 335 East Australian Current, 373, 376 East Greenland Current, 373 East Madagascar Current, 376 Equatorial Countercurrent, 371 Equatorial Undercurrent, 169, 179, 366, 385, 407 Flinders Current, 68, 71, 316, 329 Guinea Current, 382 Gulf Stream, 373, 374, 381 Gunther Current, 168 Iberian Polar Current, 217, 223 Kamchatka Current, 373 Kuroshio Current, 68, 319, 322, 323, 373, 376 Labrador Current, 373, 381 Leeuwin Current, 67, 329, 335, 373, 378 Malvinas Current, 47, 373, 376, 379 North Atlantic Current, 214, 380, 381 North Brazil Current, 220 Northeast Madagascar Current, 335 North Equatorial Current, 98, 371 Oyashio Current, 373, 377 Peru-Chile Undercurrent, 169 Peru Coastal Current, 167 Peru Countercurrent, 168 Portugal Coastal Current, 215 Portugal Coastal Undercurrent, 215 Portugal Current, 47 Somali Current, 334, 335, 373 South Atlantic Current, 264 South Australian Current, 329 Southeast Madagascar Current, 335 South Equatorial Counter Current, 268 Index South Equatorial Current, 167, 335, 385, 340 Taiwan Warm Current, 322, 376 Western boundary current, 44, 373 Westland Current, 332 Zeehan Current, 329 Oman upwelling, 333, 335, 340, 396 OMEX II, 207 Optimum environmental window, 57 Orange River, 253, 256, 261, 270, 289, 291, 292 Oregon, State of, 97, 99, 105, 111, 112, 114, 119, 125, 127, 130, 138, 140, 146, 148, 402, 417 Organic carbon pump, 21 Origin of life, Oxygen, 13 anoxia, 14, 301, 342, 418 appearance, hypoxia, 14, 82, 130, 149, 323 minimum zones, 4, 25, 81, 187, 189, 341, 342, 407, 412, 415, 417 organism sensitivity to changes, 14 profiles, 13 P Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), 74, 104, 108, 124, 143, 149, 412, 417 effect on fish stocks, 141, 185 variability, 73 Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument, 398 Paralytic shellfish poisoning(PSP), 84, 138 Patagonian upwelling, 363, 376 Peru-Chile upwelling system, 47, 52, 161, 233 See also Humboldt Current Upwelling System bathymetry and atmospheric forcing, 166 benthos, 190 carbon fluxes, 191, 410 cultural and social importance, 163 currents, 167 effects of ENSO, 179 Ekman Transport, 171 fishery, 164, 182 iron supply, 179 oxygen levels, 190, 193 physical oceanography, 167 primary production, 173, 177, 187, 189, 282 rivalry between anchoveta and sardine, 182 seasonality, 171 sulphide plumes, 190 Index wind speeds, 171, 176 zooplankton, 180 Peruvian puzzle, 178 pH, 23, 24 Phoenician traders, 255 Photosynthesis, 11 Phytoplankton, 5, 381, 397 along equator, 366 diel migration, feeding, holoplankton and meroplankton, in Arabian Sea, 339 in California current, 123 life cycles, 10 sinking, timing of blooms, 55, 72 PIRATA, 261 Pisco, 163, 166, 170 Pisco expedition, 165 Piston velocity, 20 Point Arena, 116, 133 Point Conception, 97, 103, 105, 110, 112, 113, 115, 135, 139 Point Reyes, 117, 125, 133 Point Sur, 109, 114 Poleward undercurrent, 47, 99, 109, 110, 168, 217, 220, 273, 277, 404 Port Elizabeth, 251 Port Hueneme, 138 Portugal, 203, 209, 417 fishery, 234 Predator/prey relations, 82, 189 Primary production bottom-up control, 418 El niño and, gross, light intensity and, 12 net, 8, 12 top-down control, 418 wasp-waist control, 59 Primary productivity, 2, 52, 326, 327, 348, 349, 351, 379, 410 in Antarctic, 364 In