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EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Peter W Hawkes CEMES-CNRS Toulouse, France Cover photo credit: Ronald E Burge; Imaging with Electrons, X-rays, and Microwaves: Some Scattered Thoughts Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics (2015) 191, pp 135–308 Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier 225 Wyman Street, Waltham, MA 02451, USA 525 B Street, Suite 1800, San Diego, CA 92101-4495, USA 125 London Wall, London, EC2Y 5AS, UK The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, UK First edition 2015 © 2015 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher’s permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our website: www.elsevier.com/permissions This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein) Notices Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein ISBN: 978-0-12-802253-5 ISSN: 1076-5670 For information on all Academic Press publications visit our website at http://store.elsevier.com/ PREFACE The two contributions to this volume of the Advances contain the abstracts of a conference on femtosecond electron imaging and spectroscopy, organized by M Berz and K Makino in December 2013 and an autobiographical essay by R.E Burge Ultrafast imaging is becoming of great importance and the collection of articles assembled by M Berz, P.M Duxbury, K Makino and C.-Y Ruan on the subject gives an excellent snapshot of the present situation and a glance into the future Their introduction to the chapter describes the range of topics covered in more detail The chapter by R.E Burge is one of a series of articles by major figures in electron physics K.C.A Smith has already contributed such an autobiographical article and others are planned, notably by A Broers These are a mixture of personal and scientific history, which will, I am convinced, be not only of interest to readers today but also valuable in the future as vivid pictures of the scientific climate Burge has been involved in research on the transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopes, on image processing and the phase problem, on scattering theory and on x-ray imaging He recounts his activities on all these topics at length and his chapter is thus valuable not only as a chronicle of these subjects but also as an evocation of the way research was carried out in the second half of the twentieth century Two errors in the chapter by A.R Faruqi, R Henderson and G McMullan (vol 190) were unfortunately overlooked In the eighth row of Table (page 134), the detector used was a Falcon (not a DE-12); the corresponding reference is D Veesler, T.-S Ng, A.K Sendamarai, B.J Eilers, C.M Lawrence, S.-M Lok, M.J Young, J.E Johnson, & C.-y Fu (2013) Atomic structure of the 75 MDa extremophile Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus determined by CryoEM and X-ray crystallography Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 5504–5509 In the second row of Table on page 135, the molecular weight should be 4.6 and the resolution 3.8A˚ As always, I am most grateful to the authors of these chapters for taking so much trouble to present their material so readably PETER HAWKES vii FUTURE CONTRIBUTIONS S Ando Gradient operators and edge and corner detection J Angulo Mathematical morphology for complex and quaternion-valued images D Batchelor Soft x-ray microscopy E Bayro Corrochano Quaternion wavelet transforms C Beeli Structure and microscopy of quasicrystals C Bobisch and R M€ oller Ballistic electron microscopy F Bociort Saddle-point methods in lens design K Bredies Diffusion tensor imaging A Broers A retrospective N Chandra and R Ghosh Quantum entanglement in electron optics A Cornejo Rodriguez and F Granados Agustin Ronchigram quantification L.D Duffy and A Dragt, (Vol 193) Eigen-emittance J Elorza Fuzzy operators R.G Forbes Liquid metal ion sources P.L Gai and E.D Boyes Aberration-corrected environmental microscopy V.S Gurov, A.O Saulebekov and A.A Trubitsyn Analytical, approximate analytical and numerical methods for the design of energy analyzers M Haschke Micro-XRF excitation in the scanning electron microscope ix x R Herring and B McMorran Electron vortex beams M.S Isaacson Early STEM development K Ishizuka Contrast transfer and crystal images K Jensen, D Shiffler and J Luginsland Physics of field emission cold cathodes M Jourlin Logarithmic image