Serviceology for designing the future

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Takashi Maeno · Yuriko Sawatani Tatsunori Hara Editors Serviceology for Designing the Future Selected and Edited Papers of the 2nd International Conference on Serviceology Serviceology for Designing the Future ThiS is a FM Blank Page Takashi Maeno • Yuriko Sawatani • Tatsunori Hara Editors Serviceology for Designing the Future Selected and Edited Papers of the 2nd International Conference on Serviceology Editors Takashi Maeno Graduate School of System Design and Management Keio University Yokohama Japan Yuriko Sawatani Graduate School of Entrepreneurship Tokyo University of Technology Tokyo Japan Tatsunori Hara The University of Tokyo Kashiwa Japan ISBN 978-4-431-55859-0 ISBN 978-4-431-55861-3 DOI 10.1007/978-4-431-55861-3 (eBook) Library of Congress Control Number: 2016942046 © Springer Japan 2016 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer Japan KK Preface Services are not merely key economic activities, but also major factors that improve our quality of life, make local communities prosperous, and then provide a foundation for solving emerging issues In an increasingly globalized market, it is necessary to increase the economic value of products and services, as well as to enrich their value (life value) for every individual citizen using those services In addition, in order to bring solutions to emerging social issues, such as an aging society and social security, and to global challenges, such as energy and environmental issues, it is necessary to design a system that facilitates co-creative consensus-building efforts among the stakeholders in the services sector Traditionally, service-related research has developed in individual fields such as management, marketing, information engineering, and design engineering However, to provide better services to our society, it is critical that social sciences, human sciences, and engineering sciences work together as well as establish a strong partnership between industry and academia There, we need to create an academic understanding of the activities that relate to social and economic services, which means it is necessary to establish an understanding of the comprehensive services that include not only the narrowly defined services industry but also the development of services by manufacturers Moreover, it is necessary to develop a framework to cocreate high customer satisfaction in alliance with customers The Society for Serviceology (SfS) was launched in Japan in October 2012 and is expected to be developed globally SfS aims to contribute to efforts concerning various industrial issues by organizing the vast knowledge of services and to establish “academics for society” relating to services The Second International Conference on Serviceology (ICServ2014) was held September 14–16, 2014, in Yokohama It covered (1) fundamental research in serviceology, such as mechanism design for services, service innovation and design, service management and marketing, service theory, service economy and productivity, system design and management, and product service system (PSS), and (2) technological research into services such as data assimilation and human modeling, enhancing service analysis, and testing with VR/AR/MR Some concrete v vi Preface applications and business implications related to tourism and hospitality, healthcare services, public and urban services, regional development, and policymaking were also discussed The conference was sponsored by the Graduate School of System Design and Management, Keio University We would like to thank the members of the organizing committee, the program committee, and all conference participants for their contribution to the success of the conference General Chair ICServ2014 Yokohama, Japan Takashi Maeno Contents Part I Service in General A Survey of Business Models in Japanese Restaurant and Retail Industries Kenju Akai, Keita Kodama, and Nariaki Nishino Employee Satisfaction Analysis in Food Service Industry – Resultant of Questionnaire to the Restaurant Staff Tomomi Nonaka, Toshiya Kaihara, Nobutada Fujii, Fang Yu, Takeshi Shimmura, Yoshihiro Hisano, and Tomoyuki Asakawa Exploration of Service System and Value Co-creation Mechanism in Islamic Banking in Pakistan Amna Javed, Youji Kohda, and Hisashi Masuda The Ordering of Fast Food Using Menu Kiyoteru Kitano, Yutaka Yamauchi, and Takeshi Hiramoto Evaluation of Taxiing at a Large Airport Considering Customer Satisfaction Hiroya Daimaru, Satoshi Shimada, Shinsuke Shimizu, Jun Ota, and Tatsunori Hara Research of the Social New Transportation Service on Electric Full Flat Floor Bus Toshiki Nishiyama Analysis of Business Process Innovation Using Outsourcing Takeshi Takenaka, Naoki Tomotake, Rui Suzuki, Masumi Yoshida, Taiki Yamada, and Shigeaki Shiraishi 23 37 51 67 79 97 vii viii Part II Contents Context Based Service and Technology Mixed Reality Navigation on a Tablet Computer for Supporting Machine Maintenance in Wide-Area Indoor Environment 109 Koji Makita, Thomas Vincent, Soichi Ebisuno, Masakatsu Kourogi, Tomoya Ishikawa, Takashi Okuma, Minoru Yoshida, Laurence Nigay, and Takeshi Kurata Business Structure of e-Book Service as a Product Service System: A Game Theoretic Approach 125 Nariaki Nishino and Keisuke Okuda Service Field Simulator: Virtual Environment Display System for Analyzing Human Behavior in Service Fields 145 Takashi Okuma and Takeshi Kurata Part III Healthcare Services Improvement of Sharing of Observations and Awareness in Nursing and Caregiving by Voice Tweets 161 Kentaro Torii, Naoshi Uchihira, Yuji Hirabayashi, Testuro Chino, Takanori Yamamoto, and Satoko Tsuru A System Promoting Cooperation Between Medicine and Dentistry Using Key Performance Indicators and