Mealybugs and their management in agricultural and horticultural crops

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M. Mani · C. Shivaraju Editors Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural and Horticultural crops Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural and Horticultural crops M Mani • C Shivaraju Editors Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural and Horticultural crops Editors M Mani Indian Institute of Horticultural Research Bangalore, India C Shivaraju Indian Institute of Horticultural Research Bangalore, India ISBN 978-81-322-2675-8 ISBN 978-81-322-2677-2 DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-2677-2 (eBook) Library of Congress Control Number: 2016930104 Springer New Delhi Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London © Springer India 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Printed on acid-free paper Springer (India) Pvt Ltd Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer com) Dedicated to my wife Vijayarani who was involved with the work on mealybugs She had helped me to carryout extensive surveys for mealybugs in different crops in India She has also played a major role in finalising the draft on Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural and Horticultural crops Foreword Crop protection in the present day is as important as crop production Pests have plagued mankind from the beginning and will continue to vex the people and thwart all their endeavors to the end Mealybugs are sap-sucking insects named for the powdery secretions covering the bodies Mealybugs are softbodied insects covered with waxy coating They are sessile insects They are phloem feeders and suck the sap from all plant parts and also transmit some plant disease thus causing serious economic losses to economically important crop plants Many of the mealybugs are arboreal and some are subterranean feeding on the roots They are windblown, and the spreading of mealybugs is facilitated by wind Within days of hatching, they are also covered by waxy coating making them hard to get killed with chemicals Hence they are called as “hard to kill insects” Mealybugs mostly live in protected habitats They are found in cracks, crevices inside the fruit clusters, lower surface of the leaves, etc Since they live in concealed plant parts, the chemicals will not reach the target pests making chemical control ineffective Many a time, mealybugs become abundant in the fruiting phase of the plants Several applications of insecticides are needed for mealybug control Thus frequent application of insecticides for mealybug control leads to residue problem on the fruits, making unfit for export and hazardous to domestic market This book covers all the basic and applied aspects of the mealybug species ultimately useful to implement the integrated mealybug management in different agricultural crops The book covers the information on identification of the mealybugs, morphology, cytogenetics, taxonomy, molecular characterization for identification, biology, damage, mealybugs as vectors, seasonal development, natural enemies, culturing of mealybugs, ant association, control measures, insecticide resistance and mealybug management in different crops This book on Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural and Horticultural crops is first of its kind since there is no comprehensive book covering all aspects of mealybug available in the world This will serve as a guide for crop growers, state goverment officials and other stake holders industry, besides researchers and students engaged in mealybug research and development activities Indian Council of Agricultural Research New Delhi 12, India, July, 2014 N.K Krishna Kumar vii Preface Mealybugs throughout the world cause a variety of economic problems The most obvious damage is caused by the sucking habits of these insects Heavy infestations often cause stunting or death to the plant host At times, mealybugs have toxins and act as vectors of certain viruses detrimental to plant life Information on morphology, cytogenetics, taxonomy, molecular characterization for identification, morphology, biology, damage, mealybugs as vectors, seasonal development, natural enemies, culturing of mealybugs, ant association, control measures, insecticide resistance etc are covered in this book It also deals with the all the mealybug management practices, which include monitoring of mealybugs, use of pheromones, cultural practices, chemical control and biological suppression available in the world We tried to accommodate almost all the important information generated on the mealybugs up to 2014 A complete list of mealybug occurring in different crop growing regions of the world is also covered in this book, which will be ready reckoner for the crops We sincerely hope that this book will provide useful information to many entomologists and students working on mealybugs It is a pleasure to thank all those people who gave help, suggestions and encouragement in the preparation of our book Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural and Horticultural crops Bangalore, Karnataka, India M Mani C Shivaraju ix 640 fact that the root mealybug females and nymphs are wingless and must crawl to potted plants to become established The procedure is expected to permanently eradicate rather than simply control these pests References Abraham V, Ajith CB, Priyamol S (2000) Krishiyankanam, (4): 5–6 Nair, M.R.G.K., Visalakshi, A and Koshy, G 1980 A new root infesting mealybug of coconut Entomon 5: 245–246 Addis T, Azerefegne F, Blomme G (2008) Density and distribution of enset root mealybugs on enset Afr Crop Sci J 16(1):67–74 Addis T, Azerefegne F, Alemu T, Lemawork S, Tadesse E, Gemu M, Blomme G (2010) Biology, geographical distribution, prevention and control of enset root mealybug, Cataenococcus ensete (Homoptera:Pseudococcidae) in Ethiopia (Special Issue: Bananas, Plantains and ensete II.) Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology 4(1):39–46 Alves VS, Moino Junior A, Santa-Cecilia LVC, Rohde C, da Silva MAT (2009) Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 53(1):139–143 Anonymous (2011) Directory of concluded projects (1943 – 2010) Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Berhampore, 226p Bekele T (2001) Insecticidal screening against enset root mealybug, Paraputo spp Agric Topia 16(2):2–3 Ben-Dov Y (1994) A Systematic Catalogue of the Mealybugs of the World (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidea) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance Intercept Limited, Andover (GB) 686 p Biswas S, Das D, Chattopadhyay S, Das SK, Mondal K (2002) Root mealybug (Paraputo sp.) of mulberry in Darjeeling hills: Its severity, Biology and Control Sericologia 42(1):39–48 Das D, Biswas S, Sarkar S, Das SK, Chakrabarti (2004) Population dynamics of the root mealybug, Paraputo sp on mulberry in the hills of Darjeeling Sericologia 44(1):95–100 Devasahayam S, Abdulla Koya KM, Ananaraj M, Thomas T, Preethi N (2010) Distribution and ecology of root