Side effects of drugs annual 35 a worldwide yearly survey of new data and trends in adverse drug reactions

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Side Effects of Drugs Annual 35 HONORARY EDITOR Prof M.N.G Dukes, Oslo, Norway ADVISORY EDITORIAL BOARD Prof F Bochner, Adelaide, Australia Prof I.R Edwards, Uppsala, Sweden Prof G.P Velo, Verona, Italy Elsevier Radarweg 29, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 GB, UK First edition 2014 Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone (+44) (0) 1865843830; fax (+44) (0) 1865853333; email: permissions@ elsevier.com Alternatively you can submit our request online by visiting the Elsevier website at http://elsevier.com/locate/permissions, and selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material Notice No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 978-0-444-62635-6 ISSN: 0378-6080 For information on all Elsevier publications visit our website at store.elsevier.com Printed and bound in UK 14 15 16 11 10 Contributors Lise Aagaard, PhD, HD(O) (Chapter 1) Institute of Public Health, Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, JB Winslws Vej 19, 5000 Odense C, Denmark E-mail: laagaard@health.sdu.dk Jeffrey K Aronson, MA, MBChB, DPhil, FRCP, FBPharmacolS, FFPM (Hon) (Chapters 6, 8, 24, 34, 37, 41, 45) University Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, New Radcliffe House, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG, UK E-mail: jeffrey.aronson@phc.ox.ac.uk Charlotte I.S Barker, BMBCh (Chapter 29) Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, Division of Clinical Sciences, St George’s, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK E-mail: cisbark4444@doctors.org.uk Corrado Blandizzi, MD, PhD (Chapter 36) Division of Pharmacology & Chemotherapy, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy E-mail: c.blandizzi@gmail.com Andrew Byrne, BA, MB BCh, BAO, MRCPsych, MMedSc (Chapter 5) St George's Park, Morpeth, Northumberland, NE61 2NU, UK Santos Castañeda, MD, PhD (Chapter 40) Department of Rheumatology, IIS-Princesa, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, c/ Diego de León 62, 28006-Madrid, Spain E-mail: scastas@gmail.com K Chan, PhD, DSc, FSB, FCP, FRPS, FRSM (Chapter 48) Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney and National Institute of Complementary Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith NSW 2571, Australia E-mail: kelvin.chan@sydney.edu.au John R Charpie, MD, PhD (Chapter 17) Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Health System, 1500 E Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA E-mail: jcharpie@med.umich.edu Taylor A Choi, PhD (Chapter 26) Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 E-mail: tchoi@lbl.gov N.H Choulis, MD, PhD (Chapters 14, 49) University of Athens, PO Box 51173, 14510 Kifisia, Greece E-mail: nicoly@otenet.gr v vi Contributors Steve S Chung, MD (Chapter 7) Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona, USA E-mail: steve.chung@dignityhealth.org Jamie J Coleman, MBChB, MA (Med Ed), MD, MRCP(UK) (Chapter 20) School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK E-mail: j.j.coleman@bham.ac.uk Joan Costa, MD (Chapter 39) Clinical Pharmacology Department, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Ctra de Canyet s/n, 08916 Badalona, Spain E-mail: joan.costa.pages@gmail.com D Cowan, MBChB, PhD, MRCP (Glasgow) (Chapter 16) Department of Respiratory Medicine, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, 16 Alexander Parade, Glasgow, G31 2ER, UK E-mail: douglas.cowan@otago.ac.nz Anthony R Cox, PhD (Chapter 20) School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK E-mail: a.r.cox@bham.ac.uk Stephen Curran, BSc, MBChB, MMedSc, MRCPsych, PhD (Chapter 5) Fieldhead Hospital, South West Yorkshire Mental Health NHS Trust, Ouchthorpe Lane, Wakefield, WF1 3SP, UK E-mail: s.curran@hud.ac.uk Rinkoo Dalan, MBBS, FRCP(Edin), FAMS (Endocrinology) (Chapter 43) Department of Endocrinology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, DUKE-NUS Graduate Medical School, National University of Singapore, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore E-mail: rinkoo_dalan@ttsh.com.sg S Dittmann, MD, DScMed (Chapter 32) 19 Hatzenporter Weg, 12681 Berlin, Germany E-mail: sd.internat.immun.consult@t-online.de Rif S El-Mallakh, MD (Chapter 3) Mood Disorders Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, MedCenter One, 501 E Broadway, Suite 340, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA E-mail: rselma01@louisville.edu M Farré, MD (Chapter 39) Human Pharmacology and Neurosciences, Institut Hospital del Mar d'Investigacions Mèdiques (IMIM), Parc de Salut Mar, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain E-mail: mfarre@imim.es E Flockton, MBChB, FRCA, FFICM (Chapter 10) Department of Critical Care, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool, L7 8XP, UK E-mail: Elizabeth.Flockton@rlbuht.nhs.uk Contributors vii Swaran J.S Flora, PhD, FNASc (Chapter 22) Division of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474002, India E-mail: sjsflora@drde.drdo.in; sjsflora@gmail.com Joshua M Friedland-Little, MD (Chapter 17) Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Health System, 1500 E Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA E-mail: jmfriedl@med.umich.edu Luís Gales, PhD (Chapter 41) Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Universidade Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, and Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular (IBMC), Universidade Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto, Portugal E-mail: lgales@ibmc.up.pt Jason C Gallagher, PharmD, FCCP, BCPS (Chapter 25) School of Pharmacy, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA E-mail: jasoncg@temple.edu Yonglin Gao, MD (Chapter 3) Mood Disorders Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, MedCenter One, 501 E Broadway, Suite 340, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA E-mail: ylgao001@louisville.edu Tatsuya Gomi, MD, PhD (Chapter 46) Department of Radiology, Ohashi Medical Center, Toho University, Japan E-mail: gomi@oha.toho-u.ac.jp Wilson I Gonsalves, MD (Chapter 35) Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA E-mail: Gonsalves.Wilson@mayo.edu Makoto Hasegawa, MD (Chapter 46) Department of Radiology, Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Japan E-mail: ma12x-4c@din.or.jp Yuichi Hattori, MD, PhD (Chapter 44) Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan E-mail: yhattori@med.u-toyama.ac.jp M.S Jawahar, MD (Chapter 30) Department of Clinical Research, National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, Mayor Sathiyamoorthy Salai, Chetput, Chennai 600 031, India E-mail: shaheedjawahar@gmail.com Lokesh Kumar Jha, MD (Chapter 38) Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 983285 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-3285, USA E-mail: lokesh.jha@unmc.edu viii Contributors Jesco Kompardt, MD, FANZCA (Chapter 11) Anaesthetic Department, Joondalup Health Campus, Shenton Ave, Joondalup WA 6027, Australia E-mail: jesco.kompardt@googlemail.com Worapant Kriengsoontornkij, MD (Chapter 23) Division of Ambulatory Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Thalassemia Center, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand E-mail: sikwr@yahoo.com R Latini, MD (Chapter 18) Department of Cardiovascular Research, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan, Italy E-mail: roberto.latini@marionegri.it Melvin K.S Leow, MBBS, MMed(Int Med), MSc, PhD, FAMS, FACE, FACP, FRCP (Edin) (Chapter 43) Department of Endocrinology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore E-mail: mleowsj@massmed.org J.M Lestner, MBChB, MRes, MRCPCH (Chapter 29) Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, Division of Clinical Sciences, St George’s, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK, and Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK E-mail: jlestner@nhs.net M Leuwer, MD (Chapters 10, 12) School of Clinical Science, University of Liverpool, The Duncan Building, Daulby Street, Liverpool, L69 3GA, UK E-mail: mleuwer@liv.ac.uk Z.X Lin, BSc, PhD (Chapter 48) School of Chinese Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1/F Sino Building, CUHK, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR, PR China E-mail: linzx@cuhk.edu.hk Careen Y Lowder, MD, PhD (Chapter 47) Cleveland Clinic Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, USA E-mail: lowderc@ccf.org Arduino A Mangoni, PhD, FRACP, FRCP (Lond, Glasg, Edin), FBPharmacolS (Chapter 19) Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Flinders University and Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia E-mail: arduino.mangoni@flinders.edu.au Gwen Masclee, MD (Chapters 9, 37) PO Box 2040, Room Na 27-13, 3000 CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands E-mail: g.masclee@erasmusmc.nl Rajiv Menon, MBBS (Chapter 11) Anaesthetic Department, Joondalup Health Campus, Shenton Ave, Joondalup WA 6027, Australia E-mail: rajiv.menon.au@gmail.com Marta Martín Millán, MD, PhD (Chapter 40) Department of Internal Medicine, IFIMAV, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Avenida de Valdecilla s/n, 39008-Santander, Cantabria, Spain E-mail: martinmma@unican.es Contributors ix Philip B Mitchell, AM, MB BS, MD, FRANZCP, FRCPsych (Chapter 2) University of New South Wales School of Psychiatry, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia E-mail: phil.mitchell@unsw.edu.au Sandeep Mukherjee, MD (Chapter 38) Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 983285 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-3285, USA E-mail: smukherj@unmc.edu Shabir Musa, MB ChB, MRCPsych (Chapter 5) Fieldhead Hospital, South West Yorkshire Mental Health NHS Trust, Ouchthorpe Lane, Wakefield, WF1 3SP, UK E-mail: shabir.musa@swyt.nhs.uk Toshio Nakaki, MD, PhD (Chapter 13) Department of Pharmacology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi Ward, Tokyo, 173-8605, Japan E-mail: nakaki@med.teikyo-u.ac.jp A Nobili, MD (Chapter 18) Department of Neuroscience, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan, Italy E-mail: alessandro.nobili@marionegri.it Wakana Ohashi, PhD (Chapter 44) Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan E-mail: wohashi@med.u-toyama.ac.jp K.T Olkkola, MD, PhD (Chapter 27) Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care, Emergency Care and Pain Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, PO Box 140, FI-00029 HUS, Helsinki, Finland E-mail: klaus.olkkola@utu.fi Igho J Onakpoya, MBChB, MSc (Chapters 31, 34) Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, New Radcliffe House, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG, UK E-mail: igho.onakpoya@phc.ox.ac.uk C Padmapriyadarsini, MS (Chapter 30) Department of Clinical Research, National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, Mayor Sathiyamoorthy Salai, Chetput, Chennai 600 031, India E-mail: padmapriyadarsini@trcchennai.in Renée C.L Page, MD, FRCP, MA(Ed) (Chapter 42) Endocrine Unit, Dundee House, City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK E-mail: renee.page@nuh.nhs.uk L Pasina, PharmD (Chapter 18) Department of Neuroscience, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan, Italy E-mail: luca.pasina@marionegri.it Jayendra K Patel, MD (Chapter 4) University of Massachusetts Medical School, Department of Psychiatry, 361 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA E-mail: jkprjs@gmail.com x Contributors Mrinal M Patnaik, MBBS (Chapter 35) Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA E-mail: Patnaik.mrinal@mayo.edu Francesco Pichi, MD (Chapter 47) San Giuseppe Hospital-University Eye Clinic, Milan, Italy E-mail: ilmiticopicchio@gmail.com Pablo Puras, MD (Chapter 2) Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Rey Juan Carlos, Gladiolo s/n, 28933, Móstoles, Madrid, Spain E-mail: pablopuras@gmail.com I.D Ramsay, BA BM BCh MRCP (Chapter 29) Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge E-mail: isobel.ramsay@gmail.com Darren M Roberts, MBBS PhD FRACP (Chapter 21) Department of Renal Medicine, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK, and School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia E-mail: 1darren1@gmail.com Rona Jeannie Roberts, MD (Chapter 3) Mood Disorders Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, MedCenter One, 501 E Broadway, Suite 340, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA E-mail: rjrobe01@gwise.louisville.edu T.I Saari, MD, PhD (Chapter 27) Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care, Emergency Care and Pain Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, PO Box 52 (Kiinamyllynkatu 4-8), 20521 Turku, Finland E-mail: teijo.saari@gmail.com Carmelo Scarpignato, MD, DSc(Hons), PharmD, MPH, FRCP (Lond), FCP, FACG (Chapter 36) Clinical Pharmacology & Digestive Pathophysiology Unit, Department of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Maggiore University Hospital, Cattani Pavillon, I-43125 Parma, Italy E-mail: scarpi@tin.it Stephan A Schug, MD, FANZCA, FFPMANZCA (Chapter 11) Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Anaesthesiology Unit, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia Level 2, MRF Building G Block, Royal Perth Hospital, GPO Box X2213, Perth, WA 6847, Australia E-mail: stephan.schug@uwa.edu.au Courtney M Schusse, MD (Chapter 7) Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona, USA Oscar Ozmund Simooya, BSc, MB ChB, MSc (Chapter 28) Copperbelt University Health Services, PO Box 21692, Kitwe, Zambia E-mail: oscar.simooya@cbu.ac.zm Contributors xi Andrew Smith, MBChB, PhD, FRCP (Glasgow) (Chapter 16) Department of Respiratory Medicine, Wishaw General Hospital, 50 Netherton Street, Wishaw ML2 0DP, Scotland, UK E-mail: andrewsmith6@nhs.net P.F.W Strengers, MD (Chapter 33) Sanquin Blood Supply Foundation, Plesmanlaan 125, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands, E-mail: p.strengers@sanquin.nl Neil C Thomson, MBChB, MD, FRCP (Glasgow & London) (Chapter 16) Institute of Infection, Immunity & Inflammation, University of Glasgow, and Department of Respiratory Medicine, Gartnavel General Hospital, Glasgow G12 OYN, Scotland, UK E-mail: neil.thomson@glasgow.ac.uk Kimberly A Toussaint, PharmD, BCPS (Chapter 25) School of Pharmacy, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA E-mail: toussaka@temple.edu K.J Velthove, PharmD, PhD (Chapter 33) Sanquin Blood Supply Foundation, Plesmanlaan 125, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands E-mail: k.velthove@sanquin.nl Vip Viprakasit, MD, DPhil (Chapter 23) Division of Hematology/Oncology and Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand E-mail: vip.vip@mahidol.ac.th Elizabeth F Wallin, MA(Cantab), MBBChir, MRCP (Chapter 21) Department of Renal Medicine, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK E-mail: lizwallin@doctors.org.uk Garry M Walsh, MSc, PhD (Chapter 15) Section of Immunology & Infection, Division of Applied Medicine, School of Medicine & Dentistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, Scotland, UK E-mail: g.m.walsh@abdn.ac.uk Colin Williams, BSc, MBChB, FRCA (Chapter 12) Department of Anaesthesia, 12th Floor, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool, L7 8XP, UK E-mail: colinwilliams99@yahoo.com H.W Zhang, BSc, MPhil, PhD (Chapter 48) School of Chinese Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1/F Sino Building, CUHK, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR, PR China E-mail: zhanghw@cuhk.edu.hk Special reviews in SEDA-35 Galantamine (Chapter 1) Adulteration of drugs of abuse and the problem of levamisole (Chapter 4) Deaths associated with drugs of abuse (Chapter 4) Uses of midazolam (Chapter 5) Thromboembolism associated with antipsychotic drugs (Chapter 6) Clozapine-induced myocarditis and pericarditis (Chapter 6) Teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs (Chapter 7) Perampanel (Chapter 7) The interaction of carbapenems with valproate (Chapter 7) Takotsubo cardiomyopathy after opioid withdrawal (Chapter 8) Genetic polymorphisms associated with adverse reactions to salicylates (Chapter 9) The usefulness of combining ketamine and propofol (Chapter 10) Management of rocuronium-induced anaphylaxis with sugammadex (Chapter 12) Piribedil (Chapter 13) Rotigotine (Chapter 13) Iodopropynyl butylcarbamate—immunological reactions (Chapter 14) Isotretinoin and suicide (Chapter 14) New antihistamines (alcaftadine, bepotastine, bilastine, rupatadine) (Chapter 15) Inhaled glucocorticoids and pulmonary infections (Chapter 16) Adverse reactions during long-term use of long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonists (Chapter 16) Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angioedema (Chapter 20) Triapine (Chapter 23) The interaction of carbapenems with valproate (Chapter 25) Drug-drug interactions with antifungal azoles (Chapter 27) Voriconazole-associated periostitis (Chapter 27) Retinopathy due to chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (Chapter 28) Amantadine and visual impairment (Chapter 29) Concomitant treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (Chapter 30) Ecabet (Chapter 36) Racecadotril (Chapter 36) The risk of infections in patients taking TNF-alfa antagonists (Chapter 37) The treatment of transthyretin amyloidosis (Chapter 41) Pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer associated with incretin mimetics (Chapter 42) Paradoxical hyperglycemia due to pasireotide (Chapter 43) Leptin and analogues (Chapter 43) Combinations of lipid-modifying drugs (Chapter 44) Colesevelam (Chapter 44) Statins and cataract (Chapter 44) Methotrexate (Chapter 45) Iodinated radiocontrast-induced nephropathy (Chapter 46) Corn starch (Chapter 49) Hyaluronidase (Chapter 49) 