Importance-Performance Analysis 177 Shuichiro Nagaosa, Hironobu Matsushita, Jun Yaeda, Takashi Shinagawa, Norihiro Sonoi, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Hiromi Ohta, Masatoshi Usubuchi, Yasuhisa Arai, and Yasunori Sumi Designing the Amount of Image Delay in Tele-surgery 193 Iwane Maida, Hisashi Sato, Tetsuya Toma, and Takashi Maeno Visualization of Muscle Activity During Squat Motion for Skill Education 205 Koshiro Yanai, Qi An, Yuki Ishikawa, Junki Nakagawa, Wen Wen, Hiroshi Yamakawa, Atsushi Yamashita, and Hajime Asama Extraction and Evaluation of Proficiency in Bed Care Motion for Education Service of Nursing Skill 217 Junki Nakagawa, Qi An, Yuki Ishikawa, Koshiro Yanai, Wen Wen, Hiroshi Yamakawa, Junko Yasuda, Atsushi Yamashita, and Hajime Asama Exploratory Analysis of Factors of Patient Satisfaction in HCAHPS Databases 229 Masumi Okuda, Akira Yasuda, and Shusaku Tsumoto Contents Part IV ix Public and Urban Services One Cycle of Smart Access Vehicle Service Development 247 Hideyuki Nakashima, Shoji Sano, Keiji Hirata, Yoh Shiraishi, Hitoshi Matsubara, Ryo Kanamori, Hitoshi Koshiba, and Itsuki Noda The Value of Community for Resolving Social Isolation 263 Keiko Aoki, Kenju Akai, and Nariaki Nishino Basic Study of Mobility of Elderly People from the Perspective of Their Emotional Value 273 Ryoichi Tamura, Yasuyuki Hirai, and Nermin Elokla Workshop-Based Policy Platform for Public-Private Partnership (WP5): Designing Co-creative Policy-Making Platform for Regional Development of Nagano 287 Toshiyuki Yasui, Takashi Maeno, Seiko Shirasaka, Yoshikazu Tomita, and Kanenori Ishibashi System Design of Happy Town Using Four Factors of Happiness 303 Shiko Kurihara and Takashi Maeno Part V System Design and Management Evaluation of the Productivity Improvement by Information Presentation in Surveillance Service 317 Mitsunari Uozumi, Kouichi Yamada, Shuto Murai, Hajime Asama, and Kaoru Takakusaki Personalized Information Service Model that Reflects Individual’s Will 329 Yuri Nakagawa, Yuuki Matsuda, and Tetsuro Ogi Ranking Smartphone Apps Based on Users’ Behavior Records 345 Song Luo, Maiko Shigeno, and Wenbo Ma Contribution of ICT Monitoring System in Agricultural Water Management and Environmental Conservation 359 Koshi Yoshida, Kenji Tanaka, Ryunosuke Hariya, Issaku Azechi, Toshiaki Iida, Shigeya Maeda, and Hisao Kuroda A Questionnaire Assessment of the Contributing Factors to Empathy 371 Miki Nishio and Takashi Maeno Aligning Product-Service Offerings with Customer Expectations 581 in-depth study should be carried out to understand (i) why are more sophisticated organisations required to satisfy customers characterised by a higher awareness with service quality determinants?, (ii) what is the optimal type of customer, in order to achieve the best trade-off between revenues and costs? 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be seen as a “struggle” rather than harmonious totality The subject “user” is an outcome of this struggle, not its a priori condition Therefore, a dialectical process by which the subject develops must be designed This perspective allows for design that is different from, or even opposite to, user-centered design This paper discusses the theoretical framework and key design principles of user-decentered service design Keywords Service design • User-de-centered • Service as struggle • Dialectics Introduction User-centeredness or human-centeredness has been an important topic in academic discourse for many years, and user-centeredness is firmly incorporated into current educational curricula focused on designing products for consumer use The goal of this paper is to re-examine this concept Specifically, I will discuss that in service design, the notion of “user” is in fact rather precarious Accordingly, I propose reconsidering service design and emphasizing a user-de-centered approach as service design cannot be confined in the framework of user-centeredness In this paper, theoretical concepts and frameworks are discussed in terms of user-de-centeredness First, problems of user-centeredness are discussed Second, the basic thesis of this paper, “service is a struggle”, is outlined Then, the concept Y Yamauchi (*) Graduate School of Management, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan e-mail: yamauchi@gsm.kyoto-u.ac.jp © Springer Japan 2016 T Maeno et al (eds.), Serviceology for Designing the Future, DOI 10.1007/978-4-431-55861-3_40 583 584 Y Yamauchi of user-de-centeredness is discussed in detail followed by proposals for design methodology from this perspective Some remarks on possibilities and impossibilities of service design are incorporated into the discussion Finally the conclusion looks at possible future directions User-Centered Design The discussion of user-centeredness began as a response to a common situation: many designs were conceived without much consideration of users Designers tended to ignore actual user needs and capabilities and impose designs that they considered right for the users Subsequently, some designers and scholars proposed putting users at the center of design [18] To be sure, there are debates as to how to put humans at the center It is not difficult to see that soliciting design ideas from users is inherently problematic Users can only give ideas from within their current work context and their design requests tend to be minor improvements In addition, there is some debate as to defining the actual users because there are a variety of stakeholders Those who hire designers are often not users, and these non-users determine design A related concept is user participation [6, 14, 21] One method of usercenteredness is to have users participate in the design process Yet, even if users participate in these discussions, they may be discouraged from