mealybugs associated with black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) in Karnataka and Kerala, India Entomon 34(3):147–154 EU (2000) Council Directive 2000/29/EC of May 2000 on protective Rhizoecus hibisci 367 ©2005 OEPP/ EPPO, Bulletin OEPP/EPPO bulletin 35, pp 365–367 Godfrey LD, Pickel C (1998) Seasonal dynamics and management schemes for a subterranean mealybug, Rhizoecus kondonis Kuwana, pest of alfalfa Southwest Entomol 23(4):343–350 M Mathew and M Mani Green EE (1933) Notes on some Coccoidae from Surinam, Dutch-Guiana, with descriptions ofnew species Stylops J Taxon Entomol 2:49–58 Hamon AB (1982) Rhizoecus arabicus Hambleton, a root mealybug in Florida (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) Entomology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 238, p Hara AH, Nino-DuPonte RY, Jacobsen CM (2001) Root mealybugs ofquarantine significance in Hawaii Cooperative Extension Service, CTAHR, University of Hawaii, Manoa Hata TY, Hara AH, Hu BKS (1996) Use of a systemic insecticide granule against root mealybugs, Hawaii In: Arthropod management tests, Vol 21, p.382 Entomological Society of America, Lanham Hu BKS, Hara AH, Hata TY (1996) Hot water as a potential treatment against root mealybugs, Hawaii, 1995 In: Arthropod Management Tests, Vol 21, pp 382– 383 Entomological Society of America, Lanham Jansen MGM (2003) A new species of Rhizoecus on bonsai trees Tijdschrift voor Entomol 146:297–300 Mathew MP, Beena S, Sowmya KC, Aipe KC (2010) Studies on Paecilomyces lilacinus, an entomopathogen on Root mealy bug of Banana’ in Global conference on banana organized by AIPPUB, ICAR, Bioversity International and NRCB, Trichy, during 10–13 December 2010 Montanucci RR (2010) A safe procedure for eradicating root mealybugs from a cactus collection Cactus Succ J 82(4):184–186 Mukhopadhyay SK, Das D, Santha Kumar MV, Das NK, Mondal K, Bajpai AK (2010) Weather based forewarning of root mealybug, Paraputo sp in mulberry of Kalimpong hills J Plant Protect Sci 2(2):85–87 Muthukrishnan TS, Nagaraja Rao KR, Subramanian TR, Janaki IP, Abraham EV (1958) Brief notes on a few crop pests noted for the first time in Madras Madras Agric J 45:363–364 Nair MRGK, Visalakshi A, Koshy G (1980) A new rootinfesting mealy bug of coconut Entomon 5(3):245–246 OEPP/EPPO (1994) EPPO Standard PM 3/54 Growing plants in growing medium prior to export Bull OEPP/ EPPO Bull 24:326–327 Puttarudriah M, Eswaramurthy (1976) Planococcoides robustus, a mango root mealybug and its control Curr Res 5(12):205–207 Singh TVK, Goud TR, Azam KM (1986) Attack of mealybug, Dysmicoccus breviceps on groundnut Indian J Entomol 48(3):358 Smitha MS, Mathew MP (2010a) Population dynamics of the root mealybugs, Geococcus spp (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting banana in Kerala Entomon 35(3):163–167 Smitha MS, Mathew MP (2010b) Management of root mealybugs, Geococcus spp In banana cv Nendran Pest Manag Hortic Ecosyst 16(2):108–119 69 Root Mealybugs Smitha MS, Mathew MP (2011) In vitro assays on the influence of selected pesticides on the growth parameters of entomopathogen, Hirsutella sp Indian J Entomol 73(4):343–345 Smitha MS, Mathew MP, Thomas J, Ushakumari R, Nair S (2005) Root mealybug, Geococcus citrinus: a to banana cultivation in Kerala Insect Environ 11(3):112–113 Sridhar V, Joshi S, Jhansi Rani B, Kumar R (2012) First Record of the Lantana Mealy bug, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) as a Pest of China Aster, Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees from south India J Hortic Sci 7:108–109 Tadesse E, Azerefegne F, Alemu T, Blomme G, Addis T (2010a) The effect of insecticides against the root mealybug (Cataenococcus ensete) of Ensete ventrico- 641 sum in Southern Ethipia (Special Issue: Bananas, Plantains and ensete II.) Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology 4(2):95–97 Tadesse E, Azerefegne F, Alemu T, Addis T, Blomme G (2010b) Studies on the efficacy of some selected botanicals against ensete root mealybug (Cataenococcus ensete) Williams and Matile-Ferrero (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) (Special Issue: Bananas, Plantains and ensete II.) Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology 4(2):91–94 Ventataramaiah GH, Rehman PA (1989) Ants associated with the mealybugs of coffee Indian Coff 43:13–14 Williams DJ (1985) Hypogeic mealybugs of the genus Rhizoecus (Homoptera: Coccoidea) in India J Nat Hist 19(2):233–241 70 Coffee P.K Vinod Kumar, G.V Manjunath Reddy, H.G Seetharama, and M.M Balakrishnan 70.1 Species Distribution Among the two commercially cultivated coffee varieties, Coffea arabica L (arabica coffee) and C canephora Pierre ex Froehner (robusta coffee), the latter is more prone to attack by mealybugs since this variety is grown in more open conditions and at lower elevations Over 50 species of scales and mealybugs are reported to attack various parts of the coffee tree – roots, branches, leaves, flower clusters and berries where they suck the sap and are of great economic importance (Wrigley 1988) Planococcus kenyae (Le Pelley), popularly known as coffee mealybug, is distributed in Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya (Bigger 2009) The two most commonly encountered mealybugs on coffee in India are Planococcus citri Risso (Coleman and Kannan 1918; Ayyar 1940) and P lilacinus Ckll (Sekhar 1964; Bhat and Shamanna 1972) Ferrisia vir- gata Ckll has also been recorded (Chacko and Bhat 1976) They attack both robusta and arabica but prefer the former Planococcus ficus and P minor have been recorded on coffee as minor pests The mealybugs, P citri and P lilacinus, are distributed throughout the coffee tracts of India and can be noticed quite often during the summer months Planococcus lilacinus is predominantly found in Kodagu district of Karnataka state, while P lilacinus and P citri are found in equal proportion in Wayanad district of Kerala state in India (Abdul Rahiman et al 1995) In Wayanad district of Kerala, the population of P citri was higher in all the zones compared to P lilacinus (Abdul Rahiman and Naik 2009b) For P lilacinus, several collateral hosts have been recorded, which can aid in the survival of the mealybug even if adequate measures are adopted to control them on coffee (Bhat and Shamanna 1972) (Table 70.1) P.K.V Kumar (*) • G.V.M Reddy H.G Seetharama • M.M Balakrishnan Central Coffee Research Institute, Chikmagalur 577117, Karnataka, India e-mail: © Springer India 2016 M Mani, C Shivaraju (eds.), Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural and Horticultural crops, DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-2677-2_70 643 P.K.V Kumar et al 644 Table 70.1 List of mealybugs recorded on coffee from different countries Mealybug species Archeomyrmococcus dolichoderi Williams Benedictycoccina ornata (Hambleton) Region Indonesia Trinidad & Tobago Capitisetella migrans (Green) Cataenococcus sp Coccidella globocula (Hambleton) Coccidohystrix insolita (Green) Crisicoccus hirsutus (Newstead) Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) Surinam