14 55 60 77 86 100 133 142 153 171 202 222 245 263 264 279 283 295 311 315 364 425 447 484 488 496 530 551 642 649 666 747 771 796 799 807 809 812 821 864 901 907 xvii 1030 personality disorders montelukast, 321 petechiae cocaine + levamisole, 59 trastuzumab, 681 pharyngitis sirolimus (rapamycin), 705 pharyngolaryngeal pain aztreonam, 453 mannitol, 393 phenytoin toxicity phenytoin, 145 pheochromocytoma clozapine, 104 phlebitis dantrolene sodium, 248–249 oritavancin, 466–467 phospholipidosis pentamidine, 705 photoallergy captopril, 367 enalapril, 367 sunscreen, 281–282 photodermatitis methotrexate, 829 photophobia alcaftadine, 296–297 atropine, 880 khat, 70 photosensitivity chlorpromazine, 99 chlorprothixene, 99 doxycycline, 455 mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, mesalamine), 647 voriconazole, 487, 487f phototoxicity amiodarone, 335 pravastatin, 814 simvastatin, 814 statins, 814 PICD see paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction pigment epithelial tears bevacizumab, 875–876 ranibizumab, 878–879 pigmentary changes laser therapy, 287 pinnae necrosis cocaine + levamisole, 566 Pisa syndrome, 12–13 galantamine, 15 sertindole, 115 pituitary gonadotroph adenoma goserelin, 790 pityriasis lichenoides measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, 575–576 pityriasis rosea-like eruption allopurinol, 208 Index of adverse effects and adverse reactions placental inflammation arsenic, 400 placental T cell reduction arsenic, 400 platelet function impairment abacavir, 516 acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), 205–206 chlorpromazine, 89 clopidogrel, 623 clozapine, 90 cocaine, 66 haloperidol, 90 levetiracetam, 141 olanzapine, 90 risperidone, 90 sapropterin, 609 tenofovir, 516 platypnea glucocorticoids, systemic, 721 pleural adhesions antimony, 398 pleural effusion ceftriaxone, 451 cetuximab, 673 clozapine, 100 granulocyte colonystimulating factors (GCSF), 659 isoniazid, 558 peginterferon, 660 ribavirin, 660 sodium hypochlorite, 441 valproate, 149 pneumoconiosis antimony, 398 Pneumocystis jirovecii infection infliximab, 669 methotrexate, 831, 835–836 rituximab, 679 pneumonia see also specific pneumonias enteral nutritional, 611 epoetin-beta, 595 etanercept, 667, 669 glucocorticoids, inhaled, 311–312, 313, 314, 314f histamine H2 receptor antagonists, 637 methotrexate, 822–823 mucolytic drugs, 321–322 propofol, 225 proton pump inhibitors, 638 thiazolidinediones (glitazones), 779 TNF-alfa antagonists, 667 pneumonitis corn starch, 902 cyclophosphamide, 701 methotrexate, 822, 823, 834 temsirolimus, 707–708 varicella vaccine, 577 pneumothorax acupuncture, 894–895 leflunomide, 703 sodium hypochlorite, 441 poisoning lead, 406 phenol, 442 polyarthritis cocaine + levamisole, 58 etanercept, 671 polyarthropathy propylthiouracil, 755 polycystic ovary syndrome valproate, 151 polydipsia cyclamate, 899–900 saccharin, 899–900 polymyositis peginterferon alfa-2b, 664 polyneuritis benznidazole, 565 polyneuropathy see also peripheral polyneuropathy ethambutol, 557 isoniazid, 557, 558 levodopa, 260 linezolid, 472 pyrazinamide, 557 rifampicin, 557 polyserositis clozapine, 100 polyuria cyclamate, 899–900 dapagliflozin, 777t saccharin, 899–900 porencephaly misoprostol (PGE1 analogue), 727 post transfusion malaria blood transfusion, 583–584 post transfusion viral infection blood transfusion, 583–584 posterior ischemic optic neuropathy metoprolol, 352 verapamil, 352 posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome cetuximab, 673 posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome ciclosporin, 699 mephedrone, 71 phentermine, 11 post-malarial neurological syndrome atovaquone, 499 proguanil, 499 postoperative pain hyaluronidase, 907 Index of adverse effects and adverse reactions postoperative thrombosis prothrombin complex concentrate, 594 post-transfusion bacteremia/ sepsis blood transfusion, 583–584 post-transfusion purpura blood transfusion, 583–584 PR interval changes eslicarbazepine, 136–137 lacosamide, 138 palonosetron, 636 regadenoson, 331–332 pre-eclampsia caffeine, 10 pregnancy rates cetrorelix, 791 leuprolide, 791 premature ejaculation buprenorphine, 185 naltrexone, 187 opioids, 173 premature ovarian failure interferon alfa, 662 presyncope paraphenylenediamine, 278 rupatadine, 299 preterm delivery candesartan, 370–371 clindamycin, 469 desmopressin, 798 diethylstilbestrol, 731 methadone, 180 nicotine, 911 zolpidem, 80 priapism lumbar sympathetic nerve block, 235–236 quetiapine, 114 tamsulosin, 378 prion disease blood transfusion, 597 procedural pain cobalamins (vitamin B12), 607 proctitis corn starch, 902 progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy efalizumab, 675 natalizumab, 676 rituximab, 678 prolactin increase amisulpride, 85 antipsychotic drugs, 89, 92 aripiprazole, 85, 92 clozapine, 85 olanzapine, 85–86 quetiapine, 85, 92 risperidone, 85–86 sertindole, 85 ziprasidone, 85, 92 proliferative vitreoretinopathy silicone, 914 propofol infusion syndrome propofol, 226, 226f, 227 proteinuria etanercept, 670 everolimus, 701 fumaric acid esters, 275 interferon beta-1b, 664 iron salts, 402–403 paraphenylenediamine, 277 sirolimus (rapamycin), 705 protozoan infection blood transfusion, 597 proximal tubular dysfunction tenofovir, 518 pruriginous maculopapular eruptions etanercept, 670 pruritic erythema esomeprazole, 640 vancomycin, 468 pruritic erythematous swelling propranolol, 353 pruritic rash articaine, 236 bleomycin, 843 morphine, 182 paliperidone, 112 pruritus acamprosate, 899 alcaftadine, 296–297 brimonidine, 879 C1 esterase inhibitor, 586, 587 cetuximab, 673 enzalutamide, 740 epoetin alfa, 595 etanercept, 670 everolimus, 702–703 fresh frozen plasma, 587 gadoterate meglumine, 868 hydroxyethyl starch, 588 irinotecan, 678 isoniazid, 558 lactulose, 645 lansoprazole, 642 metreleptin, 799 moxifloxacin, 642 panitumumab, 678 peginterferon, 511, 512–513, 660 Petasites hybridus (Asteraceae; butterbur), 894 pimecrolimus, 705 platelets, 585–586 pyrrolizidine alkaloids, 894 ranitidine, 637 ribavirin, 511, 512–513, 660 Ropylgallate injection, 890 saxagliptin, 768–769 tacrolimus, 706 1031 telaprevir, 510, 511 tetracycline, 642 trastuzumab, 681 triclosan, 440 water-soluble intravascular iodinated contrast agents, 863 Yinzhihuang injection, 891 pseudoendophthalmitis ranibizumab, 878 triamcinolone, 873 pseudohyperkalemia heparin, 619 pseudolymphoma phenytoin, 144 pseudomembranous colitis voriconazole, 487 pseudomyopia amisulpride, 96 pseudoporphyria finasteride, 741 pseudo-pseudo Meig’s syndrome leflunomide, 704 pseudothrombocytopenia edetic acid (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA), 425 psoriasis daclizumab, 675 losartan, 371 mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, mesalamine), 647–648 psoriatic arthritis methotrexate, 829 psoriatic skin lesions etanercept, 667 psychiatric adverse events cycloserine, 553 efavirenz, 553 peginterferon alfa, 661 ribavirin, 661 psychomotor performance lorazepam, 299 olanzapine, 110–111 ramelteon, 80–81 rupatadine, 299 zopiclone, 80–81 psychosis/psychotic symptoms antituberculosis drugs, 554 clarithromycin, 470 hydroxychloroquine, 497 isotretinoin, 283 levetiracetam, 140 metamfetamine, rimonabant, 11 rotigotine, 264 terbinafine, 483 vigabatrin, 154 1032 ptosis botulinum toxin, 248 formaldehyde, 436 hyaluronidase, 908 puberty onset delays lead, 405 pulmonary adenomatous cystic malformation misoprostol (PGE1 analogue), 727 pulmonary agenesis allopurinol, 208 pulmonary arterial hypertension ciclosporin, 699 pulmonary arterial pressure bromocriptine, 261 cabergoline, 261 pulmonary capillary leak syndrome muromonab (orthoclone; OKT3), 676 pulmonary crackles hydroxychloroquine, 495 pulmonary disease nitrofurantoin, 471 pulmonary dysfunction formaldehyde, 436 pulmonary edema see also non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema albumin, 583 methadone, 172, 178 phenylephrine, 257 pulmonary embolism antipsychotic drugs, 88, 89 chlorpromazine, 90 clozapine, 87–88, 89 epoetin-beta, 595 etanercept, 667 heparin, 618 olanzapine, 90 prothrombin complex concentrate, 593 risperidone, 90 testosterone, 739 thioridazine, 88 pulmonary fibrosis ambrisentan, 375 dronedarone, 338–339 tobramycin, 464 pulmonary hemorrhage propylthiouracil, 755 pulmonary hypertension diazoxide, 379 fenfluramine, pulmonary infections glucocorticoids, inhaled, 311 pulmonary infiltration with eosinophilia syndrome sulfasalazine, 648 pulmonary sarcoidosis etanercept, 671 Index of adverse effects and adverse reactions pulmonary talcosis talc, 915 pulmonary toxicity amiodarone, 333–334 punctate epitheliopathy bimatoprost, 883 punctate keratitis tafamidis, 748–749 timolol + brimonidine, 881 punding piribedil, 263–264 rotigotine, 264, 265 pure red cell aplasia epoetin, 595 erythropoietin, 594–595 isoniazid, 558 micafungin, 490 peginterferon, 514, 663 phenytoin, 143–144 ribavirin, 514 purple discoloration of feet amphetamines, purple toe syndrome