expressing opinions This could happen in a direct manner, as designers may intentionally exclude the user from certain discussions, or could be done indirectly through tactics such as the use of technical jargon A recent service design textbook by Stickdorn and Schneider [23] lists five principles for service design; the first of these is “user centered,” which is followed by “co-creative,” “sequencing,” “evidencing,” and “holistic.” Currently the basic concepts in service design aim to move beyond designing products and consider the whole process of user experience To this end, design focuses on customer touchpoints, and therefore it is not surprising that user-centeredness is the first principle of service design In this paper, I seek to reexamine the assumption of this theoretical concept Specifically, the tendency to substantiate and hypostatize the user into a simple and self-evident human being needs to be re-evaluated Methodological individualism is an appealing approach As academics, we often seek a foundation from which to discuss modern society, and in society the individual appears evident and clear; that is, individuals exist as self-evident entities That a certain person is here in front of us is factual, and based on this factuality, we tend to accept individuals as a fully integrated totality and discuss society as a collection of these entities This idea is difficult to resist However, is the notion of an individual so self-evident? This idea has been contested by Georg Simmel [22], who claimed that individuals are a complex combination of various factors that interact with each other This occurs in the User-De-centeredness in Service Design 585 same manner as we see in a society, which most of us understand as consisting of interrelated factors Individuals are not necessarily firmly grounded at a center Marx had previously written in this vein, “the human essence is no abstraction inherent in each single individual In its reality it is the ensemble of the social relations” [12] This relationalist view of the individual is currently widely accepted in the social sciences [8, 10] A more radical perspective also denies subjectivity in individuals; post-structuralist scholars have offered the most provocative take on this view For instance, Jacque Lacan explains that a person’s desire is created by society, which induces a lack in that person and the person then accepts others’ desires as his or her own [9] Subjectivity is not given a priori but created performatively [2] To be more precise, subjectivity does not create a certain entity, there is only the performativity Hypostatizing users is problematic as the users are thereby deified: the user becomes an absolute existence that transcends us That is to say, design is seen to fulfill user “needs,” which are the ultimate and unquestionable goal Of course, it is widely known that users often cannot express their needs well Nonetheless, to say that designers must “discover” the users’ “hidden needs” and derive designs from these needs would not be controversial However, this leads to the heart of the problem; we need to reject substantiation of users as self-evident subjects and reconsider discourse that revers users as absolute entities and seeks their needs that are veiled in mystery While advocating human-centered design, Donald Norman discussed an opposite design approach called “emotional design” [17] Norman wrote, “to the uninitiated, walking into the Diesel jeans store on Union Square West feels a lot like stumbling into a rave There are no helpful signs pointing to men’s or women’s departments, no obvious staff members in sight” (p 92) Accordingly to Norman, Diesel “deliberately confuses and intimidates” (p 93) customers He reports that a Diesel’s director of retail operation said, “We didn’t design our stores to be user-friendly because we want you to interact with our people You can’t understand Diesel without talking to someone” (p 92) Then, Norman writes, “To the practitioners of human-centered design, serving customers means relieving them of frustration, of confusion, of a sense of helplessness Make them feel in control and empowered To the clever salesperson, just the reverse is true” (p 92) It is interesting to observe that for Norman, “reflective designs” that places emphasis on “self-image” are a “reverse” approach from human-centered design Service Is a Struggle Before moving on to the discussion of user-de-centeredness, we need to review the concept of service itself Based on previous research by my colleague and myself, I propose a thesis stating; “service is a struggle.” In everyday discourse on service, we hear such terms as hospitality, and empathy These terms imply an all-positive, 586 Y Yamauchi harmonious totality We need to be critical of such mysterious concepts The thesis of service as a struggle is an attempt to turn these concepts on their head To begin, we should acknowledge the basic nature of service: it is an interaction that involves humans When humans are involved in service production, this is always an increase in uncertainty [7, 13] When consulting with a doctor at a clinic, studying at school, or detailing wedding plans, specific customers and providers are involved The same service is never repeated On the other hand, we observe extreme standardization and routinization in service McDonald’s and other fast food franchises represent a typical Weberian rationalization and bureaucratization of service [20] Here humans are treated as objects Nonetheless, it is interesting to observe that at many of these restaurants, human employees smile as they interact with customers; despite all the automation, this part of service has not been replaced by machine [11] Then, how should we treat customers? One strategy has been obvious