processing, the LIP model Theory and applications U Kaiser The sub-A˚ngstr€ om low-voltage electron microcope project (SALVE) C.T Koch In-line electron holography O.L Krivanek Aberration-corrected STEM M Kroupa The Timepix detector and its applications B Lencova´ Modern developments in electron optical calculations H Lichte Developments in electron holography M Matsuya Calculation of aberration coefficients using Lie algebra J.A Monsoriu Fractal zone plates L Muray Miniature electron optics and applications M.A O’Keefe Electron image simulation V Ortalan Ultrafast electron microscopy D Paganin, T Gureyev and K Pavlov Intensity-linear methods in inverse imaging N Papamarkos and A Kesidis The inverse Hough transform Q Ramasse and R Brydson The SuperSTEM laboratory Future Contributions Future Contributions xi B Rieger and A.J Koster Image formation in cryo-electron microscopy P Rocca and M Donelli Imaging of dielectric objects J Rodenburg Lensless imaging J Rouse, H.-n Liu and E Munro The role of differential algebra in electron optics J Sa´nchez Fisher vector encoding for the classification of natural images P Santi Light sheet fluorescence microscopy R Shimizu, T Ikuta and Y Takai Defocus image modulation processing in real time T Soma Focus-deflection systems and their applications I.F Spivak-Lavrov, (Vol.192) Analytical methods of calculation and simulation of new schemes of static and time-of-flight mass spectrometers J Valde´s Recent developments concerning the Syste`me International (SI) CONTRIBUTORS Martin Berz Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824, USA Ronald E Burge Emeritus Wheatstone Professor of Physics, King’s College University of London, UK Philip M Duxbury Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824, USA Kyoko Makino Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824, USA Chong-Yu Ruan Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824, USA xiii CHAPTER ONE Femtosecond Electron Imaging and Spectroscopy Proceedings of the Conference on Femtosecond Electron Imaging and Spectroscopy, FEIS 2013, December 9–12, 2013, Key West, FL, USA Martin Berz, Philip M Duxbury, Kyoko Makino1, Chong-Yu Ruan Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824, USA Corresponding author: e-mail address: makino@msu.edu INTRODUCTION We are witnessing tremendous opportunities in ultrafast sciences with the development of extremely bright radiation sources to investigate the structure and spectroscopy of matter with atomistic space and femtosecond time resolution While generally a strong focus has been on X-ray sources— notably free electron laser (FEL) sources—the use of femtosecond electron pulses has also shown enormous promise in the last decade, especially in the investigation of materials from the sub-micrometer down to the angstrom scale, facilitated by the high sensitivity of electron scattering and the relative ease in designing electron optics for imaging and diffraction from nanomaterials Moreover, important innovations have been achieved by incorporating ultrafast photoemission sources into various electron microscope setups Most recently, a new trend of integrating the FEL highbrightness electron beam concept into the ultrafast electron diffraction and microscope system design is likely to open up new prospects and applications of femtosecond diffraction, imaging, and spectroscopy with high throughput The conference on Femtosecond Electron Imaging and Spectroscopy (FEIS 2013) was held on December 9–12, 2013 in Key West, Florida FEIS 2013 built on the potential synergy between related technology developments and various emerging scientific opportunities and brought together Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Volume 191 ISSN 1076-5670 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aiep.2015.03.012 # 2015 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved Martin Berz et al leaders engaged in cutting-edge development of high-brightness electron and X-ray beam systems and their applications to frontier science problems FEIS 2013, the first in this series, was organized with the goal of initiating conversation between different communities with the following objectives in mind: (1) to review the current state-of-the-art development and open issues of ultrafast electron imaging technologies; (2) to discuss emerging scientific opportunities enabled by ultrafast imaging and spectroscopy; (3) to