India Trinidad & Tobago India India Kenya Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Uganda Colombia, Costa Rica, Federated States of Micronesia, Cuba, Guam, Hawaii, Honduras, Indonesia Madagascar, New Caledonia, Surinam, Zaire Cook Is, Fiji, Tonga Dysmicoccus debregeasiae (Green) Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi) Dysmicoccus lepelleyi (Betrem) Dysmicoccus neobrevipes Beardsley Malaysia, India Papua New Guinea India Brazil Colombia, Costa Rica Indonesia Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala Western Samoa Dysmicoccus nesophilus Williams & Watson Dysmicoccus probrevipes (Morrison) Dysmicoccus radicis (Green) Dysmicoccus subterreus Williams Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley) Farinococcus sp Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) Ferrisia sp Formicococcus greeni (Vayssiere) Formicococcus ireneus (De Lotto) Papua New Guinea Guatemala Brazil, Surinam, Venezuela India Portugal Brazil Ghana Colombia, Ghana, Guatemala, El Salvador Federated States of Micronesia Caroline Is, Fiji, Hawaii, Indonesia, Kenya Madagascar, Malaysia, China New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is, Sudan Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire, Cameroon Vietnam Colombia Madagascar Uganda Reference Williams (2004) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Bigger (2009)a Williams (2004) Bigger (2009) Williams (2004) Williams (2004) Bigger (2009) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Bigger (2009) Williams and Watson (1988) Williams (2004) Williams (1986b) Williams (2004) Culik et al (2006) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Williams (2004) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Williams and Watson (1988) Williams and Watson (1988) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Williams (2004) Alves et al.(2009) Souza et al (2008) Bigger (2009) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Bigger (2009) Williams (2004) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) (continued) 70 645 Coffee Table 70.1 (continued) Mealybug species Formicococcus njalensis (Laing) Geococcus coffeae Green Region Ghana, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone Togo, Zaire China India Costa Rica Hypogeococcus boharti Miller Brazil, Colombia, Surinam El Salvador, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras Mexico Formicococcus robustus (Ezzat & Mc Connell) Maconellicoccus ugandae (Laing) Neochavesia caldasiae (Balachowsky) Neochavesia eversi (Beardsley) Neochavesia trinidadensis (Beardsley) Cameroon India Belize, Indonesia, Tanzania Kenya, Uganda Colombia Colombia Colombia Nipaecoccus coffeae (Hempel) Nipaecoccus filamentosus (Cockerell) Brazil Haiti Nipaecoccus nipae (Maskell) Nipaecoccus pseudofilamentosus Betrem Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead) Nipaecoccus sp Paracoccus burnerae (Brain) Paracoccus cognatus Williams Paraputo sp Paraputo leveri (Green) Phenacoccus hargreavesi (Laing) Planococcus angkorensis (Takahashi) Planococcus angkorensis (Takahashi) Dominican Republic Indonesia Vietnam,India Angola, China, Indonesia Kenya, Madagascar, Malaysia Uganda, S Africa, Tanzania Colombia Ethiopean region India India Papua New Guinea Ethiopean region India Cuba Planococcus citri (Risso) Costa Rica, Honduras Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) Angola, Australia, Brazil Canary Is, China, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic Eritrea, Ghana, Guatemala, Hawaii Indonesia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Peru, Philippines, Sao Tome & Principe, Vietnam, S Africa, Sudan, Uganda Surinam, Taiwan, Tanzania Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Zaire, Zimbabwe Reference Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Williams (2004) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Bigger (2009) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Williams (1986a) Williams (2004) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Bigger (2009) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Williams (2004) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Ben-Dove (1994) Williams (2004) Bigger (2009) Ben-Dove (1994) Ben-Dove (1994) Williams (2004) Williams and MatileFerrero (2009) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Bigger (2009) (continued) 646 P.K.V Kumar et al Table 70.1 (continued) Mealybug species Planococcus minor (Maskell) Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel Pl fungicola Watson & Cox Region India India, Sri Lanka Cuba Pl halli Ezzat & McConnell Cuba Pl radicum Watson & Cox Cuba Planococcus kenyae (Le Pelley) Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda Zaire Cuba Pl kraunhiae (Kuwana) Vietnam Cuba Planococcus lilacinus (Cockerell) Philippines Planococcus minor (Maskell) Indonesia, Reunion, India Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam Argentina, Costa Rica, Brazil, Guatemala Planococcus radicum Watson &Cox Planococcoides irenus Delotto Planococcoides nijalensis (Laing) Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel Fiji, Vanuatu Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia Papua, New Guinea India Australia, Cuba, Federated States of Micronesia, Tonga, Western Samoa Nigeria, Tanzania Uganda, Angola – Sri Lanka, India Western Samoa Paracoccus burnerae (Brain) Paraputo leveri (Green) Brazil, Honduras Neotropical Colombia, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Java, Madagascar Martinique, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Puerto Rico, Reunion Sri Lanka, Vietnam India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka Angola, Kenya Papua New Guinea Paraputo podagrosus (Green) Paraputo sp Phenacoccus hargreavesi (Laing) Phenacoccus madeirensis Green Phenacoccus parvus Morrison Surinam Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras Angola, Tanzania, Uganda Ghana Surinam Pseudococcus landoi (Balachowsky) Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti) Reference Williams (2004) Williams (2004) Williams and MatileFerrero (2009) Williams and MatileFerrero (2009) Williams and MatileFerrero (2009) Bigger (2009) Williams and MatileFerrero (2009) Nguyen Thi et al (2011) Williams and MatileFerrero (2009) Williams and MatileFerrero (2009) Bigger (2009) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Williams (1982) Williams (2004) Williams (1986b) Reddy et al (1990) Bigger (2009) Ben-Dove (1994) Ben-Dove (1994) Ben-Dove (1994) Williams (2004) Williams and Watson (1988) Bigger (2009) Bendove (1994) Bigger (2009) Williams (2004) Bigger (2009) Williams and Watson (1988) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) (continued) 70 647 Coffee Table 70.1 (continued) Mealybug species Planococcus fungicola Watson & Cox Planococcus halli Ezzat & McConnell Region Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda Zaire, Zimbabwe Colombia Guatemala Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana) Planococcus radicum Watson & Cox Planococcus sp Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell) Pseudococcus