to most people looking at service This is the strategy in which customers can be venerated as absolute beings and then service providers seek to fulfill their needs However, the flip side of this is that the providers end up not viewing a specific customer in front of them as human The goal of this type of service is to increase customer satisfaction, and the customer is treated as a box that displays its level of satisfaction In this service, the human element is excised from customers as well as providers Service is designed to be mechanical Only when a problem occurs, which is treated as an exception, are human agents engaged in the process Therefore, while it is the fundamental nature of service to involve humans, many service systems are designed to exclude them What does it mean to involve humans qua humans? Jacques Derrida’s [4] discussion on hospitality is helpful here He suggested that hospitality is impossibility The Latin etymology of hospitality is traced back to “hospes,” which comes from two different sources It is a combination of “hostis” and “pets.” “Hostis” originally referred to unknown others and it became “hostilis,” somebody hostile “Pets” referred to owning power, related to such words as potentia That is to say, it is assumed that a guest is an adversary over whom power is exercised This is not just play of words; we are all familiar with this tension when we invite guests to our house Nobody accepts guests wholeheartedly When one says, “Please make yourself at home,” one does not mean that the guest can really so On the other hand, words that carry the beauty of harmony, such as hospitality, are in fact necessary precisely because we understand these concepts represent impossibility We need to believe that they are possible; otherwise it is difficult to make the effort that good service requires Service providers believe in this myth and can see in this belief that they are doing something special Customers also believe in this myth, which allows them to justify paying for such service That said, even if we need to deceive ourselves to some degree while engaging in service activities in our everyday lives, when theorizing about the nature of service, we must look at the practice directly In order to fully grasp the concept of service as a struggle, we should turn to Hegel’s dialectics The above description bears a resemblance to Hegel’s [8] lord User-De-centeredness in Service Design 587 and bondsman dialectic In his argument self-consciousness has desire and the object of desire is other self-consciousness, i.e., other people Self-consciousness requires recognition as its condition Then, metaphorically, by demanding others’ recognition self-consciousness seeks others’ death If this self-consciousness wins the life-or-death battle, it becomes a lord If it loses, it becomes a bondsman, who exists only for the lord The lord dominates the bondsman and acquires its power through bondsman’s labor The bondsman on the other hand is tied to objects that he produces through labor However, the lord eventually learns that he is completely dependent on the bondsman’s labor and the bondsman learns that his selfconsciousness is objectified through labor and his fear of the lord and anxiety about existence are cleared It is labor’s essence to give form and here the bondsman finds himself The relationship between the lord and bondsman is reversed When we treat customers as gods or kings/queens, we need to understand this dialectic In service, the basic premise that we seek others’ recognition underlies the customer-provider relationship That this relationship involves a battle between these two entities parallels Derrida’s argument Here, we understand what it means to have power; that is, we present our power over others and obtain their recognition However, there is more to this dialectic It shows that we cannot assume individuals as subjects, but we must examine how individuals come to acquire subjectivity through the dialectical process The driver of this process is the contradictory nature of the interactions; we should assume there is not harmony but contradiction, negation, and lack Of course, we should not accept aufhebung or sublation of the opposing forces too easily, as deconstructionists argue and later materialist dialectics showed When somebody acquires subjectivity, it really means that he or she never achieves full subjectivity, he or she is always full of the potential of these contradictions thus always on the move This is what service actually constitutes This acts to clarify the thesis of service as a struggle My colleague and I conducted empirical studies at traditional sushi restaurants in Tokyo, and as part of this research we set up several video camcorders and analyzed interactions between chefs and customers [24] Sushi is a peculiar service First of all, customers feel anxious when opening the door and entering the restaurant Corson [3] wrote, Many Americans walk into a sushi restaurant and opt to sit at a table because they find the sushi bar intimidating Sitting at a table feels familiar, as does ordering from a menu .Turning one’s back on familiarity and choosing to sit at the sushi bar requires courage, but the experience is more interesting .Not knowing what to expect, either with the ingredients or the order in which they are served, is part of the fun .Americans can take solace in the knowledge that they are not alone Many Japanese people also find the sushi bar intimidating (p 317, emphasis in original) While Corson wrote about typical sushi restaurants in the U.S., traditional sushi establishments in Tokyo are much more “intimidating.” We not witness a flattering smile on the face of the chef As soon as we are seated, we are asked, “What would you like?” The chef has not