warfarin, 617 purple-limb syndrome phenytoin, 143 purpura cocaine + levamisole, 58, 59, 60 furosemide, 391 laser therapy, 287 propylthiouracil, 755 purpuric eruptions cocaine + levamisole, 566 pustular psoriasis adalimumab, 669 pyoderma granulosum propylthiouracil, 755 pyogenic granulomata acitretin, 282 cetuximab, 674 pyrexia amantadine, 529 aztreonam, 453 C1 esterase inhibitor, 586 daptomycin, 474 darunavir, 559–560 micafungin, 490 misoprostol (PGE1 analogue), 727 peginterferon, 511 ribavirin, 511 rifabutin, 559–560 telaprevir, 510, 511 valganciclovir, 506 pyridoxine deficiency penicillamine, 424 lacosamide, 138 lamotrigine, 140 propafenone, 342 QT interval changes amiodarone, 336, 337 amisulpride, 86 aripiprazole, 86, 96 bepridil, 337 chlorphenamine, 300–301 ciprofloxacin, 464 cisapride, 633 citalopram, 28 clozapine, 99, 106 dapagliflozin, 777 dextromethorphan, 174 diphenhydramine, 301, 302 disopyramide, 338 dofetilide, 338 dolutegravir, 526 dronedarone, 338–339 fentanyl, 176 flecainide, 340, 341 galantamine, 15 gatifloxacin, 464 granisetron, 635 haloperidol, 86 indapamide, 389, 389f lacosamide, 138 lansoprazole, 639, 640 levetiracetam, 140 magnesium salts, 645 methadone, 172, 178, 179f moxifloxacin, 299, 464, 466, 526, 777 ofloxacin, 464 olanzapine, 86, 108, 110–111 paliperidone, 113 palonosetron, 636 pimozide, 113 propofol, 225 quetiapine, 86, 113 remifentanil, 184 retigabine (ezogabine), 146 risperidone, 85, 86 rufinamide, 146–147 rupatadine, 299 sertindole, 85, 86 sulpiride, 115 thioridazine, 115 tizanidine, 249 triapine, 426 voriconazole, 486–487 ziprasidone, 86, 115, 116 Q QRS interval changes diphenhydramine, 301, 302 flecainide, 340 indapamide, 389, 389f R rabbit syndrome paliperidone, 112 radiation sialadenitis radioactive iodide, 753 Index of adverse effects and adverse reactions rapid eye movement behavior disorder lamotrigine, 138 rash antituberculosis drugs, 554 boceprevir, 508–509 Bupleurum dropping pill, 889 C1 esterase inhibitor, 587 cetuximab, 673 chloral hydrate, 81 clarithromycin, 470 dabigatran, 620 daptomycin, 474 Datura species (Solanaceae), 893 deferasirox, 421, 421t deferiprone, 422 ecabet, 643 erlotinib, 618 etanercept, 669 fluoxetine, 641 fresh frozen plasma, 587 gadolinium salts, 867 glucocorticoids, systemic, 723 isoniazid, 558 ketofol, 222 lacosamide, 138 lamotrigine, 139 lansoprazole, 642 latanoprost, 883 Lianhuaqingwen capsule, 890 linezolid, 471–472 moxifloxacin, 642 nevirapine, 521 omeprazole, 641 oseltamivir, 528–529 paliperidone, 112 peginterferon, 508–509, 510, 511 platelets, 585–586 prochlorperazine, 113 ranitidine, 637 recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH), 750 ribavirin, 508–509, 510, 511 rifabutin, 559 rilpivirine, 521–522 saquinavir, 525 saxagliptin, 768–769 sennosides, 646 sunscreen, 281 tacrolimus, 706 teicoplanin, 467 telaprevir, 508, 509–510, 511 teplizumab, 680 tetracycline, 642 timolol + brinzolamide, 881 vancomycin, 468 varicella vaccine, 577 warfarin, 618 rectal bleeding codeine, 174 recurrent allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis etanercept, 668–669 tocilizumab, 668–669 redness hyaluronic acid, 275 Ropylgallate injection, 890 subcutaneous immunoglobulin, 591 teriparatide, 794 refractory seizures baclofen, 247 isoniazid, 558 Reiter’s disease lithium, 45 relapse stem cells, 598 renal agenesis allopurinol, 208 renal cell carcinoma cadmium, 402 chromium, 402 lead, 402 nickel, 402 renal damage liposomal amphotericin (LAmB), 484 methotrexate, 828–829, 836 renal disease baclofen, 247–248 cardiac glycosides, 329 mercury, 407 metreleptin, 799 roflumilast, 321 ropivacaine, 239 rotigotine, 266 renal dysfunction aciclovir, 507 aminocaproic acid, 625 enalapril, 367 furosemide, 390 irbesartan, 371 magnesium salts, 645 methotrexate, 828–829 ramipril, 368–369 tenofovir, 519 tranexamic acid, 625 valganciclovir, 505 vancomycin, 468 renal failure aflibercept, 874 aliskiren, 373–374 amphotericin, 464 angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, 591 angiotensin II receptor antagonists, 591 captopril, 367 ceftriaxone, 451 1033 chlorhexidine, 438 colistin, 464 co-trimoxazole, 474 danazol, 739 exenatide, 774 fenofibrate, 486 gadolinium salts, 869 gelatin, 588 gentamicin, 464 glucagon, 763 hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs), 586 hetastarch (hydroxyethyl starch), 587–588 interferon beta-1b, 664 intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), 364, 588–589, 590–591 ketoconazole, 486 levetiracetam, 141 lithium, 45 lopinavir, 524 lovastatin, 739 metformin, 767 misoprostol (PGE1 analogue), 727 mycophenolate mofetil, 704 raltegravir, 527 rosuvastatin, 814 simvastatin, 486 statins, 814 sulfasalazine, 648 tobramycin, 464 verapamil, 356 renal hyperfiltration deferasirox, 421 renal impairment bleomycin, 842 daptomycin, 474 deferasirox, 421, 422 ganciclovir, 505 methotrexate, 839–840 moxifloxacin, 466 paraphenylenediamine, 277 proton pump inhibitors, 840 ramipril, 368–369 rofecoxib, 839–840 tenofovir, 518–519, 553 valganciclovir, 505 renal insufficiency angiotensin II receptor antagonists, 369–370 antacids, 633 colistin, 473 contrast media, 864 exenatide, 774 glycols, 906 indometacin, 839 iron salts, 403 lithium, 45 1034 methotrexate, 828–829, 835, 839 ranibizumab, 879 ritonavir, 524 renal plasma flow changes dolutegravir, 526 renal toxicity amikacin, 463 aminoglycosides, 553 antituberculosis drugs, 552 capreomycin, 553 fenofibrate + statin, 808 methotrexate, 828, 835 tenofovir, 518, 552, 553 renal tubular acidosis ibuprofen, 200 renal tubular damage deferasirox, 421–422 glycols, 906 renal tubular dysfunction tenofovir, 519 respiratory acidosis blood transfusion, 584 propafenone, 342 respiratory alkalosis valproate, 152 respiratory complications lopinavir, 524 respiratory depression fentanyl, 177 glaucine, 322 lamotrigine, 140 propofol, 225 remifentanil, 225 respiratory deterioration intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), 590 respiratory disorders acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), 203–204, 205, 207 methotrexate, 821–822 ziprasidone, 115 respiratory distress Cervus and cucumis polypeptide injection, 890 cetuximab, 673 chloral hydrate, 81 lamotrigine, 139 methadone, 178 paraphenylenediamine, 278 Ropylgallate injection, 890 respiratory failure baclofen, 247 corn starch, 902 dantrolene sodium, 248–249 glucagon, 763 mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, mesalamine), 647 methotrexate, 823 verapamil, 356 respiratory insufficiency dantrolene sodium, 249 Index of adverse effects and adverse reactions respiratory irritation antimony, 398 respiratory rate ketofol, 222–223 respiratory tract infections adalimumab, 666–667 arsenic, 399 certolizumab, 669 cobalamins (vitamin B12), 607 daclizumab, 675 dipeptidyl peptidase (DDP-4) inhibitors, 768 etanercept, 666–667, 668 formaldehyde, 435–436 infliximab, 666–667 saxagliptin, 768–769 sulfasalazine, 667 tafamidis, 748–749 thiazolidinediones (glitazones), 779 TNF-alfa antagonists, 666–667 tobramycin, 464 respiratory tract irritation calcitonin, 789 restless legs syndrome mirtazapine, 34 perphenazine, 112–113 restlessness abciximab, 622 brachial plexus block, 233 methylenedioxymetamfetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), 68 metoclopramide, 634 metronidazole, 635 retiform purpura cocaine + levamisole, 58, 60 retinal artery thrombosis darbepoetin alfa, 595 retinal circulatory disturbances bevacizumab, 875 retinal damage acupuncture, 884 retinal detachment bevacizumab, 875, 876–877 hyaluronidase, 908 peginterferon alfa, 513, 661 ranibizumab, 878 ribavirin, 513, 661 silicone, 914 retinal hemorrhages ranibizumab, 878–879 retinal necrosis varicella vaccine, 577 retinal pigment epitheliopathy ritonavir, 524 retinal pigment epithelium detachment bevacizumab, 875–876 retinal rod and cone dysfunction vigabatrin, 154, 155f retinal tear bevacizumab, 875 sirolimus (rapamycin), 705 retinal thinning gentamicin, 464 silicone, 914 retinal toxicity ornithine, 611 retinal vascular occlusion mepivacaine, 236 ocular anesthesia, 236 retinal vein occlusion quetiapine, 113 retinopathy chloroquine, 496–498 epoetin, 595–596 hydroxychloroquine, 496–498 interferon alfa, 661 peginterferon alfa, 513 ribavirin, 513, 661 retrograde ejaculation silodosin, 378 tamsulosin, 378 reversible neurological disturbance methotrexate, 824 reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome trastuzumab, 681 Reye’s syndrome acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), 202 rhabdomyolysis aripiprazole, 98 co-trimoxazole, 474 danazol, 738–739 daptomycin, 474 diamorphine (heroin), 175 diphenhydramine, 302 doxylamine, 303 ephedrine, 256 fenofibrate, 486, 812 fenofibrate + statin, 808 ketoconazole, 486 lamotrigine, 140 leflunomide, 703 leuprolide, 790 levodopa, 260–261 lysergide (lysergic acid diethylamide, LSD), 70 metamfetamine, methylenedioxymetamfetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), 68 misoprostol (PGE1 