identify the key technical challenges in the design and applications of ultrafast electron imaging systems; and (4) to forge cross-fertilization between the electron microscopy, accelerator and beam physics, and ultrafast communities, and to have experimentalists and theorists address common challenges and promote synergistic developments 1.1 Synopsis of FEIS 2013 1.1.1 Current Status of Ultrafast Imaging and Spectroscopy Functional imaging and spectroscopy at the local level with atomic, electronic, and magnetic sensitivity are highly desirable for understanding structureproperty relationships at the nanometer-length scale and in complex materials Y Zhu (page 26) presented an overview of the broad scientific opportunities accessible by utilizing high-energy electrons, including atomic imaging, quantitative electron diffraction, energy-loss spectroscopy, and Lorentz and in situ microscopy, with an emphasis on understanding the materials’ functionality through correlative studies A community that incorporates electronic, magnetic, thermal, and optical excitations into conventional high-resolution electron microscopes for in situ imaging and spectroscopy studies is rapidly developing In particular, optical excitations can now routinely be employed on the femtosecond timescale, presenting an opportunity for unique photonic control and potentially imaging at high temporal resolution Ultrafast electron imaging and spectroscopy represents a natural next step of modern electron microscope development To form a diffraction pattern or image, typically 105 to 107 electrons are required In time-resolved electron microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopy systems, the electron sources are triggered by pulsed lasers, so the electron beams are delivered in discrete bunches, rather than a steady, diluted stream So-called space charge effects emerge due to the strong electronelectron interaction within a single photoelectron bunch, which may manifest itself in different forms (i.e., virtual cathode, defocusing, and stochastic blur, as discussed later) Several active technologies cleverly circumvent space charge effects and have achieved significant improvements in temporal Femtosecond Electron Imaging and Spectroscopy resolution using electron microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopy G H Campbell (page 15) presented the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using the single-shot approach By initiating intense photoelectron pulses using a 10-ns laser, the average distance between electrons, even at the 108 electron per pulse level, is more than 100 μm apart, suffering nearly no space charge effect except at the acceleration stage and near the focal plane Single-shot imaging of microstructure formation, including the kinetics of nucleation and phase transitions in semiconductors, phase change materials, and intermetallic compounds at combined $10 ns–10 nm spatiotemporal resolution, have been achieved using the DTEM In contrast, by operating at a high repetition rate ($100 MHz), as presented by S T Park (page 21), near-single-electron-pulse ultrafast electron microscopes (UEMs) developed at California Institute of Technology are used to study highly reproducible site-specific events, such as dynamical modes of nanomechanical systems and surface plasmons The fs singleelectron pulses, initiated on a LaB6 filament, are fully compatible with the existing electron optical system in a TEM, largely preserving its high spatial resolution and achieving in practical implementations an impressive sub-psnm resolution in a stroboscopic setup, where hundreds of thousands or more diffraction data sets are collected at each delay time The concurrence of ultrashort electron probing and fs laser excitation also enables a new modality of imaging, termed photon-induced near field electron microscopy (PINEM), that has been used to map the optically driven charge density distribution of nanoparticle plasmons The mechanism and implications of such studies were discussed by S T Park’s and in the talk by B Barwick’s (page 14) Both approaches are operated by modifying a conventional 100–200 keV TEM, maintaining the capability to retrieve local information So far, the most widely employed fs imaging protocol is the diffraction mode This ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) method initiated the field of electron-based ultrafast