provided any explanation of the sushi bar Nor has he or she provided a written menu No price is shown for each item and we are anxious until we receive the bill at the end of the meal There are a number of 588 Y Yamauchi customs and rules that customers need to know, for instance, one should choose leaner and lighter fish first before moving to stronger and fatter fish, and diners should eat the sushi by hand In his work, following the passage above, Corson gave a detailed guide for how to eat sushi In short, Sushi services are contentious Chefs not make the service ‘easy’ for the customers, and they assess the type of customers that have entered their establishments One of the chefs we worked with said that the interaction with the customer is a “duel.” They either overwhelm the customers or are overwhelmed by the customers When I suggest that service is a struggle, I have this in mind Customers who are seem to understand this dynamic will try to step up their performance during the meal This is a unique experience that exists at these establishments As Corson wrote above, ginning up your courage and eating at the bar is “more interesting.” This kind of struggle is not necessarily irrelevant to other kinds of services For example, in Japan there is some tension in interactions at Starbuck’s coffee shops Customers feel that they need to behave appropriately there, that going to Starbucks might call for cool or stylish clothes Customers also try to be experienced in the system of service Some people learn how to order from the somewhat complicated Starbuck’s menu, which includes items such as “Iced triple tall cafe´ Americano” and “Dark moca chip Frappuccino chocolate sauce.” At Italian restaurants in Japan, the menu includes many dishes with names cryptic to most Japanese, for example “Pizza Melanzane” and “Salsiccia piccante.” The restaurants use these names knowing that most customers will not understand them, and only a few, special customers are aware of the meaning Other customers try to read the menu and feel a need to present more sophisticated versions of their selves To be sure, the struggle is only at the surface level, in terms of the sign Nonetheless, we can sense that the struggle is a relevant aspect of most service interactions User-De-centeredness Based on this understanding, we can now see that users are not what we can assume a priori but are themselves the outcomes of the services Of course, the user as an outcome is not a fully realized subject, but one that contains contradictions When the object of design has been products or graphics, designers might have been able to assume relatively static users In contrast, when services become the object of design, and when we recognize the reality of service as a struggle, we need to examine what kind of users and providers individuals become through service Designing the processes of struggle is critical for service design In this sense, I propose “user-de-centeredness” as opposed to “user-centeredness.” In order to de-center users, we need to treat the phenomena of users not as selfevident and complete entities but as performance That it to say, the subject of user is shaped through performativity One aspect of this performativity is how users present themselves As Goffman [5] showed, when we are in the presence of others, User-De-centeredness in Service Design 589 we present our definition of the situation and thereby present our “self.” In this sense, the action becomes performance Others, e.g., service providers, then accept the definition or challenge it Here, the notion of identity feels empty Instead of assuming identity, we must pay attention to the process by which the subject is constructed performatively through actions Therefore, we not assume users as absolute entities that have a distinct center The subject of the user is mutable, possessing incompleteness and contradictions As a result, user-de-centered design may not lead to user-friendly designs As highend sushi services are challenging to ordinary customers, a duel with a customer through which mutual recognition can be arrived at is an important goal of the design By asking a first-time customer who has just been seated, “What would you like?” without presenting any information as to what is available, the chef is defining the situation: his or her customers can respond to this question without any difficulty Experienced customers can succinctly say, “Hot sake, please.” Other customers may say, “U::m, we::ll, then beer::?” By producing the latter utterance while observing how the chef responds and expecting positive feedback, these customers “give off” the impression that they not feel at home [5] Such customers are not treated as those who have needs to fulfill; the gap between who they are and what they should be is produced, and this gap then urges the customers to strive for better performance Customer satisfaction is often cited as the ultimate goal of service Yet, if customers are in fact completely satisfied, they not recognize value-added in the service Rather, customers who are satisfied but still encounter a number of aspects of service they not completely understand or those who are overwhelmed by the service would see value-added Of course, the argument is not to reduce satisfaction In the case of high-end sushi, most customers enjoy the service but at the same time feel overwhelmed during the “duel”, or perhaps the satisfaction may stem from lasting through the duel itself Sushi chefs are certainly oriented to entertaining and satisfying customers The problem lies in the assumption that the goal of design is to achieve the harmony of fulfilled needs and customer satisfaction Without maintaining a nuanced and multi-faceted meaning of satisfaction, designers may make the mistake of