concavocerarii James Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel Taiwan Nigeria, Tanzania Cuba Indonesia Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda Brazil, Honduras Sri Lanka Western Samoa Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel & Miller Brazil Colombia, Guatemala Trinidad & Tobago Pseudococcus kikuyuensis James Pseudococcus landoi (Balachowsky) Kenya Costa Rica, Guatemala Pseudococcus longispinus Pseudococcus occiduus De Lotto Brazil Cameroon, Ethiopia, Sudan Pseudococcus pseudocitriculus (Betrem) Pseudococcus pseudofilamentosus Betrem Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton Pseudococcus solomonensis Williams Angola, Kenya, Tanzania Uganda, Zaire Indonesia Java Java Colombia Papua, New Guinea Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) Pseudorhizoecus proximus Green Colombia, Ethiopia, Indonesia Ivory Coast, Kenya, Kenya, Sierra Leone, Zaire Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Venezuela St Helena Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala Puto antioquensis (Murillo) Puto barberi (Cockerell) Surinam Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras Colombia, Venezuela Pseudococcus sp Puto lasiorum (Cockerell) Puto mexicanus (Cockerell) El Salvador El Salvador Guatemala Puto sp Costa Rica Reference Watson and Cox (1990) Bigger (2009) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Bigger (2009) Watson and Cox (1990) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Williams (2004) Williams and Watson (1988) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Bigger (2009) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Souza et al (2008) Williams and MatileFerrero (1995) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Ben-Dove (1994) Bigger (2009) Williams and Watson (1988) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Bigger (2009) (continued) 648 P.K.V Kumar et al Table 70.1 (continued) a Mealybug species Rastrococcus iceryoides (Green) Region India Malaysia Rastrococcus spinosus (Robinson) Rastrococcus vicorum Williams & Watson Indonesia, Philippines, Taiwan Indonesia Rhizoecus americanus (Hambleton) Colombia Rhizoecus arabicus Hambleton Ecuador Colombia, Costa Rica Guadeloupe Rhizoecus americanus (Hambleton) Rhizoecus cacticans (Hambleton) Nearctic, neotropicpalaearctic region Guatemala Rhizoecus caladii Green Rhizoecus coffeae Laing Surinam Brazil,Colombia, Surinam, Venezuela Costa Rica Rhizoecus compotor Williams & Granara de Willink Rhizoecus cyperalis (Hambleton) Colombia Rhizoecus divaricatus Hambleton Rhizoecus eloti Giard Nicaragua Guadeloupe Rhizoecus falcifer Kunckel d'Herculais Rhizoecus globoculus (Hambleton) Rhizoecus knodaonis Kuwana Rhizoecus ornatus (Hambleton) Rhizoecus nemoralis (Hambleton) Rhizoecus tropicalis Hambleton Surinam Trinidad Coffee Trinidad El Salvador, Honduras Guatemala Ripersiella andensis (Hambleton) Ripersiella campestris (Hambleton) Mexico Colombia Guatemala Ripersiella kondonis (Kuwana) Guatemala El Salvador Original reference from the Source: Bigger (2009) Reference Williams (2004) Williams (1989); Miller (1941) Bigger (2009) Williams and Watson (1988b) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Bendove (1994) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Bigger (2009) Bigger (2009) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Bigger (2009) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Bigger (2009) Ben-Dove (1994) Ben-Dove (1994) Ben-Dove (1994) Bigger (2009) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Ben-Dove (1994) Bigger (2009) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) 70 Coffee Planococcus kenyae on coffee Planococcus citri 70.2 Damage Heavy infestation of mealybugs (P citri) around the floral buds leads to deformity of the flowers and also sometimes total arrest of the blossom process The mealybugs can be usually seen infesting the tender twigs, fruits and leaves They suck the sap leading to debilitation of the plant Coffee berries affected by mealybugs 649 and crop loss (Ramesh 1987) Crop loss can be enormous depending upon the level of infestation Heavy infestation leads to development of fungus, Capnodium sp., on the honey dew secreted by the mealybugs which forms a black coating on the surface of the leaves This can hinder the photosynthesis process as well as raise the surface temperature of the leaves Sometimes the infestation is on the roots leading to serious damage to young seedlings in the field This mealybug is very destructive to the roots of young plants In areas where replanting is taken up, the roots of the young coffee plants are usually observed to be infested by the mealybug leading to debility of the plants, with the plants exhibiting stunted growth and yellowing of leaves The roots are sometimes encrusted with mycelia of a fungus, Diacanthodes sp., in association with the mealybugs The mealybugs are visible beneath the fungus when the encrustation is peeled away (Chacko and Sreedharan 1981) When the root form is associated with fungus, it is capable of killing the plant Planococcus citri is a pest on arabica and robusta coffee (young trees are occasionally killed) (Anonymous 1998) Ferrisia virgata was first recorded on robusta coffee during 1976; the incidence appeared to be limited but severe infested occurred on leaves, shoots and berries (Chacko and Bhat 1976) In Uganda, attack of the berry clusters by F virgata interrupted normal bean development, leading to premature ripening and drying of berries on primaries Such berries were of lower marketable quality Mean bean size was reduced by 7.7 % Roast colour, centre-cut appearance and liquor quality were reduced (Kucel and Ngabirano 1997) Leaf damage P.K.V Kumar et al 650 70.3 Seasonal Development Mealybug population increases if warm and humid conditions prevail Continuous monsoon, high humidity and low temperatures are detrimental to mealybug development The migration of mealybugs starts in September/October from the ground to the aerial parts of the coffee plant along the main stem The attack of mealybugs becomes severe during summer and with intermittent showers/irrigation (Anonymous 1998) Excessive removal of shade in the robusta plantations often leads to flare up of mealybugs Planococcus citri on arabica and robusta coffee is distributed throughout the coffee tracts of India, mostly on robusta coffee which is grown at lower elevations with lesser shade Two peaks were in February–March and January–March; there was a positive correlation between maximum temperature and adults and nymphs and a negative correlation with relative humidity and nymphs (Gokuldas Kumar 1987) According to Vinod Kumar et al (2007), the population of P citri on coffee responded positively to maximum temperature and had no correlation with minimum temperature More than rainfall, relative humidity was negatively correlated with the mealybug population The hours of sunshine received had a positive correlation with mealybug population (Vinod Kumar et al 2007) 70.4 Ant Association with Mealybugs Mealybugs produce honeydew, a