analogue), 727 orphenadrine, 267 Index of adverse effects and adverse reactions rosuvastatin, 814 simvastatin, 486 statins, 738–739, 813, 813f, 814 rheumatoid arthritis cocaine + levamisole, 58–59 peginterferon, 515, 664 ribavirin, 515, 664 TNF-alfa antagonists, 667 rheumatoid papules methotrexate, 829 rhinitis calcitonin, 789 perampanel, 142 rhinorrhea opioids, 172 sitagliptin, 769 Sophorae tonkinensis (Leguminosae), 894 yellow fever vaccine, 578 rigidity amantadine, 529 cefoxitin, 450 ciprofloxacin, 450 metoclopramide, 634 rigor anti-D immunoglobulin, 592 S saccadic peak velocity reduction zolpidem, 79–80 sarcoid granulomas peginterferon alfa, 515 ribavirin, 515 sarcoidosis etanercept, 667 infliximab, 672 interferon, 664 natalizumab, 676–677 scalp cutis aplasia thiamazole, 755 scalp thickening phenytoin, 144 scleritis bisphosphonates, 900–901 scleroderma peripheral bleomycin, 843 SDRIFE see symmetric drugrelated intertriginous and flexural exanthema second trimester pregnancy loss diethylstilbestrol, 731 sedation alfentanil, 173–174 alprazolam, 76 baclofen, 247 benzodiazepines, 75–76 cetirizine, 300 clobazam, 136 clozapine, 85 iloperidone, 107–108 lorazepam, 299 metronidazole, 635 oseltamivir, 528 pregabalin, 145 quetiapine, 85 risperidone, 85 rupatadine, 299 tetrabenazine, 249 seizures see also epilepsy aminocaproic acid, 625 benzaldehyde, 900 benzyl alcohol, 900 bupivacaine, 238 clozapine, 85 cobalamins (vitamin B12), 607 cocaine, 67–68 desmopressin, 798 diphenhydramine, 302 flumazenil, 81 hydromorphone, 177 indapamide, 389, 389f isoniazid, 558 lacosamide, 138 lamotrigine, 140 levetiracetam, 140 lidocaine, 238 mephedrone, 71 methotrexate, 824, 840 metoclopramide, 634 midazolam, 78 mirtazapine + venlafaxine, 27 opioids, 172 oxcarbazepine, 141 peginterferon alfa-2b, 660 phenytoin, 144–145, 840 ribavirin, 513, 660 risperidone, 85 tacrolimus, 706 tranexamic acid, 625 selenium concentrations clozapine, 102 sensitization surfactants, 282 sensorial information detection impairment bromazepam, 76–77 sensorimotor axonal neuropathy stavudine, 517 sensorineural hearing loss aminoglycosides, 463 angiotensin II receptor antagonists, 369–370 clarithromycin, 470 diamorphine (heroin), 175 gentamicin, 464 hydroxychloroquine, 496 interferon, 513 methadone, 180 opioids, 172 peginterferon alfa, 513, 661 polysubstance abuse, 64 ribavirin, 513, 661 1035 sepsis blood transfusion, 583–584 chlorhexidine, 438 enteral nutritional, 611 fluorescein, 904 methotrexate, 836 TNF-alfa antagonists, 667 septic shock dapsone, 555–556 daptomycin, 475 septicemia etanercept, 670 seroma silicone, 914 serositis isoniazid, 558 serotonin toxicity chlorphenamine, 301 dextromethorphan, 174 methylthioninium chloride (methylene blue), 910 moclobemide, 33 tramadol, 185 serum sickness clarithromycin, 470 phenoxymethylpenicillin (penicillin V), 454 rituximab, 678 serum sickness-like reaction cephalosporins, 449 sexual desire, changes see libido changes sexual dysfunction aripiprazole, 95 buprenorphine, 185 clozapine, 95 gabapentin, 137 haloperidol, 95 methadone, 179 milnacipran, 33 naltrexone, 187 olanzapine, 95 perphenazine, 95 quetiapine, 95 risperidone, 85, 95 sertindole, 85 thioridazine, 95 ziprasidone, 95 shaking ceftriaxone, 451 methylenedioxymetamfetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), 68 shock dipyridamole, 621 SIADH see syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion sialorrhea cetuximab, 673 clozapine, 106–107 sick euthyroid syndrome valproate, 150 1036 sideroblastic anemia ethambutol, 559 isoniazid, 559 pyrazinamide, 559 rifampicin, 559 silicosis talc, 914–915 sinus bradycardia amiodarone, 332–333, 336 disopyramide, 338 lansoprazole, 640 levetiracetam, 140 olanzapine, 110–111 rupatadine, 299 sinus node dysfunction lithium, 43 sinus rhythm metoclopramide, 634 sinus tachycardia clozapine, 100, 101 diphenhydramine, 302 hydroxychloroquine, 495 mephedrone, 71 metoclopramide, 634 olanzapine, 110–111 sulpiride, 115 thyroid hormone-based nutraceuticals, 752 sinusitis adalimumab, 667 etanercept, 668 saxagliptin, 768–769 sixth nerve palsy bevacizumab, 875 Sjögren’s syndrome phenobarbital, 143 skeletal defects methotrexate, 833 skeletal fluorosis brewed tea, 905 skin cancers tacrolimus, 706 skin disease corn starch, 902 propylthiouracil, 755 skin disorders dronedarone, 338–339 peginterferon, 510–511 ribavirin, 510–511 telaprevir, 510–511 terbinafine, 483 skin eruptions adalimumab, 669 cetuximab, 673 etanercept, 671 skin graft complications lymphazurin, 909–910 methylthioninium chloride (methylene blue), 909–910 skin induration poly-L-lactic acid, 277 Index of adverse effects and adverse reactions skin infection adalimumab, 666–667 etanercept, 666–667 infliximab, 666–667 TNF-alfa antagonists, 666–667 skin lesions arsenic, 400 bleomycin, 842–843 cocaine + levamisole, 58, 59, 60 methotrexate, 829 minocycline, 456 tetracycline, 456 torezolid, 473 skin necrosis cocaine + levamisole, 566 heparin, 618 skin reactions antituberculosis drugs, 554 benznidazole, 565 ciprofloxacin, 465 leflunomide, 703–704 methotrexate, 834 nicotine, 910 trastuzumab, 680, 681 skin tumors rituximab, 680 sleep attacks piribedil, 263, 264f rotigotine, 265 sleep disorders see also insomnia cobalamins (vitamin B12), 607 factor VIII, 594 methylphenidate, montelukast, 321 piribedil, 263 von Willebrand factor, 594 sleep disturbances cyclobenzaprine, 248 diamorphine (heroin), 175 methylenedioxymetamfetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), 68 oseltamivir, 528, 529 pregabalin, 79 tacrolimus, 706 zaleplon, 79 zolpidem, 79 sleepiness antihistamines, 295, 296t piribedil, 263 sleeplessness metronidazole, 635 slurred speech see speech difficulty small bowel angioedema water-soluble intravascular iodinated contrast agents, 864 small bowel enteropathy meloxicam, 201–202 small bowel obstruction gelatin, 588, 905 small for gestational age vitamin C (ascorbic acid), 609 zolpidem, 80 sneezing lactulose, 645 somatization levetiracetam, 140–141 somatostatinomas pegvisomant, 792 somnambulism gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (sodium oxybate), 69 somnolence alprazolam, 76 antidepressants, 27 atomoxetine, baclofen, 247 bilastine, 297, 298 cetirizine, 297, 298 clobazam, 136 iloperidone, 107–108 lacosamide, 138 levocetirizine, 297 methotrexate, 824 pasireotide, 796 perampanel, 142 piribedil, 263 pregabalin, 145 ramelteon, 82 retigabine (ezogabine), 146 rilpivirine, 521–522 rotigotine, 264, 265 rupatadine, 298 tetrabenazine, 249 ziprasidone, 115 zonisamide, 154 spatial attention, impaired bromazepam, 76–77 spatial recall impairment methylenedioxymetamfetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), 68 speech difficulty dextromethorphan, 174 paliperidone, 111 retigabine (ezogabine), 146 speech latency cocaine, 66 spinal cord infarction hydrochlorothiazide, 361 sildenafil, 361 spinal epidural hematoma rivaroxaban, 620 warfarin, 617–618 spinal fusion ketorolac, 200–201 spinal myoclonus bupivacaine, 237 Index of adverse effects and adverse reactions splenomegaly phenytoin, 144 spongiform leukoencephalopathy fentanyl, 176 spongiosis doxycycline, 455 levofloxacin, 465 spontaneous abortion formaldehyde, 437 interferon beta-1a, 665 rubella vaccine, 576 spontaneous erections piribedil, 263 spontaneous miscarriages candesartan, 370–371 clindamycin, 469 ST segment changes adenosine, 330 bupivacaine, 238 clozapine, 100 diltiazem, 354–355 dobutamine, 257 indapamide, 389, 389f ketamine, 223 khat, 69–70 levothyroxine, 751 liposomal amphotericin (LAmB), 484 methadone, 172 metoclopramide, 634 opioids, 172 triapine, 426 zolmitriptan, 360 status epilepticus see also nonconvulsive status epilepticus antacids, 633 diphenhydramine, 302 isoniazid, 558 ketamine, 223 lamotrigine, 140 theophylline, 10 stent thrombosis clopidogrel, 623, 624 epoetin alfa, 595 heparin, 618 protamine, 625 Stevens–Johnson syndrome acetazolamide, 387 adefovir, 508 allopurinol, 208 carbamazepine, 135 doxycycline, 454 lamotrigine, 139 levofloxacin, 465–466 methotrexate, 829–830, 834 peginterferon, 510–511 phenytoin, 144 ribavirin, 510–511 strontium salts, 410 sulfasalazine, 648 telaprevir, 510–511 stillbirth rubella vaccine, 576 stinging alcaftadine, 296–297 benzydamine (benzindamine), 207 stomach pain azathioprine, 709 praziquantel, 566 soybean, 612 telaprevir, 510, 511 stomatitis cetuximab, 673–674 chlorhexidine, 438 everolimus, 701, 702–703 methotrexate, 825–826 strabismus hyaluronidase, 908 streptococcal infection etanercept, 668 streptococcal pharyngitis etanercept, 668 stress cardiomyopathy see takotsubo cardiomyopathy stridor brachial plexus block, 233 formaldehyde, 436 ondansetron, 636 stroke bevacizumab, 874, 875 calcium salts, 401, 610 chiropractic, 895 darbepoetin alfa, 595 diclofenac, 201 dronedarone, 339 epoetin alfa, 595 erythropoietin, 595 ethinylestradiol, 734 flecainide, 340 hormone replacement therapy (HRT), 733 hydralazine, 379 irbesartan, 371 khat, 69–70 mercury, 407–408 