jeopardizing the value-added qualities that they have set to achieve Alternatively, it is also risky to offer overly high quality service that is well beyond customers’ expectations Overreaching customer expectations is not sustainable, as each subsequent visit would require, even a higher level of service Furthermore, there has also been a historical production of the assumption that users have latent needs Here, designers are assumed to be transcendental beings that fulfill users’ needs, whereas in actuality the crucial point of service is not customer needs but the customers themselves These customers are worth engaging, and this engagement is often a struggle; they should not be unilaterally flattered The goal of services in which customers matter as humans is to engage in a duel, and then achieve mutual recognition, although this recognition is not completely harmonious and remains to some degree antagonistic Instead of a duel in which 590 Y Yamauchi there is an assumed outcome, designers need to open themselves to various possibilities that cannot be pre-defined In viewing service as a struggle, we could expect the following dynamic in the long-term, which needs to be examined in future work Customers may become oriented to acquiring more experience to meet to a chef’s expectations The future behavior of such customers would then theoretically put pressure on the chef to improve his or her skills further A well known chef in Tokyo wrote in his book [15]: If the number of customers who seriously delight in sushi decreases, the chef will loose the sense of tension and the sushi bar’s quality of food will decline Only when customers enjoy superlative quality of food and atmosphere, can they appreciate the real value of the sushi bar This is a quality that nourishes customers’ sense of taste, disciplines the chef who earnestly faces customers, and elevates the quality of the restaurant (translation by the present author) This two-way tension appears to be instrumental in maintaining and improving the level of service Chefs set a high standard for their customers in order to first elevate customer performance and then, reciprocally, their own actions How to Design Services How can we design such services? In the first place, the service is what customers read and decipher In restaurant services, customers try to discern the food and drinks For example, they may engage in specifying the region and vintage of wine, quality of fish, and the history and tradition of a particular cuisine At the same time, qualities such as those listed above should not be too easily comprehensible; the service should be designed so that it cannot be deciphered completely What is offered in service requires complexity Foods that are simply delicious are not an object to discern Instead, complex flavor is needed To appreciate such complex flavor, customers are required to accumulate experience This is often called acquired taste Whisky is a good example, as many people not like whisky when they try it for the first time Often people start to appreciate the subtlety of the taste only after acquiring more experience with the drink Mr Kenichi Hashimoto, the owner/chef of Ryozanpaku, a traditional restaurant in Kyoto, says that a combination of ingredients of similar tastes does not necessarily result in overall taste as these ingredients can negate each other In contrast, ingredients with distinct flavors can be combined to form interesting tastes In traditional Kyoto cuisine, there are certain dishes called “Deaimon” or matching taste For instance, bamboo shoots from the mountain and seaweed from the sea are matched The combination of dried cods and shrimp-shaped potatoes is another example Mr Seiichi Koshimizu, the chief whisky blender of Suntory Distillery, writes that blending so-called good whiskies creates a blend that is not completely satisfactory By adding a small amount of so-called poor whisky, the blend achieves a great taste He says, “100 plus one becomes 200.” User-De-centeredness in Service Design 591 These juxtapositions constitute a harmony of disharmony Paul Ricoeur [19] suggested that narratives contain disharmony and this is integrated into a harmonious configuration Nietzsche [e.g., 16] contrasted Dionysian and Apollonian values, proposing dialectics between them Dionysian refers to ecstasy, intoxication, and chaos, and is often characterized as dissonance, while Apollonian refers to brilliance and harmonious beauty Although Apollonian beauty is necessary, real beauty stems from the Dionysian dimensions Dissonant and conflicting ingredients are juxtaposed in a configuration engendering a profound taste This kind of value is not immediately comprehendible, but is co-created through customers’ deep reading This experience of reading constitutes the value For instance, when Mr Koshimizu created the blended 12-year old Whisky Hibiki with the goal of marketing it globally, he added whisky from plum wine barrels This addition did not drastically improve the taste; the aim was to guide customers to appreciate the taste by searching for the plum wine flavor when drinking the whisky This reading process creates a special drinking experience Mr Koshimizu designed the whisky with this in mind – it is a story that bartenders can tell their customers In service design, it is important to induce some element of surprise on the part of users The aim of this surprise is not only to delight a customer with an unexpected action but also to urge the customer to confront the service Mr Hideaki Matsuo, the owner/chef of Kashiwaya restaurant in Osaka, altered the traditional disk of Wakatake, a combination of bamboo shoots (Takenoko) and seaweed (Wakame) In the traditional dish, the unique texture of bamboo shoots is a highlight He, however, processes