sweet excretory product, to which ants are attracted Ants provide mealybugs’ sanitation and protection from natural enemies The ants feed on the honeydew and act as clearing agents The common ants found in association with the mealybugs on coffee in India are Anoplolepis longipes, Oecophylla smaragdina and Crematogaster sp (Venkataramaiah and Rahiman 1989) Sometimes, ants of the genus Camponotus are also observed Some of the aggressive ants like the red ant, O smaragdina, and the cock tailed ant, Crematogaster sp., actually chase away the bigger predators while their constant presence over the mealybug colony is a hindrance for the parasitoids This is evident in the case of the lepidopteran predator Spalgis epeus Westwood wherein the aggressiveness of the ants and S epeus population indicated a highly negative relationship Species belonging to the genus Crematogaster interfered more with the predator activity than the ant O smaragdina (Vinod Kumar et al 2008a) About 27 species of ants have been recorded world over in association with different species of homoptera attacking coffee Thirteen species, namely Crematogaster sp., Anaplolepis longipes Jerdon, Myrmica brunnea Saunders, Plagiolepis sp., Paratrechina longicornis Latreille, Camponotus rufogalaucus Jerdon, Anoplolepis gracilipes (F Smith), Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius), Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius), Acropyga sp., Technomyrmex albipes Smith, Solenopsis geminata Fabricius, Monomorium sp., have been recorded from coffee tracts of South India (Venkataramaiah and Abdul Rahiman 1989) Of the ant species so far recorded, Plagiolepis sp is widespread and seen in almost every estate in the coffee growing regions Acrophaga sp is recorded from Kodagu district of Karnataka state The presence of ant O smaragdina along with mealybugs is not a limiting factor for the establishment of introduced parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii attacking P citri in the field The ant species associated with mealybugs recorded from other coffee growing countries are: Camponotus sp in Brazil, Lepisiota incise (Forel) in Kenya, Myrmelachista ramulorum Wheele, Paratrechina jaegerskioeldi (Mayr) in Kenya, Solenopsis punctaticeps (Mayr) in Kenya (James 1933), Pheidole speculifera (Emery) in Kenya, Lepisiota capensis (Mayr) in Kenya, Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus) in Kenya, Myrmicaria natalensis eumenoides (Gerstaeker) in Kenya, Pseudolasius gowdei (Wheeler) in Uganda, Pheidole punctulata (Mayr) in Kenya and Technomyrmex albipes (F Smith) in Kenya 70 Coffee 70.5 Natural Enemies Several indigenous predators and parasitoids have been recorded from mealybugs on coffee in India They exert considerable pressure on the bug population in ideal conditions If conditions are suitable or made suitable for the activity of the indigenous natural enemies, then no external effort to manage the mealybug is required (Chacko 1987; Venkataramaiah and Ramaiah 1988; Prakasan et al 1992; Reddy et al 1992) Spalgis epeus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) the indigenous butterfly predator of the mealy bugs is highly efficient in bringing down the population of the mealybugs (Aitken 1894; Vinod Kumar et al 2008b) The biology of this predator has been studied extensively (Vinod Kumar et al 2006) and the method of field augmentation standardized for achieving the desired control (Vinod Kumar et al 2009) Exclusion of the ants frequenting mealybug infested coffee plants assists the natural enemies in becoming more active Ant control alone can be a very effective method to tackle any mealybug on coffee estates Several species of natural enemies have been recorded on mealybugs in India On Planococcus citri, the parasitoids namely Alamella flava Agarwal, Aprostocerus purpureus (Cameron), Anagyrus agraensis Saraswat, Anagyrus inopus, Cryptochetum sp., Leptomastix nigrocoxalis Compere, Prochiloneurus sp., Coccidoxenoides perminutus are known to parasitise in coffee ecosystem in India (Pruthi and Mani 1940; Reddy et al 1990; Chacko et al 1977; Prakasan and Gokuldas Kumar 1985) And the predators namely Cryptochaetus sp., Dicrodiplosis sp., Pseudoscymnus pallidicollis (Mulsant), Pullus pallidicollis, Spalgis epeus (Westwood), Domomyza perspicax (Knab) are known to attack coffee ecosystem in India (Reddy et al 1990) On Planococcus lilacinus, the parasitoids namely Anagyrus sp., Apenteles sp nr sauros Nixon, Gonatocerus sp., Gyranusoidea sp., Alamella flava, Tetracnemoidea india (Ayyar), Leptacis sp were recorded in India (Reddy et al 1990) And the predators namely Dicrodiplosis sp., Hyperaspis maindroni, Leucopis luteicornis, Pullus pallidicollis, Scymnus (Nephus) severini, 651 Spalgis epeus (Westwood), lycaenidae, Brumiodes suturalis (Fabricius), Horniolus vietnamicus (Coccinellidae) Pseudoscymnus pallidicollis (Mulsant) are known to attack coffee ecosystem in India (Reddy et al 1990, 1992; Balakrishnan et al 1991; Chacko and Bhat 1976; Le Pelley 1968; Irulandi et al 2000; Prakasan et al 1992) On Ferrisia virgata, the parasitoids namely Aenasius advena Compare, Anagyrus qadrii (Hayat Alam & Agarwal), Anicetus annulatus Timberlake, Blepyrus insularis (Cameron) were reported in India (Balakrishnan et al 1991) And predators namely Alloprapta javana (Weidemann), Brumiodes suturalis (Fabricius), Scymnus sp., Gitona sp., Leucopis sp., Mallada sp., Scymnus sp., Spalgis epeus (Westwood), Diadiplosis coccidivora (Felt) are known to attack mealybugs present in the coffee ecosystem in India (Balakrishnan et al 1991; Chacko and Bhat 1976) In Cuba, the cecidomyiid Diadiplosis cocci was the most abundant natural enemy, followed by Leptomastix dactylopii, two encyrtid species, Signiphora sp and an eulophid Signiphora sp was recorded as a parasitoid of this pest complex for the first time (Martinez et al 1995) 70.6 Management 70.6.1 Cultural Control During the dry season, frequent checks should be conducted for the presence of scales and mealybugs on the coffee plants and the movement of ants Colonies of mealybugs are commonly attended by ants because of the sweet substance called ‘honey dew’ excreted by them Ants make nests on the coffee plants or on shade trees by joining two or more leaves Such nests have to be cut down and burnt frequently If it is possible to trim the branches of the coffee plants in such a way that they not touch the soil and nearby shade trees, it should be done If the branches touch the ground or the shade tree, this would be used as bridge by the ants to travel on to the coffee plants Once the plants are isolated, banding with grease may be tried on the main stem Grease should not be directly applied on the coffee plant P.K.V Kumar et al 652 A newspaper may first be tightly tied on the stem and over this paper, grease may be applied Optimum shade maintenance helps in regulating the micro-climate around the coffee plants Plants exposed to sunlight are favourable to mealybug attack Since many of the common weeds found in the coffee plantations harbour mealy bugs, it is best to