mirtazapine + venlafaxine, 27 propylthiouracil, 755 ranibizumab, 877 rofecoxib, 201 selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, 30 sodium tetradecyl sulfate, 913 tamoxifen, 736 toremifene, 736 triapine, 426 vitamin D, 610 stromal haze formaldehyde, 436 stromal thickness increase brimonidine, 879 subarachnoid hemorrhage acupuncture, 894–895 1037 subconjunctival hemorrhage bevacizumab, 873, 875 pegaptanib, 873 ranibizumab, 873 triamcinolone, 873 subcutaneous tissue disorders terbinafine, 483 subdural hematoma ranibizumab, 877–878 submacular hemorrhage bevacizumab, 875 subretinal hemorrhage bevacizumab, 875, 876 ranibizumab, 878 sudden cardiac death aflibercept, 874 antidepressants, 28 domperidone, 633 lithium, 43 mirtazapine, 28 paroxetine, 28 sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) lamotrigine, 139 SUDEP see sudden unexpected death in epilepsy suicidal ideations acitretin, 282 antidepressants, 28 atomoxetine, boceprevir, 509 ciprofloxacin, 465 clozapine, 104 dipyridamole, 621–622 isotretinoin, 283–287 ketamine, 224 levetiracetam, 140–141 metronidazole, 635 mirtazapine + venlafaxine, 27 montelukast, 321 oxazepam, 621–622 paroxetine, 28 peginterferon, 509 pregabalin, 146 rufinamide, 147 selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, 28 temazepam, 621–622 suicide antituberculosis drugs, 554 hydrocodone, 177 illicit drugs, 61, 62 mefloquine, 498 methylenedioxymetamfetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), 68 montelukast, 320 opioids, 60–61, 62 raltegravir, 527 zafirlukast, 320 zileuton, 320 ziprasidone, 116 1038 supra-renal mycotic aortic aneurysm Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine, 573 supraventricular tachycardia ciprofloxacin, 465 olanzapine, 110–111 sweating aripiprazole, 97 brachial plexus block, 233 Bupleurum dropping pill, 889 Cervus and cucumis polypeptide injection, 890 cetuximab, 673 dextromethorphan, 174 ephedrine, 256 linezolid, 472–473 metronidazole, 500 opioids, 172 pantoprazole, 641 ranitidine, 637 Ropylgallate injection, 890, 891 rupatadine, 299 Sophorae tonkinensis (Leguminosae), 894 tamoxifen, 736 topiramate, 148 toremifene, 736 Sweet’s syndrome azathioprine, 710 propylthiouracil, 755 swelling acupuncture, 895 Datura species (Solanaceae), 893 etanercept, 670 hyaluronic acid, 275 iloprost (PGI2 analogue), 726 poly-L-lactic acid, 277 sodium hypochlorite, 441 voriconazole, 489 symmetric drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) amoxicillin, 453–454 rivastigmine, 17 symmetric polyarthritis rituximab, 678 symptomatic anemia interferon, 663 ribavirin, 663 symptomatic heart failure trastuzumab, 681 syncope bosentan, 375 clindamycin, 469 flecainide, 340 hydroxychloroquine, 498 methadone, 178 Index of adverse effects and adverse reactions paraphenylenediamine, 278 rivastigmine, 16 rupatadine, 299 syndactyly thiamazole, 755 syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) aldesleukin, 665 amiodarone, 334–335 synovitis hyaluronic acid, 276 systemic fibrosis gadodiamide, 869 gadolinium salts, 868, 868f, 868t, 869 systemic inflammation sevelamer, 914 T T cell lymphomas metreleptin, 800 T wave inversion clozapine, 100 methadone, 172 metoclopramide, 634 moxifloxacin, 466 opioids, 172 rupatadine, 299 triapine, 426 zolmitriptan, 360 tachycardia see also specific tachycardias adenosine, 330 amantadine, 529 ceftriaxone, 451, 452 chlorhexidine, 438, 439 clozapine, 100, 102, 104, 106 cocaine, 67–68 diphenhydramine, 301, 302 ephedrine, 256 ethylene oxide, 439 ganciclovir, 505 iloperidone, 107–108 linezolid, 472 mescaline, 70–71 methadone, 172, 177–178 metoclopramide, 634 minoxidil, 379 misoprostol (PGE1 analogue), 727 olanzapine, 110–111 paliperidone, 112 pantoprazole, 641 papaverine, 183 phenylephrine, 257 phenytoin, 144–145 propofol, 439 rocuronium, 245 Ropylgallate injection, 891 sevoflurane, 219 sibutramine, 12 zotepine, 116 tachydysrhythmias milrinone, 330 tachypnea carbamazepine, 136 linezolid, 472 sultiame, 147 trichloroethylene, 220 Xuesaitong tablet/injection, 891 TACO see transfusionassociated circulatory overload tacrolimus toxicity, 705–706 tactile function impairments arsenic, 407 TA-GVHD see transfusionassociated graft-versus-host disease takotsubo cardiomyopathy adrenaline (epinephrine), 255, 256, 256f beta2-adrenoceptor agonists, 315 catecholamines, 171 cocaine, 171 dobutamine, 257–258 flecainide, 340–341 opioids, 171–173 orciprenaline (metaproterenol), 255 propranolol, 352 terlipressin, 798 tardive dyskinesia antipsychotic drugs, 90–91, 95–96 aripiprazole, 97 domperidone, 634 metoclopramide, 634–635 olanzapine, 90–91 paliperidone, 112 quetiapine, 113 risperidone, 90–91, 114 tardive dysphoria antidepressants, 29 tardive oromandibular dystonia sulpiride, 115 tardive Tourette’s syndrome paliperidone, 112 taste disturbance amoxicillin, 642 azelastine, 303 bepotastine, 297 clarithromycin, 642 lansoprazole, 642 levofloxacin, 642 moxifloxacin, 642 olopatadine, 303 omeprazole, 642 rifaximin, 642 tetracycline, 642 Index of adverse effects and adverse reactions teeth discoloration ciprofloxacin, 465 khat, 70 telangiectasiae trastuzumab, 680 temperature see hyperthermia; hypothermia tendinopathies levofloxacin, 466 moxifloxacin, 466 tenosynovial abnormalities anastrozole, 735 aromatase inhibitors, 735 exemestane, 735 letrozole, 735 teratogenicity allopurinol, 208 antidepressants, 29, 30, 95 antiepileptic drugs, 133–135 antipsychotic drugs, 95 atovaquone, 499 beta2-adrenoceptor agonists, 316–317 brimonidine, 879 candesartan, 370–371 carbimazole, 755 deferasirox, 422 efavirenz (EFV), 520 finasteride, 740–741 formaldehyde, 437 interferon beta-1a, 665 lead, 405–406 liraglutide, 775 lithium, 45 long-acting beta2adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs), 316–317 methimazole, 755 methotrexate, 832–833 misoprostol (PGE1 analogue), 726 mycophenolate mofetil, 705 natalizumab, 677 nicotine, 911 opioids, 173 proguanil, 499 propylthiouracil, 755–756 proton pump inhibitors, 638–639 rituximab, 680 thiamazole, 755 zaleplon, 79 zolpidem, 79 zopiclone, 79 testicular Leydig cell hyperplasia finasteride, 741 thirst sodium phosphate, 645–646 tolvaptan, 797 throat closure polyethylene glycol, 646 throat constriction ranitidine, 637 throat soreness clozapine, 100 cocaine + levamisole, 59 nicotine, 910 Sophorae tonkinensis (Leguminosae), 894 thrombocytopenia abciximab, 622 azathioprine, 709–710 boceprevir, 508, 509 bortezomib, 708 bosentan, 375–376 cefepime, 449 daptomycin, 474 deferasirox, 421, 424 deferiprone, 423, 424 epoetin-beta, 595 everolimus, 702–703 famotidine, 637 flurbiprofen, 839 gemcitabine, 427 heparin, 618, 619, 619f interferon beta, 665 levofloxacin, 465, 467 linezolid, 472 methotrexate, 825, 836, 839, 840 olanzapine, 110–111 peginterferon, 508, 510–511, 663 piperacillin, 467 pristinamycin, 840 prothrombin complex concentrate, 593 pyrimethamine, 498 ribavirin, 508, 510–511, 663 ritonavir, 524 sirolimus (rapamycin), 705 tacrolimus, 706 tazobactam, 467 teicoplanin, 467 telaprevir, 510–511 temsirolimus, 708 trastuzumab, 681 triapine, 425–426, 427 valganciclovir, 505, 506 valproate, 152 vancomycin, 467 zidovudine, 505 thrombocytopenic purpura measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, 575 oxcarbazepine, 141 strontium salts, 410 thromboembolic events see also deep vein thrombosis; pulmonary embolism; venous thromboembolism bromperidol, 86 butyrophenones, 87–88 1039 chlorpromazine, 86 clozapine, 86, 87 erythropoietin, 594–595 intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), 588–589, 590–591 levomepromazine, 86 olanzapine, 87 paroxetine, 87 propericiazine, 86 prothrombin complex concentrate, 593 ranibizumab, 877–878 risperidone, 86, 87 sertindole, 87 zotepine, 87 zuclopenthixol, 87 thromboembolism prothrombin complex concentrate, 593 thrombophilia desmopressin, 798 thrombophlebitis amiodarone, 336 aprepitant, 636 fosaprepitant, 636 thrombosis see also aortic thrombosis; arterial thrombosis; cerebral venous thrombosis; deep vein thrombosis; femoral artery thrombosis; microvascular thrombosis; postoperative thrombosis; retinal artery thrombosis; stent thrombosis; valve thrombosis; venous thrombosis C1 esterase inhibitor, 587 ethinylestradiol, 734 factor VIIa, 592 gestodene, 734 hormonal contraceptives, 734 intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), 589 prothrombin complex concentrate, 593 thrombotic events C1 esterase inhibitor, 586 fresh frozen plasma, 587 prothrombin complex concentrate, 593–594 testosterone, 739 thrombotic stroke hormonal contraceptives, 734 thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura clopidogrel, 623 desmopressin, 798 micafungin, 490–491 thrombovascular events erythropoietin, 594–595 1040 thyroid cancer exenatide, 771, 772, 773 incretin mimetics, 771 linagliptin, 773 liraglutide, 771, 772, 773 131 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), 753 radioactive iodide, 753 saxagliptin, 773 sitagliptin, 772, 773 thyroid dysfunction amiodarone, 