the bamboo into a paste According to Mr Matsuo, bamboo shoots have much more flavor than they texture; however many customers not even realize there are such flavors in this ingredient This type of unexpected design leads customers to search for the meaning of the dish This surprise therefore only signals the beginning of the duel Mr Hashimoto of Ryozanpaku also relies on surprise when making a subtle vegetable soup He adds various colorful vegetables to make it beautiful To this, he adds Kudzukiri, or starch noodles, which have little taste but a unique texture Customers begin to eat without special attention to the ingredients because it is a common dish However, once they bite into a Kudzukiri noodle, their curiosity is raised and they then start searching for other special ingredients in this dish This kind of design is rarely derived from a user-centered approach User-centered design seeks to render the service easy to understand and transparent by delivering clear and sufficient information and providing affordances for the users In contrast, a user-de-centered approach can aim at designs in which the service is made less transparent; e.g., the written menu is not provided and prices are not indicated In this design, users are challenged and drawn into a struggle, and as a result are encouraged to treat their own subjectivity as problematic and subsequently to make efforts to transform it In other words, not explaining the service—not even implicitly with affordance—is a key aspect of design Mr Matsuo said, “Each effort we make is very thin but we can build thickness by piling them up Customers not clearly understand it but feel it without specific 592 Y Yamauchi words.” This way, an overwhelming “thickness” is created and only a small part of it is conveyed to customers Customers go home without explicitly knowing the full extent of all elements involved in the service encounter This dialectic of surprise and silence turns user-centered service design on its head Is Service Design Possible? There is, however, a counter argument: User-de-centeredness still centers users who are de-centered There is no doubt that it is important to take users seriously Yet, user-centeredness implies the action of centering users This action is taken from a transcendental standpoint where a particular person, or persons, determines where the center is In other words, designers put themselves outside this world and outside the struggle Design is required to be endogenous to the object of design When we talk about endogenous design in the context of participatory design and inclusive design, we must recognize this problem The discourse that designers should involve users and obtain their participation is based on the assumption that designers have transcendental power For endogenous design, designers need to engage themselves in the struggle with users That participatory design and inclusive design require struggle with users is not paradoxical at all; it is necessity Therefore, we come to the conclusion: Design for users is an impossibility When Derrida [4] pointed out the impossibility of hospitality, he also suggested that this impossibility is the condition for its possibility If we design genuinely for users, there should not be an action of “designing” at all This is because the action of designing for users is transcendental and thereby undermines the goal it has set out to achieve in the first place If we expose ourselves to the struggle, we cannot design We must expose ourselves to open possibilities; this alone is inconsistent with the notion of design, which is to give form to what ought to be However, userde-centered design is possible precisely because of its impossibility That is to say, by moving past this impossibility, bringing oneself to the struggle, and thereby failing to design the service, we can attain the true value of service If we face services in the most fundamental sense, this conclusion appears inevitable We could seek to design a complete machine where humans are generally excluded and deny customers’ involvement in service production Here the human element is only brought in only in cases of exception; the exception – or problem – requires flattering the customer, and the fact that the act of flattery is the exception serves to maintain the semblance of a complete machine Having employees talk in a friendly manner with smiles on their faces has no place in the true meaning of service Certainly, this kind of service design is needed and important Services of this design have value as certain form of fantasy Insofar as people are seeking such fantasy, such services may become successful businesses However, it is also the case that such an approach has reached its limitations Because such services are so pervasive, people appear to be looking to alternatives If we see this user-centered service design as the only design approach User-De-centeredness in Service Design 593 available for us, and if we characterize traditional services such as sushi and ryotei (traditional high-end Japanese restaurants) only as outdated and dying phenomena, then we shut ourselves off from the most interesting and most promising domains of service design Conclusion User-de-centered design refers to a service design methodology that assumes users not as self-evident and static subjects but as an outcome of the service and involves specification of the process by which users transform their subjectivity In proposing this approach, this study outlined a central thesis that “service is a struggle.” This conception of service counters the commonsense views that services are harmonious, caring, and empathic Such characterizations gloss the surface appearances of service, a phenomenon that has a true value in the struggle through