destroy the weeds regularly 70.6.2 Chemical Control Control of mealybugs on coffee using insecticides was the choice option before stress was placed on biological control (Rangashetty et al 1959) Several trials were conducted using insecticides for achieving affordable control of mealybugs (Sekhar and Narayana Rao 1964; Chacko et al 1976; Vinod Kumar and Prakasan 1992) The insecticides tried were mostly organophosphates Synthetic pyrethroids did not show any promise against the mealybugs But most of these insecticides were highly toxic to the introduced natural enemies as well as indigenous natural enemies (Chacko et al 1979; Stephen et al 1981; Reddy et al 1988; Vinod Kumar et al 2010) In the case of severe incidence, quinalphos 20EC at 300 ml in 200 L of water plus 200 ml of any wetting agent is recommended as hot spot application and not as a blanket spray If the root region is infested with the mealybug P lilacinus, a soil drench with dimethoate 30EC at 660 ml in 200 L of water is found to be extremely useful (Vinod Kumar and Prakasan 1992) Kerosene, as spray, can also be used as a milder measure to tackle the mealybugs For spray use L of kerosene in 200 L of water along with a wetting agent The solution should be mixed thoroughly with the wetting agent so that any risk of un-emulsified kerosene falling on the plants is avoided (Gokuldas Kumar et al 1989) Plant products, like neem formulations, have also been tested against P citri and some of them have been found to affect the mealybug population considerably and bring about reduction (Irulandi et al 2000) Iimidacloprid at 0.01 % was known to cause 94 % P lilacinus on coffee after 21 days of spraying in India (Irulandi et al 2000) In Brazil, imida- cloprid and thiamethoxam in the liquid form, applied to the base of the plant, cause 100 % mortality of the coffee root mealybug, Dysmicoccus texensis, independent of the coffee plant’s age, in a single application (Souza et al 2007) Planococcus kenyae only be controlled by a combination of measures Ant management practices included banding the coffee plants with 20 cm wide plastic bands covered with a stickysubstances mixed with insecticide chlorpyrifos Removal of suckers that touch the ground is to be done to prevent ants Spraying on the ant nests in the ground with the insecticides is to be carried out to control the ants, The other management includes the application of oils (such as vegetable oils, neem oil or mineral oils) or soapy solutions (1–2 %) to kill mealybugs by suffocation Spraying cow urine fermented for day, in a ratio of urine : water can cause moderate reduction of mealybug population Spraying with dimethoate, diazinon, ethion and carbaryl are more toxic (class II, moderately hazardous) (http://www.plantwise org/FullTextPDF/2013/20137803401.pdf) In Brazil, with systemic insecticides for the control of Dysmicoccus cryptus (Hemp.) (Planococcus cryptus), which attacks the roots of coffee, mortality was complete and no reinfestation occurred for more than 60 days when granules containing 10 % aldicarb had been placed in a furrow (10 cm deep at a radius of 30 cm from the trunk) at the rate of 75 g/tree, or when an emulsion spray containing 0.06 % vamidothion was applied to the foliage at l/tree Good initial results were also obtained with granules containing disulfoton, phorate or aphidan [S-((ethylsulfinyl) methyl) O, O-bis (1-methylethyl) phosphorodithioate] (Cavalcante 1975) 70.6.3 Biological Control Several indigenous natural enemies on their own are capable of keeping the mealybug population in check (Reddy et al 1992) This is particularly true in the case of P lilacinus, the dipterans Triommata coccidivora Felt were able to suppress 70 Coffee the mealybug population up to 96 % (Prakasan et al 1992) In Kenya, the release of C.montrouzieri failed to suppress the coffee mealybug Planococcus kenyae In Celebes, substantial control of Rastrococcus iceryoides in coffee was obtained with C montrouzieri Control of the mealybug, Ferrisia virgata, in coffee plantation of Java was attempted in 1918 using C montrouzieri Establishment of Cryptolaemus occurred throughout the eastern Java on Planococcus citri but with determinable effect on mealybug infestations which declined In Dutch East Indies, an attempt was made to use C montrouzieri against F virgata on coffee In India, severe infestations of mealybugs (Planococcus spp.) occurred in many estates in South Wayanad, Kerala At Shevaroy hills, adults and grubs of C montrouzieri were seen on San Ramon hybrid coffee where mealybug infestation was virtually cleaned up (Chacko 1979) A release rate of five beetles per mealybug infested Robusta coffee, three beetles per Arabica coffee and two beetles per San-ram Coffee plants has been recommended to control the coffee mealybugs in India (Singh 1978) The drawback is that C montrouzieri becomes active when the mealybug population reaches high levels by which time the damage to the flower buds and tender berries would have been already caused leading to crop loss (Chacko 1982) Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a parasitoid of P citri, was introduced into India during 1983 from Trinidad through the then Project Directorate of Biological Control, now the National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects, Bangalore (Chacko 1987) A total of 15,000 Leptomastix parasitoids were released at 11 locations in Kodagu district having mixed plantations of coffee with oranges against P citri The parasitoid has established within two months of release Parasitism reached as much as 100 % in some colonies (Nargatti et al 1992) The parasitoid L dactylopii has established in the robusta coffee fields in the Wayanad district of Kerala state and is bringing about appreciable reduction in the population of the mealybugs (Abdul Rahiman and Naik 2009a) There exists an interference of 653 the predator C montrouzieri with the performance of the parasitoid L dactylopii in the field as the predator is not able to discriminate between parasitized and healthy mealy bugs (Prakasan and Bhat 1985) The fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill (UEL 114) and the nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) are known to cause high mortality in short time of adult female mealybugs Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley) (Andalo et al 2004) Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have potential for biological pest control and have been successfully used in several countries in soil and cryptic pests control, as for example the coffee root mealybug D texensis Greenhouse results demonstrate that aqueous suspension (JPM3) was more efficient with 70 % control efficiency In field experiments, treatments with aqueous suspensions of insecticide Actara 250 WG (thiamethoxam), used for comparison, and JPM3 were the only ones statistically different from control (Alves et al 2009) Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar strain HC1 was known to cause 100 % mortality in the inoculated the coffee mealybug complex (Rodriguez et al 