336 peginterferon, 662 peginterferon alfa, 514 ribavirin, 514, 662 thyroid function, abnormal quetiapine, 150 valproate, 150 thyroid gland calcification 131 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), 753 radioactive iodide, 753 thyroid hormone concentrations triclosan, 440 valproate, 150 thyroiditis interferon alfa, 662 natalizumab, 676 peginterferon alfa, 514, 662 ribavirin, 514, 662 thyrotoxic effects eprotirome, 750–751 thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis thyroid hormone-based nutraceuticals, 752 thyrotoxicosis lithium, 44 metformin, 767 water-soluble intravascular iodinated contrast agents, 863 tinnitus acetazolamide, 387 acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), 204 Ropylgallate injection, 891 tissue damage arginine, 611 Tjalma syndrome see pseudopseudo Meig’s syndrome tongue, aphthous lesions amoxicillin, 642 clarithromycin, 642 lansoprazole, 642 metronidazole, 642 tetracycline, 642 tongue, black discoloration linezolid, 473 tongue fasciculation ropivacaine, 234 Index of adverse effects and adverse reactions tongue hyperpigmentation peginterferon alfa, 514 peginterferon alfa-2b, 663 ribavirin, 514 tongue swelling ondansetron, 636 oseltamivir, 529 tonic–clonic seizures diphenhydramine, 302 flecainide, 341 insulin, 763 lidocaine, 238 octreotide, 795 ondansetron, 636 peginterferon alfa-2b, 660 phenytoin, 145 ribavirin, 513, 660 valproate, 153 torsade de pointes adenosine, 330 amiodarone, 332–333, 336, 337 amisulpride, 96 bepridil, 337 disopyramide, 338 dofetilide, 338 haloperidol, 86 lansoprazole, 640 methadone, 178, 179f moxifloxacin, 466 olanzapine, 86 propofol, 225 quetiapine, 86 rupatadine, 299 voriconazole, 486 water-soluble intravascular iodinated contrast agents, 863 total anomalous pulmonary venous return carbamazepine, 133 toxic epidermal necrolysis allopurinol, 208 carbamazepine, 135 furosemide, 391 lamotrigine, 139 methotrexate, 829 ticlopidine, 624 vancomycin, 468 toxic megacolon granisetron, 635 toxicity incidence benzaldehyde, 900 benzyl alcohol, 900 bupivacaine, 234, 238 lidocaine, 238 lithium, 41 local anesthesia, 234–235 menaquinone-7, 610–611 ropivacaine, 234, 239 vitamin K analogues, 610–611 trachea cancer pentachlorophenol, 441–442 tracheoesophageal fistula methimazole, 755 thiamazole, 755 traction retinal detachment bevacizumab, 876 TRALI see transfusion-related acute lung injury transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) blood transfusion, 583–584 transfusion-associated dyspnea blood transfusion, 583–584 transfusion-associated graftversus-host disease (TA-GVHD) blood transfusion, 583–584 erythrocytes, 585 platelets, 585–586 transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) blood transfusion, 583–584 fresh frozen plasma, 587 transient fungemia glucocorticoids, inhaled, 309 transient ischemic attacks acetazolamide, 387 bevacizumab, 874–875 mirtazapine+venlafaxine, 27 ranibizumab, 877 tafamidis, 749 tolvaptan, 797 transient neutropenia intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), 588–589 transient third nerve palsy hyaluronidase, 908 transthyretin amyloidosis treatment, 747–750, 748f transurethral resection syndrome glycine, 906 transverse limb defects misoprostol (PGE1 analogue), 727 transverse myelitis anakinra, 665–666 leflunomide, 665–666 methotrexate, 665–666 tremor amantadine, 529 arsenic, 407 Bupleurum dropping pill, 889 dextromethorphan, 174 halothane, 218 hydromorphone, 177 lamotrigine, 140 lead, 404 linezolid, 472–473 mercury, 408 misoprostol (PGE1 analogue), 727 Index of adverse effects and adverse reactions paliperidone, 111 peginterferon alfa-2b, 512–513, 660 pregabalin, 145 retigabine (ezogabine), 146 ribavirin, 512–513, 660 tacrolimus, 706 valganciclovir, 506 trichomegaly cetuximab, 674 erlotinib, 674 gefitinib, 674 panitumumab, 674 travoprost, 727 trigonocephaly valproate, 134 trismus hyaluronidase, 907 pregabalin, 145–146 tuberculosis antimony, 398 glucocorticoids, inhaled, 313, 314 stem cells, 598 TNF-alfa antagonists, 666, 668 tubular function reduction tenofovir, 518 tubular necrosis imiquimod, 531 tumor lysis syndrome bleomycin, 842 methotrexate, 831 tumor progression erythropoietin, 594–595 tumorigenicity arsenic, 399 azathioprine, 700 beryllium, 400 calcitonin, 789 cardiac glycosides, 327–328 chromium, 401–402 ciclosporin, 700 coal tar, 273 cyclophosphamide, 701 dapagliflozin, 778 dibenzofuran, 441–442 etanercept, 671 ethylene oxide, 439 finasteride, 741 formaldehyde, 435, 437 gabapentin, 137 golimumab, 672 incretin mimetics, 771 insulin, 765 131 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), 753 metformin, 767–768 methadone, 179–180 methotrexate, 831 metreleptin, 800 natalizumab, 677 nicotine, 911 pegvisomant, 792 pentachlorophenol, 441–442 polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxin, 441–442 proton pump inhibitors, 640 radioactive iodide, 753 rituximab, 679–680 somatropin (human growth hormone, hGH), 791 tacrolimus, 700 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, 441–442 trichloroethylene, 220 type II hypersensitivity IgMmediated reaction cocaine + levamisole, 59 U ulcer bleeding acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), 206 ulceration antimony, 398–399 benzocaine, 237 cocaine + levamisole, 58, 59 methotrexate, 825–826, 829, 839 nicorandil, 353 phenylbutazone, 839 temsirolimus, 708 ulcerative colitis etanercept, 671 interferon, 664 rituximab, 678 unilateral facial nerve palsy peginterferon, 513, 660 ribavirin, 513, 660 unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney valproate, 134 universal microtia allopurinol, 208 unstable angina dabigatran, 620 uremia triapine, 426 urinary bladder problems antidepressants, 27 urinary bladder rupture codeine, 174 urinary calculi topiramate, 148 urinary frequency, increased famciclovir, 507 tolvaptan, 797 urinary hesitancy buprenorphine, 185 naloxone, 185 urinary incontinence lasofoxifene, 736 octreotide, 795 1041 opioids, 173 paliperidone, 111 urinary protein excretion everolimus, 702 urinary retention anticholinergic drugs, 318–319 diphenhydramine, 301 fumaric acid esters, 275 morphine, 181 retigabine (ezogabine), 146 tafamidis, 749 urinary sepsis etanercept, 667 urinary tract cancers cyclophosphamide, 700–701 urinary tract infections adalimumab, 667 aprepitant, 636 azilsartan, 370 dapagliflozin, 778 glipizide, 778 saxagliptin, 768–769 sirolimus (rapamycin), 705 tacrolimus, 706 tafamidis, 748–749 valganciclovir, 506 urinary urgency oseltamivir, 528 urine color changes propofol, 226 urolithiasis atazanavir, 523 topiramate, 148 urological infections adalimumab, 666–667 etanercept, 666–667 infliximab, 666–667 TNF-alfa antagonists, 666–667 urticaria acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), 202, 204, 205, 206, 207 amoxicillin, 452–453 ampicillin, 452–453 antihistamines, 295 articaine, 236 azelastine, 295 aztreonam, 452–453 bacampicillin, 452–453 bepotastine, 295 Bupleurum dropping pill, 889 chlorphenamine, 295 corn starch, 902 diphencyprone, 277 etanercept, 670 factor IX, 593 fexofenadine, 295 folate, 608 formaldehyde, 436 fosfomycin, 475 fresh frozen plasma, 587 infliximab, 666 1042 interferon beta-1a, 665 intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), 590 lansoprazole, 639–640 lixisenatide, 775–776 loratadine, 295 mequitazine, 295 natalizumab, 676 ondansetron, 636 platelets, 585–586 polyethylene glycol, 646 yellow fever vaccine, 577–578 urticaria pigmentosa etanercept, 670 uterine contractile abnormality dinoprostone (PGE2), 727 misoprostol (PGE1 analogue), 727 uterine infarction povidone-iodine, 441 uterine rupture misoprostol (PGE1 analogue), 726 uveitis aflibercept, 874 alendronate, 900–901 bevacizumab, 873 bisphosphonates, 900–901 Euphorbia species (Euphorbiaceae), 893–894 ranibizumab, 873, 878 zoledronate, 900–901 V vaccinia smallpox vaccine, 577 vacuum extractions metformin, 768 vaginal bleeding lasofoxifene, 736 mifepristone, 738 ranibizumab, 877–878 vaginal burning boric acid, 438–439 buconazole, 438–439 clotrimazole, 438–439 fluconazole, 438–439 flucytosine, 438–439 itraconazole, 438–439 ketoconazole, 438–439 miconazole, 438–439 nystatin, 438–439 terconazole, 438–439 vaginal erythema boric acid, 438–439 buconazole, 438–439 clotrimazole, 438–439 fluconazole, 438–439 flucytosine, 438–439 itraconazole, 438–439 ketoconazole, 438–439 miconazole, 438–439 Index of adverse effects and adverse reactions nystatin, 438–439 terconazole, 438–439 valve regurgitation bromocriptine, 261 cabergoline, 261 valve thrombosis heparin, 618 valvular heart disease fenfluramine, variant angina bupivacaine, 238 variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) blood transfusion, 597 variegate porphyria propafenone, 342 vascular adverse effects bevacizumab, 874–875 hormone replacement therapy (HRT), 732 vascular calcification iron salts, 402 vasculitis cocaine + levamisole, 57–59, 566 human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine, 574 methotrexate, 