which participants are transformed User-de-centeredness is a unique service design approach that builds on this nuanced understanding of services This paper only engages in preliminary discussions of the concept of service as struggle and user de-centeredness The design methodology needs to be developed further to offer concrete design principles It remains unclear what specifically service designers can in the actual design context For this future direction, we need to specify the theoretical framework in more detail The discussion of user-de-centered has been inspired by the analysis of traditional and high-end services such as sushi and ryotei Yet, this design approach offers more value when it is applied to more common services We have pointed out that some semblance of a struggle is included in the design of many common services, and much more research can be done in this regard Furthermore, an interesting question has not been touched on: How can this kind of service be implemented in a different culture? In future work, we can explore these directions References Baudrillard J (1998) The consumer society Sage, Thousand Oaks Butler J (2011) Gender trouble Routledge, New York Corson T (2009) The story of Sushi HarperCollins, New York Derrida J (1997) Deconstruction in a nutshell Fordham University Press, New York Goffman E (1959) The presentation of self in everyday life Anchor, New York Greenbaum JM, Kyng M (1991) Design at work CRC, New York Gutek B et al (2002) Achieving service success through relationships and enhanced encounters Acad Manage Exec (1993) 16(4):132–144 Hegel GWF (1977) Phenomenology of spirit Oxford University Press, New York Lacan J (2006) E´crits W W Norton & Company, New York 10 Latour B (2007) Reassembling the social: an introduction to actor-network-theory Oxford University Press, New York 594 Y Yamauchi 11 Leidner R (1993) Fast food, fast talk University of California Press, Berkeley 12 Marx K, Engels F (1976) The German ideology Prometheus Books, New York 13 Mills PK, Moberg DJ (1982) Perspectives on the technology of service operations Acad Manag Rev 7(3):467–478 14 Mumford E (1983) Participative systems design: practice and theory J Occup Behav (1):47–57 15 Nakazawa K (2007) Human capacity of Sushi Bars (Sushi-ya No Ningen-ryoku) Bungei Shunju, Tokyo 16 Nietzsche F (1999) The birth of tragedy Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 17 Norman DA (2007) Emotional design Basic Books, New York 18 Norman DA, Draper SW (1986) User centered system design Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale 19 Ricoeur P (2012) Time and narrative University of Chicago Press, Chicago 20 Ritzer G (2000) The McDonaldization of society Sage, London 21 Schuler D, Namioka A (1993) Participatory design Erlbaum, Hillsdale 22 Simmel G (1917) Grundfragen der Soziologie G€oschen, Berlin 23 Stickdorn M, Schneider J (2011) This is service design thinking: basics – tools – cases BIS Publishers, Amsterdam 24 Yamauchi Y, Hiramoto T (2014) Negotiation of selves in initial service encounters: conversation analysis of sushi In: Mochimaru M et al (eds) Serviceology for services Springer, Tokyo A Probe-Based Approach for Designing Inspirational Services at Museums Kumiyo Nakakoji and Yasuhiro Yamamoto Abstract Our MESS (Museum Experiences and Service Science) project views a local museum as a place not only for communicating the fact and knowledge about exhibited objects with the visitors, but also for inspiring them We have designed and set up design probes in a museum exhibition as a way to investigate how visitors got inspired at a museum The applied design probes include LED-lit candles and a tea ceremony house for viewing old Japanese paintings, an improvisational dance workshop for appreciating an abstract modern-art sculpture, and an improvisational drama workshop for reading old family correspondence The study has led us to identifying a set of features for inspiration, and moreover, revealed that curators and museum administrators in turn got inspired by the representations produced by the visitors through their engagement in museum experience Keywords Service experience design • Probe-based design approach • Inspirational service • Museum service • Collective creativity Introduction Our MESS (Museum Experiences and Service Science) project focuses on the design of museum experiences as an inspirational service Museums are places for public service, which “acquire, conserve, research, communicate and exhibit the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity and its environment for the purposes of education, study and enjoyment” [1] We are particularly interested in the role of a museum as a cabinet of curiosities, which is said to be the origin of a museum A cabinet of curiosities is “an encyclopedic collection in Renaissance Europe of types of objects whose categorial boundaries were yet to be defined” [2] Although a museum is generally believed to be a place where objects of known value are carefully exhibited by the curators, it could also K Nakakoji (*) • Y Yamamoto Unit of Design, C-Pier, Kyoto University, Shimogyo, Kyoto 606-8306, Japan e-mail: kumiyo@acm.org © Springer Japan 2016 T Maeno et al (eds.), Serviceology for Designing the Future, DOI 10.1007/978-4-431-55861-3_41 595 .. .Serviceology for Designing the Future ThiS is a FM Blank Page Takashi Maeno • Yuriko Sawatani • Tatsunori Hara Editors Serviceology for Designing the Future Selected and Edited Papers of the. .. even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors... Japan These two industries provide products and services simultaneously They are good case for considering the business model for service; how to provide products to the customers The rest of the
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