1997) References Abdul Rahiman P, Naik PR (2009a) Field performance of mealy bug parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (How.) in coffee ecosystem of Wayanad district in Kerala J Coffee Res 37(1&2):10–15 Abdul Rahiman P, Naik PR (2009b) Distribution of coffee mealy bug in Wayanad district of Kerala J Coffee Res 37(1&2):82–86 Abdul Rahiman P, Vijayalakshmi CK, Reddy AGS (1995) Occurrence and distribution of mealy bug in coffee Kissan World 22(11):39–40 Aitken EH (1894) The larva and pupa of Spalgis epius Westw Bombay Nat Hist Soc J 8:485–487 Alves VS, Moino Junior A, Santa-Cecilia LVC, Rohde C, da Silva MAT (2009) Tests for the control of coffee root mealybug Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae) with Heterorhabditis (Rhabditida, Heterorhabditidae) [Portuguese] Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 53(1):139–143 Andalo V, Moino Junior A, Santa-Cecilia LVC, Souza GC (2004) Selection of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes to the coffee root mealybug Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley) [Portuguese] Arquivos Instituto Biologico (Sao Paulo) 71(2):181–187 654 Anonymous (1998) A compendium on pests and diseases of coffee and their management in India Coffee Board Research Department, India, 67 p Ayyar TVR (1940) Handbook of economic entomology for South India Madras, 528 p Balakrishnan MM, Sreedharan K, Venkatesha MG, Krishnamurthy P, Bhat PK (1991) Observations on Ferrisia virgata (Ckll) (Homoptera: Pseudoccocidae) and its natural enemies on coffee, with the records of predators and host plants J Coffee Res 21:11–19 Ben-Dove Y.A 1994 Systematic Catalogue of the Mealybugs of the World (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) Intercept Ltd, 686 pp Bhat PK, Shamanna HV (1972) Some new collateral hosts of Planococcus lilacinus from South India J Coffee Res 2(2):27 Bigger M (2009) A geographical distribution list of insects and mites associated with coffee derived from literature published before 2010 Available at: Cavalcante RD (1975) Control of the coffee root mealybug Planococcus cryptus Hempel, with systemic insecticides [Portuguese] Fitossanidade 1(2):68–69 Chacko MJ (1979) The recovery of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri on the Shevaroy hills J Coffee Res 9(3):80–81 Chacko MJ (1982) The mealy bug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Indian Coffee XLVI(11):300–302 Chacko MJ (1987) Biological control with exotic as well as indigenous natural enemies Proceedings of the workshop on the insect pest management strategies in coffee, cardamom and tea cropping systems J Coffee Res 17:109–113 Chacko MJ, Bhat PK (1976) Record of Ferrisia virgata and its natural enemy Spalgis epius on coffee in India J Coffee Res 6:56–57 Chacko MJ, Sreedharan K (1981) Control of Planococcus lilacinus and Diacanthodes sp associated with coffee roots J Coffee Res 11(3):76–80 Chacko MJ, Bhat PK, Ramanarayana EP (1976) Laboratory and field testing of insecticides against coffee mealybugs Indian Coffee XL(4&5):118–119 Chacko MJ, Bhat PK, Ramanarayana EP (1977) New records of Coccoidea with notes on natural enemies of Planococcus spp on coffee in India J Coffee Res 7(3):68–70 Chacko MJ, Bhat PK, Ananda Rao LV, Deepak Singh MB (1979) Influence of some contact insecticides on adults of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri PLACROSYM II:44–46 Coleman LC, Kunhi Kannan K (1918) Some scale insect pests of coffee in India Entomological Series – Bulletin No 4., Department of Agriculture, Mysore State, 67 p Culik MP, Martins D, Dos S, Gullan PJ (2006) First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee J Insect Sci 6:1–6 P.K.V Kumar et al Gokuldas Kumar M (1987) Population trend of the coffee mealy bug, Planococcus citri (Risso) under the influence of certain key abiotic factors Proceedings of the workshop on the insect pest management strategies in coffee, cardamom and tea cropping systems J Coffee Res 17:99–100 Gokuldas Kumar M, Bhat PK, Ramaiah PK (1989) Potential role of kerosene and neem derivatives in integrated management of mealy bugs on coffee J Coffee Res 19(1):17–29 Irulandi S, Kumar PKV, Seetharama HG, Sreedharan K (2000) Laboratory evaluation of imidacloprid 17.8% SL against the coffee mealy bug, Planococcus lilacinus (Cockerell) J Coffee Res 28(1/2):92–94 James HC (1933) Taxonomic notes on the coffee mealy bugs of Kenya Colony Bull Entomol Res 24:429–436 Kucel P, Ngabirano H (1997) Effect of stripped mealybug (Ferrisia virgata Cockerell) on marketable quality of Uganda Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre) Dix-septieme colloque scientifique international sur le cafe, Nairobi, Kenya, 20–25 juillet 1997, pp 771–778 Le Pelley RH (1968) Pests of coffee Longmans, London, 590 p Martinez M, de los A, Hernandez M, Ceballos M (1995) Ecological relationships of natural enemies of the mealybug complex in Topes de Collantes region [Spanish] Revista de Proteccion Vegetal 10(2): 159–162 Miller NCE (1941) Insects associated with cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in Malaya Bull Entomol Res 32:1–16 Nargatti S, Singh SP, Jayanth KP, Bhusmannavar BS (1992) Introduction and establishment of Leptomastix dactylopii How against Planococcus species in India Indian J Plant Prot 19:102–104 Nguyen Thi Thuy, Pham Thi Vuong, Ha Quang Hung (2011) Composition of scale insects in Dalak, Vietnam and reproductive biology Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae Kuawana (Hemiotera: Pseudicoccidae) J Eddaas 17(2):29–37 Prakasan CB, Bhat PK (1985) Interference of predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri with performance of a newly introduced parasite, Leptomastix dactylopii J Coffee Res 15(1&2):29–32 Prakasan CB, Gokuldas Kumar M (1985) New record of natural enemies of mealybug and green scale J Coffee Res 16(1&2):38–40 Prakasan CB, Vinod Kumar PK, Balakrishnan MM (1992) Biological suppression of the mealy bug Planococcus lilacinus Cockerell (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on coffee by Triommata coccidivora (Felt) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) PLACROSYM IX:140–141 Pruthi HS, Mani MS (1940) Biological notes on Indian parasitic Chalcidoidea Miscellaneous Bulletins Indian Council Agric Res 30:40 Ramesh PK (1987) Observations on crop loss in robusta coffee due to mealy bug and shot-hole borer Proceedings of the workshop on the insect pest man- 70 Coffee agement strategies in coffee, cardamom and tea cropping systems J Coffee Res 17:94–95 Rangashetty HT, Swaminathan B, Parthasarathy S (1959) Insecticides on root mealy bug Indian Coffee LIII(6):5–8 Reddy KB, Bhat PK, Prakasan CB (1988) Toxicity of certain insecticides and fungicides to Leptomastix dactylopii, and introduced parasitoid of Planococcus citri PLACROSYM VIII:281–284 Reddy KB, Sreedharan K, Prakasan CB, Bhat PK (1990) New records of natural enemies of Planococcus spp., Coccus viridis (Green) and Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) on coffee in India J Coffee Res 20(2):153–156 Reddy KB, Sreedharan K, Prakasan