831 minocycline, 455–456 propylthiouracil, 755 vasculopathy cocaine + levamisole, 566 vasoconstriction dental anesthesia, 234 vasodilatation albumin, 583 chlorhexidine, 438 vasospasm cocaine, 66 vasospastic angina diltiazem, 354–355 vCJD see variant CreutzfeldtJakob disease venous gas embolism sodium tetradecyl sulfate, 913 venous thromboembolism antipsychotic drugs, 88–89, 91f bevacizumab, 875 clozapine, 87, 88, 89 desogestrol, 733 drospirenone, 733 estradiol, 733 estrogens, 733 ethinylestradiol, 733 factor VIIa, 592 gestodene, 733 hormonal contraceptives, 733–734 levonorgestrel, 733–734 nomegestrol, 733 olanzapine, 88, 89 progestogens, 733, 734 prothrombin complex concentrate, 593 quetiapine, 88–89 risperidone, 88 strontium salts, 410 venous thrombosis chlorpromazine, 90 factor VIIa, 592 ventilatory depression propofol, 225 remifentanil, 225 ventricular bigeminy adrenaline (epinephrine), 255 esomeprazole, 484 lansoprazole, 640 voriconazole, 484, 486 ventricular dysrhythmias ajmaline, 332 cardiac glycosides, 327 flecainide, 340 khat, 69–70 lamotrigine, 140 methotrexate, 822 ventricular failure hydroxychloroquine, 495 ventricular fibrillation ajmaline, 332 amiodarone, 332–333 cardiac glycosides, 327 diltiazem, 354–355 lamotrigine, 140 oxcarbazepine, 141 ventricular hemorrhage diosmin, 360 ventricular hypertrophy hydroxychloroquine, 495 ventricular outflow tract lamotrigine, 138 paroxetine, 29 ventricular septal defects fluoxetine, 29 ventricular systolic dysfunction desflurane, 217–218 trastuzumab, 680 ventricular tachycardia amiodarone, 332–333 cardiac glycosides, 327 flecainide, 340, 341 methadone, 177–178 sertraline, 28 voriconazole, 486 ventricular trigeminy voriconazole, 486 verbal memory impairment clozapine, 103–104 vertical fractures sodium hypochlorite, 440 vertigo benznidazole, 565 morphine, 181 oseltamivir, 528 Index of adverse effects and adverse reactions pasireotide, 796 pregabalin, 145 retigabine (ezogabine), 146 rilpivirine, 521–522 Ropylgallate injection, 890 vesicular lesions ranitidine, 637 vesicular rashes diphtheria–pertussis vaccines, 573 varicella vaccine, 577 vesiculobullous eruption lidocaine, 239 simvastatin, 814 tetracaine, 239 vessel damage C1 esterase inhibitor, 586 viral cystitis foscarnet, 504 viral infection blood transfusion, 583–584, 596–597 etanercept, 668 measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, 575–576 methotrexate, 831 rituximab, 679 stem cells, 598 viral pneumonia etanercept, 668 viral resistance dolutegravir, 526 raltegravir, 526 visceral malformations warfarin, 617 viscerotropic disease yellow fever vaccine, 577–578 vision disturbances adenosine, 330–331 bevacizumab, 875 brinzolamide, 388 cabergoline, 263 deferoxamine, 423 hydrochlorothiazide, 388 hydroxychloroquine, 496 interferon alfa, 661 latanoprost, 388 leflunomide, 704 methotrexate, 825 metoprolol, 352 moxifloxacin, 466 peginterferon, 513 pregabalin, 145 ribavirin, 513, 661 Ropylgallate injection, 891 sodium tetradecyl sulfate, 913 tadalafil, 361 topiramate, 148 visual impairment acupuncture, 884 amantadine, 529–530 ethambutol, 557 isoniazid, 557 pyrazinamide, 557 ranibizumab, 878–879 rifampicin, 557 visual loss bevacizumab, 875 ethambutol, 556 Euphorbia species (Euphorbiaceae), 893–894 hydroxychloroquine, 496–497 isoniazid, 556 metformin, 767 peginterferon alfa, 513, 661 ribavirin, 513 rifampicin, 556 tacrolimus, 706 topiramate, 148 vigabatrin, 154, 155f visuospatial working memory impairment clozapine, 91–92 methylenedioxymetamfetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), 68 olanzapine, 91–92 vitamin B12 reduction levodopa, 260 vitiligo diphencyprone, 277 infliximab, 672 vitreous detachment bevacizumab, 875 vitreous floaters aflibercept, 874 vitreous hemorrhage bevacizumab, 876 dexamethasone, 882 ranibizumab, 878–879 vitritis bevacizumab, 875 ranibizumab, 878 Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada disease peginterferon alfa-2b, 664 ribavirin, 664 volume overload fresh frozen plasma, 587 vomiting see also cyclic vomiting syndrome albendazole, 565 amiodarone, 336 antacids, 633 antimony, 398–399 azathioprine, 710 azithromycin, 469, 470 bismuth subcitrate, 642 bosentan, 375–376 C1 esterase inhibitor, 586 cabergoline, 263 cardiac glycosides, 327 ceftriaxone, 500 1043 cetuximab, 673 chloral hydrate, 81 cilostazol, 359 cocaine, 66 codeine, 322 colchicine, 208 Colchicum autumnale (Colchicaceae), 893 deferiprone, 422 doxycycline, 455 dronedarone, 338–339 etomidate, 221 everolimus, 702 foscarnet, 504 fosfomycin, 475 fusidic acid, 475 gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (sodium oxybate), 69 glaucine, 322 glycine, 611 imatinib, 702 imiquimod, 531 incretin mimetics, 770, 770f intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), 588–589 isoniazid, 558 ketamine, 224 ketofol, 223 lanreotide, 795 lansoprazole, 642 levetiracetam, 141 mefloquine, 498 mercury, 408 mescaline, 70–71 metformin, 767 methotrexate, 825, 836 metoclopramide, 634 metreleptin, 799 metronidazole, 500, 642 micafungin, 490 midazolam, 78 moxibustion, 896 moxifloxacin, 642 mucolytic drugs, 321–322 mycophenolate mofetil, 704 naltrexone, 186–187 niacin + statin, 809 nicotine, 910 octreotide, 795 omeprazole, 641 opioids, 172–173 oritavancin, 466–467 pantoprazole, 642 paraphenylenediamine, 278 peginterferon, 511 pentacyclic triterpene derivatives, 893 pentoxifylline, 359–360 pethidine, 183 piribedil, 263 polyethylene glycol, 644 pramlintide, 766–767 proton pump inhibitors, 639 1044 recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH), 750 ribavirin, 511 rotigotine, 264 saxagliptin, 768–769 sodium hypochlorite, 441 sodium phosphate, 644 Sophorae tonkinensis (Leguminosae), 894 subcutaneous immunoglobulin, 591 tacrolimus, 706 tafamidis, 748–749 telaprevir, 511 tetracycline, 642 thiopental sodium, 221 tobramycin, 464 torezolid, 473 triapine, 426, 427 valsartan, 372 zidovudine, 505 ziprasidone, 116 W waist circumference reduction baclofen, 247 warts tacrolimus, 706 water loss chlorhexidine, 438 watery discharge boric acid, 438–439 buconazole, 438–439 clotrimazole, 438–439 fluconazole, 438–439 flucytosine, 438–439 itraconazole, 438–439 ketoconazole, 438–439 miconazole, 438–439 nystatin, 438–439 terconazole, 438–439 weakness see also arm weakness; facial weakness; leg weakness acetazolamide, 387 acupuncture, 895 cetirizine, 300 cidofovir, 503 clarithromycin, 470 colesevelam, 810 dantrolene sodium, 248–249 diphenhydramine, 302 indapamide, 389f insulin, 763 Index of adverse effects and adverse reactions leuprolide, 790 melatonin, 793 methotrexate, 821–822 oseltamivir, 528 peginterferon, 511 platelets, 585–586 pregabalin, 145 propafenone, 342 retigabine (ezogabine), 146 ribavirin, 511 rilpivirine, 521–522 sodium phosphate, 645–646 tacrolimus, 706 tamoxifen, 736 telaprevir, 511 toremifene, 736 triapine, 425–426, 427 weight gain aleglitazar, 780 ambrisentan, 374 amisulpride, 85 aripiprazole, 85–86, 93, 109, 109t clozapine, 85, 93 deferiprone, 424 deferoxamine, 424 enfuvirtide, 525 insulin, 764 metreleptin, 799 mirtazapine, 34 nomegestrol acetate, 737–738 olanzapine, 85–86, 92–93, 108–109, 109t paliperidone, 111 perampanel, 142 quetiapine, 85–86, 93, 113–114 risperidone, 85–86, 92–93, 109, 109t sertindole, 85 thioxanthenes, 92–93 valproate, 151 ziprasidone, 93, 109, 109t, 115 weight loss atomoxetine, baclofen, 247 cetuximab, 673 dapagliflozin, 777 incretin mimetics, 775 liraglutide, 775 methotrexate, 825 methylphenidate, metreleptin, 799 peginterferon alfa, 513, 660 proton pump inhibitors, 640 ribavirin, 513, 660 topiramate, 148 wheezing aztreonam, 453 brinzolamide, 388 cetuximab, 673 folate, 608 formaldehyde, 435–436 fosfomycin, 475 intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), 588–589 lactulose, 645 latanoprost, 388 minocycline, 455 ondansetron, 636 paracetamol (acetaminophen), 197–198 propafenone, 342 tobramycin, 464 white blood cell count see agranulocytosis; leukopenia wound complications bone morphogenetic proteins, 659 enteral nutritional, 611 fibrin glue, 904–905 levothyroxine, 751 wound dehiscence levothyroxine, 751 silicone, 914 wrist synovitis interferon beta-1a, 665 X xeroderma pantoprazole, 641 xerosis cetuximab, 674 deferasirox, 419 deferoxamine, 419 trastuzumab, 681 xyphosis carbamazepine, 133 Y yawning venlafaxine, 32 ... thyroxine, 24.484 vitamin A and beta-carotene and alcohol, 24.442 vitamin C and deferoxamine, 8.239 vitamin C and deferoxamine, 8.239 warfarin and herbal medicines, 30.400 Management of adverse drug. .. mining in drug safety UK USA Drug withdrawals because of adverse effects MedDRA®: the Tale of a Terminology Australia Norway UK Regulating complementary and alternative medicines Third-generation... Third-generation oral contraceptives: time to look again? An agenda for research into adverse drug reactions xxxvii Mechanistic and clinical descriptions of adverse drug reactions Adverse drug reactions are
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