Arabian Sea, 339 in Benguela, 282 in Bering Sea, 378 in Canary Current, 222 in Mediterranean Sea, 348 in Somali Current, 334 in South Australian upwelling system, 330 limitation of, 16 off Baja California, 136, 144 off Chile, 162 variability of, 81 431 Protozoans, Pteropods, 7, 22 Punta Baja, 105 Punta Eugenia, 105, 136 Pycnocline, 70, 81, 169, 368 R Radiolarians, Redfield ratio, 15, 51, 133, 187 Remineralization, 21, 189 Respiration, 8, 12 Retention time, 124 zones, 54, 127, 232 Ria de Vigo, 223 Rias Baixas, 218 RISE program, 112 River discharge, 119, 322, 327, 348, 417 Rock lobster, 280, 283, 294, 296 Round herring, 289, 293 S Sahara desert, 207, 213 Saldanha Bay, 255 Salmon, 143 Salps, San Diego, 102, 105, 112 San Francisco, 102, 105 Bay, 119 Santa Barbara Basin, 135, 141 channel, 114, 103, 139 Sardine, 57, 59, 86, 123, 138, 140, 182, 229, 230, 232, 237, 238, 293, 295, 297–299, 302, 328, 330, 338, 348, 407, 412, 417, 419 Sardinella, 230, 232, 233, 241, 348 Scientific Committee for Ocean Research (SCOR), 166 Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 102, 138 Sea level, 272 Sealing, 147, 256 Sealions, 182 Seals, 147 Sea surface temperature, 73, 120, 181, 267, 319 SeaWiFS, 42, 123, 136, 170, 180, 282, 404, 412 Secondary production, 52 El Niño and, Sediment transport, 113 Senegal, 204, 209, 210, 222 Seychelles Islands, 385 Shelf break canyons, 45, 122, 124 Silica regeneration, 19 SMILE experiment, 113 432 Snellius-II Expedition, 327 Socotra Gyre, 337 SOLAS program, 165 Sole, 289, 291 Solubility pump, 20 Somali Current upwelling, 316, 334, 335, 338 South Africa, 251, 252, 256, 261, 281, 289–295, 298, 299 South Atlantic gyre, 295 South Australia, 316, 418 upwelling, 329, 350, 351, 374, 397 South China Sea, 47, 417 fishery, 325, 350, 413 upwelling, 320 Southeast Asia upwelling, 317 Southern Annular Mode (SAM), 74 Southern California Bight, 97, 103, 105, 110, 112, 117, 124, 135, 139, 142, 149, 402, 408, 409 circulation in, 115 Southern Gyre, 335, 337 Southern Ocean Upwelling, 364 Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), 78 South Pacific high pressure system, 167 Southwest Indian Shelf Upwelling, 339 Spencer Gulf, 329 Squid, 140, 147, 372, 376, 379 Squirts, 167, 170 Sri Lankan upwelling, 339 St Helena Bay, 49, 275, 278, 279, 282–285, 289, 292–294 Steinbeck, John, 99 Stonewall Bank, 130 Strait of Anian, 102 Strait of Georgia, 105, 119 Strait of Gibraltar, 203, 255, 348 Strait of Juan de Fuca, 97, 105, 119, 126, 133, 148, 407 Strait of Taiwan, 318 Stratification, 56, 72, 83, 135, 163, 266, 283, 323, 326, 344, 381, 386, 409 STRESS program, 113 Submarine canyons, 105 Sumbawa Dome, 372 Swakopmund, 257, 276 Swordfish, 182 T Tasman Sea, 332 Teleconnections, 74, 88 Thermocline, 41, 68, 382, 409 Tidal pumping, 45, 327 Time scales, Index Timor Passage, 326 Treaty of Tordesillas, 101 Treaty of Zaragosa, 101 Tuna, 183, 289, 292, 320, 326, 328, 330, 331, 338, 351, 397 Tunicates, 145 Turbulence, 9, 55, 57, 59, 72, 373, 385, 404 U UNESCO, 207 Upwelling along equator, 366 Bathymetry and, 375, 379, 381, 386 biological response to, 53, 403 centres, 33, 54 coastal, 31, 40 current driven, 363, 373 depth of upwelled water, 70 domes, 371 dynamic structure of, 34 eastern boundary, 47, 52 ecology of, 53 equatorial, 