CB, Bhat PK (1992) Role of indigenous natural enemies in the integrated management of sucking pests of coffee PLACROSYM IX:152 Rodriguez I, Rodriguez MG, Sanchez L, de los Angeles Martinez M (1997) Effectivity of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditidae: Heterorhabditidae) against coffee mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) [Spanish] Revista de Proteccion Vegetal 12(2):119–122 Sekhar PS (1964) Pests of coffee In: Entomology in India Entomolgical Society of India, New Delhi, 529 p Sekhar PS, Narayana Rao BK (1964) Studies on the control of coffee mealy bug Planococcus lilacinus (CKLL) Indian Coffee XXVIII(9):205–207 Singh SP (1978) Propagation of a coccinellid beetle for the biological control of citrus and coffee mealybugs Scientific conference, CPA, Dec 1978, p Souza JC, de Reis PR, Ribeiro JA, Santa-Cecilia LVC, Silva RA (2007) Chemical control of the coffee root mealybug Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley, 1900) in coffee plants (Coffea arabica L.) [Portuguese] Coffee Sci 2(1):29–37 Souza B, Santa-Cecilia LVC, Prado E, de Souza JC (2008) Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) on coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in Minas Gerais state, Brazil Coffee Sci 3(2):104–107 Stephen SD, Venkateshulu K, Chacko MJ (1981) Influence of insecticides on Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Effect of residues of Cythion, Ekalux, Lebaycid and Metacid on grub J Coffee Res 11(4):126–128 Venkataramaiah GH, Abdul Rahiman P (1989) Ants associated with the Mealybugs of coffee Indian Coffee 53(9):13–14 Venkataramaiah GH, Ramaiah PK (1988) Mealy bugs of coffee and their control measure Indian Coffee 52(9):5–8 Vinod Kumar PK, Prakasan CB (1992) Soil application of systemic insecticides for mealy bug control J Coffee Res 22(1):65–68 Vinod Kumar PK, Vasudev V, Seetharama HG, Irulandi S, Sreedharan K (2006) Biology and biometry of the lycaenid predator Spalgis epius J Coffee Res 34(1&2):72–104 655 Vinod Kumar PK, Vasudev V, Seetharama HG, Irulandi S, Sreedharan K (2007) Influence of abiotic factors on mealy bug population and activity of Spalgis epius on coffee J Coffee Res 35(1&2):61–76 Vinod Kumar PK, Vasudev V, Seetharama HG, Irulandi S, Sreedharan K (2008a) Predatory potential of the lycaenid Spalgis epius J Coffee Res 36(1&2):25–29 Vinod Kumar PK, Vasudev V, Seetharama HG, Irulandi S, Sreedharan K (2008b) Attendant ants and activity of Spalgis epius J Coffee Res 36(1&2):38–45 Vinod Kumar PK, Vasudev V, Seetharama HG, Irulandi S, Sreedharan K (2009) Effect of augmentation of Spalgis epius on mealy bug population J Coffee Res 37(1&2):66–78 Vinod Kumar PK, Vasudev V, Seetharama HG, Irulandi S, Sreedharan K (2010) Effect of insecticides on Spalgis epius J Coffee Res 38(1&2):11–28 Watson GW, Cox JM (1990) Identity of African coffee root mealybug with descriptions of two new species of Planococcus (Homopterta;Pseudococcidae) Bull Ent Res 80:99–105 Williams DJ (1982) The distribution of mealybug genus Planococcus(Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Melanesia, Polynesia and Kribati Bull Ent Res 64:535–540 Williams DJ (1986a) The identity and distribution of the genus Maconellicoccus Ezzat (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Africa Bull Entomol Res 76:351–357 Williams DJ (1986b) Rastrococcus invadens sp n (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) introduced from the Oriental Region to West Africa and causing damage to mango, citrus and other trees Bull Entomol Res 76:695–699 Williams DJ (1989) The mealybug genus Rastrococcus Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Syst Entomol 14(4):433–486 Williams DJ (2004) Mealybugs of southern Asia The Natural History Museum/Southdene SDN BHD., London/Kuala Lumpur, 896 p Williams DJ, Granara de Willink MC (1992) Mealybugs of Central and South America CAB International, London, 635 p Williams DJ, Matile-Ferrero D (1995) The identity and distribution of the african mealybug Pseudococcus occiduus De Lotto (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae), a species common on coffee, cacao, mango and other economic plants Revue Franỗaise d’Entomologie 17:1–4 Williams DJ, Matile-Ferrero D (2009) A note on two mealybug species on coffee in Cuba named in the genus Planococcus Ferris [Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae] Revue Francaise d’Entomologie 31(1):37–38 Williams DJ, Watson GW (1988) In: The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific Region Pt 2: The Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) CAB International Institute of Entomology, London, 260 p Wrigley G (1988) Coffee Longman Scientific and Technical, Essex, 639 p .. .Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural and Horticultural crops M Mani • C Shivaraju Editors Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural and Horticultural crops Editors M Mani Indian... measures, insecticide resistance and mealybug management in different crops This book on Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural and Horticultural crops is first of its kind since there... Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural and Horticultural crops Foreword Crop protection in the present day is as important as crop production Pests have plagued mankind from the beginning and
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Xem thêm: Mealybugs and their management in agricultural and horticultural crops , Mealybugs and their management in agricultural and horticultural crops , 4 Morphology of Various Instars of Both Sexes of the Mealybug, 3 Chromosome Numbers and Chromosome Forms, 12 Recent Innovation Made in Mealybug Genomes, 3 Field Identification of Major Species of Mealybugs, 4 Role of Taxonomy in Management of Mealybugs, 7 Limitations of DNA Barcoding Employing mtCOI, 8 Other Targets for Molecular Identification of Insects, 2 Biology of Important Mealybug Species, 2 The Origin of Mealybug Pest Status, 3 Plant Viruses Transmitted by Mealybugs, 5 Loss Due to Mealybug-­Transmitted Virus Diseases, 5 Male Flight and Mate Location, 12 Dogs for Monitoring Mealybug Incidence, 8 Strange Aspects of Ant–Mealybug Associations, 6 Resistance Management and Prevention Strategy, 1 Breadfruit Mealybug: Icerya aegyptiaca, 3 Factors Influencing Incidence of Mealybugs, 12 Calendar-Based Practices for Grape Mealybug Management in India, 2 Papaya Mealybug: Paracoccus marginatus, 3 Jack Beardsley Mealybug, Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel and Miller, 9 General Management of Mealybugs in Vegetables, 6 Elephant Foot Yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius), 10 Growth Regulators and Chitin Inhibitors, 1 Black Pepper (Piper nigrum), 1 Pink Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, 4 Root mealybug – Paraputo sp., 16 Dysmicoccus dennoi & Trionymus clandestinus, 15 Palmicultor lumpurensis and Chaetococcus bambusae, 5 Cultural/Physical/mechanical control and sanitary measures, 1 Important Root Mealybug Species

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