imaging; it was introduced in the 1990s first in gasphase studies of chemical reactions and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics, not long after the development of the largely optical spectroscopy–based fs-chemistry The timely development of single-electron-sensitive CCDs equipped with pixilated electron amplification and Ti-Sapphire amplified laser systems helped to make robust UED systems available for a range of relatively routine applications There were, however, earlier efforts in time-resolved electron diffraction and microscopy using nanosecond laser systems The history of these earlier and ongoing developments of CONTENTS OF VOLUMES 151-190 Volume 1511 Claas Bontus and Thomas K€ ohler, Reconstruction algorithms for computed tomography Laurent Busin, Nicolas Vandenbroucke and Ludovic Macaire, Color spaces and image segmentation Glenn R Easley and Flavia Colonna, Generalized discrete Radon transforms and applications to image processing Tomáš Radlička, Lie agebraic methods in charged particle optics Valerie Randle, Recent developments in electron backscatter diffraction Volume 152 Nina S.T Hirata, Stack filters: from definition to design algorithms Sameen Ahmed Khan, The Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation technique in optics Saverio Morfu, Patrick Marquié, Brice Nofiélé and Dominique Ginhac, Nonlinear systems for image processing Tohru Nitta, Complex-valued neural network and complex-valued backpropagation learning algorithm Jérôme Bobin, Jean-Luc Starck, Y Moudden and M.J Fadili, Blind source separation: the sparsity revoloution Ray L Withers, “Disorder”: structured diffuse scattering and local crystal chemistry Volume 153 Aberration-corrected Electron Microscopy Harald Rose, History of direct aberration correction Maximilian Haider, Heiko M€ uller and Stephan Uhlemann, Present and future hexapole aberration correctors for high-resolution electron microscopy Ondrej L Krivanek, Niklas Dellby, Robert J Kyse, Matthew F Murfitt, Christopher S Own and Zoltan S Szilagyi, Advances in aberrationcorrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy Philip E Batson, First results using the Nion third-order scanning transmission electron microscope corrector Andrew L Bleloch, Scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy: mapping materials atom by atom Florent Houdellier, Martin Hÿtch, Florian H€ ue and Etienne Snoeck, Aberration correction with the SACTEM-Toulouse: from imaging to diffraction Bernd Kabius and Harald Rose, Novel aberration correction concepts Angus I Kirkland, Peter D Nellist, Lan-yun Chang and Sarah J Haigh, Aberration-corrected imaging in conventional transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy Stephen J Pennycook, M.F Chisholm, A.R Lupini, M Varela, K van Benthem, A.Y Borisevich, M.P Oxley, W Luo and S.T Pantelides, Materials applications of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy Nobuo Tanaka, Spherical aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy for nanomaterials Knut Urban, Lothar Houben, Chun-lin Jia, Markus Lentzen, Shao-bo Mi, Andreas Thust and Karsten Tillmann, Atomic-resolution aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy Yimei Zhu and Joe Wall, Aberration-corrected electron microscopes at Brookhaven National Laboratory Lists of the contents of volumes 100–149 are to be found in volume 150; the entire series can be searched on ScienceDirect.com 313 Contents of Volumes 151-190 314 Volume 154 Volume 159 Henning F Harmuth and Beate Meffert, Dirac's Difference Equation and the Physics of Finite Differences Cold Field Emission and the Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope Albert Victor Crewe, The work of Albert Victor Crewe on the scanning transmission electron microscope and related topics Lyn W Swanson and Gregory A Schwind, A review of the cold-field electron cathode Joseph S Wall, Martha N Simon and James F Hainfeld, History of the STEM at Brookhaven National Laboratory Hiromi Inada, Hiroshi Kakibayashi, Shigeto Isakozawa, Takahito Hashimoto, Toshie Yaguchi and Kuniyasu Nakamura, Hitachi's development of cold-field emission scanning transmission electron microscopes Peter W Hawkes, Two commercial STEMs: the Siemens ST100F and the AEI STEM-1 Ian R.M Wardell and Peter E Bovey, A history of Vacuum Generators’ 100-kV STEM H Sebastian von Harrach, Development of the 300-kV Vacuum Generators STEM (1985–1996) Bernard