32, 366 food webs and, 59 front, 38 full, 38, 53 ice-edge, 32, 386 index, 36 intensity and fish recruitment, 58 island wake effect, 44, 385 jet, 33, 39, 47, 54, 114, 122, 134, 273, 333 monsoon driving, 319, 322, 326, 333, 334, 335, 337–339, 351, 372 nutrient supply to, 47, 403, 417 partial, 38, 54 physical process of, 33 regimes, 40, 278 regime shifts, 412 relaxation periods, 117, 224, 398, 407 sea level response to, 42 seasonal systems, 315 shadow zones, 33, 54, 57, 126, 171, 408 shelf break canyons and, 45, 374, 379, 398 Somali, 47 sulphide emissions from, 52 tidal mixing, 385 timescales of, 37, 403 water mass properties, 70 wind-driven, 31, 36 V Valdivia Bank, 270 Valdivia expedition, 256, 276 Valparaiso, 163 Index Vancouver, George, 102 Vancouver Island, 97, 108, 110, 113, 119, 125, 143, 147 Van Riebeek, Jan, 255 Von Humboldt, A., 165 W Walker circulation, 75 Walvis Bay, 253, 255, 257, 259, 261, 272, 275–277, 279, 285, 287, 292–294, 301 Walvis Ridge, 263, 270, 285 Warm pool, 75, 326 Washington, State of, 99, 105, 111, 113, 114, 119, 125, 127, 130, 133, 138, 140, 147, 148, 402, 417 Water masses analysis, 69, 109 Antarctic Bottom Water, 263 Antarctic Intermediate Water, 169, 174 Arabian Sea Water, 335 Banda Sea slope water, 327 Equatorial sub-surface water, 169, 174, 187 Indian Ocean Central Water, 265 Mediterranean Outflow Water, 348 North Atlantic Central Water, 220, 224, 228, 239 North Atlantic Deep Water, 74, 364 North Pacific Central water, 110 North Pacific equatorial water, 110 North Pacific subarctic water, 110 Red Sea Water, 342 South Atlantic Central Water, 220, 228, 238, 264, 277, 279 Sub Antarctic water, 169, 174 Subtropical Underwater, 345 Tropical Surface Water, 110 Waves coastal-trapped, 44, 98, 169 internal, 275, 382 433 Kelvin, 76, 108, 262, 272 Rossby, 45, 109, 262, 383 tropical instability, 367 Western Iberian buoyant plume, 214, 221 winter front, 215 WEST program, 112, 117, 133 William Scoresby expedition, 165, 256 Wind Berg winds, 261 driven circulation, 67 in Caribbean Sea, 344 in Mediterranean Sea, 348 in South China Sea, 317 off Brazil, 348 relaxation, 48, 60, 222 Santa Anna, 117 stress, 41, 48, 103, 105, 144, 170, 220, 258, 301, 404, 418 stress curl, 44, 103, 117, 123, 133, 136, 327, 333, 404, 409 World Ocean Atlas, 396 World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), 333, 364 Y Yellow River, 322 Yellow Sea, 47, 86, 320–322, 385, 413 Yemeni upwelling, 333, 335, 340, 341 Z Zooplankton, 5, 43, 72 faecal material, 21, 52 in Benguela Current, 286 in California Current, 145, 122, 131, 139 in Canary Current, 228, 230 in Peru-Chile Current, 180, 189, 404 off New Zealand, 332 variability, 398 vertical movement, 10 ... Preliminaries the euphotic zone in most regions of the oceans, they can come close to the sea surface (depths of 150–300 m) in the vicinity of the major coastal upwelling regions of the tropical... 17 18 19 19 24 25 26 27 27 The Functioning of Coastal Upwelling Systems 2.1 The Physics of Coastal Upwelling 2.1.1 Description of the Upwelling Process ... Currents of Subpolar Gyres 9.6 Other Current-Driven Upwelling Systems 9.6.1 The Green Belt of the Bering Sea 9.6.2 The Grand Banks of Newfoundland 9.6.3 The
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