Jouffrey, On the high-voltage STEM project in Toulouse (MEBATH) Andreas Engel, Scanning transmission electron microscopy: biological applications Kenneth C.A Smith, STEM at Cambridge University: reminiscences and reflections from the 1950s and 1960s Volume 155 Dmitry Greenfield and Mikhail Monastyrskiy, Selected Problems of Computational Charged Particle Optics Volume 156 Vasileios Argyriou and Maria Petrou, Photometric stereo: an overview Fred Brackx, Nele de Schepper and Frank Sommen, The Fourier transform in Clifford analysis Niels de Jonge, Carbon nanotube electron sources for electron microscopes Erasmo Recami and Michel Zamboni-Rached, Localized waves: a review Volume 157 Mikhail I Yavor, Optics of charged particle analyzers Volume 158 Péter Dombi, Surface plasmon-enhanced photoemission and electron acceleration with ultrashort laser pulses Brian J Ford, Did physics matter to the pioneers of microscopy? Jérôme Gilles, Image decomposition: theory, numerical schemes, and performance evaluation Stina Svensson, The reverse fuzzy distance transform and its use when studying the shape of macromolecules from cryo-electron tomographic data Marc van Droogenbroeck, Anchors of morphological operators and algebraic openings Dong Yang, Shiva Kumar and Hao Wang, Temporal filtering technique using time lenses for optical transmission systems Volume 160 Zofia Baranczuk, Joachim Giesen, Klaus Simon and Peter Zolliker, Gamut mapping Adrian N Evans, Color area morphology scalespaces Ye Pu, Chia-lung Hsieh, Rachel Grange and Demetri Psaltis, Harmonic holography Gerhard X Ritter and Gonzalo Urcid, Lattice algebra approach to endmember determination in hyperspectral imagery Reinhold R€ udenberg, Origin and background of the invention of the electron microscope H Gunther Rudenberg and Paul G Rudenberg, Origin and background of the invention of the electron microscope: commentary and expanded notes on Memoir of Reinhold R€ udenberg Contents of Volumes 151-190 Volume 161 Marian Mankos, Vassil Spasov and Eric Munro, Principles of dual-beam low-energy electron microscopy Jorge D Mendiola-Santibañez, Iván R TerolVillalobos and Israel M Santillán-Méndez, Determination of adequate parameters for connected morphological contrast mappings through morphological contrast measures Ignacio Moreno and Carlos Ferreira, Fractional Fourier transforms and geometrical optics Vladan Velisavlevic, Martin Vetterli, Baltasar Berufell-Lozano and Pier Luigi Dragotti, Sparse image representation by directionlets Michael H.F Wilkinson and Georgios K Ouzounis, Advances in connectivity and connected attribute filters Volume 162 Kiyotaka Asakura, Hironobu Niimi and Makoto Kato, Energy-filtered x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (EXPEEM) Eireann C Cosgriff, Peter D Nellist, Adrian J d’Alfonso, Scott D Findlay, Gavin Behan, Peng Wang, Leslie J Allen and Angus I Kirkland, Image contrast in aberration-corrected scanning confocal electron microscopy Christopher J Edgcombe, New dimensions for field emission: effects of structure in the emitting surface Archontis Giannakidis and Maria Petrou, Conductivity imaging and generalised Radon transform: a review Olivier Losson, Ludovic Macaire and Yanqin Yang, Comparison of color demosaicing methods Volume 163 Wolfgang S Bacsa, Optical interference near surfaces and its application in subwavelength microscopy Ruy H.A Farias and Erasmo Recami, Introduction of a quantum of time (“chronon”), and its consequences for the electron in quantum and classical physics Andrew Neice, Methods and limitations of subwavelength imaging 315 A Sever Škapin and P Ropret, Identification of historical pigments in wall layers by combination of optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy Markus E Testorf and Michael A Fiddy, Superresolution imaging–revisited Volume 164 Amos Bardea and Ron Naaman, Magnetolithography: from the bottom-up route to high throughput Román Castañeda, The optics of spatial coherence wavelets Junchang Li, Yanmei Wu and Yan Li, Common diffraction integral calculation based on a fast Fourier transform algorithm Marcel Teschke and Stefan Sinzinger, A generalized approach to describe the interference contrast and phase contrast method Dokkyu Yi and Booyong Choi, Nonlinear partial differential equations for noise problems Henning F Harmuth, Harmuth corrigenda Volume 165 Natalie Baddour, Two-dimensional Fourier transforms in polar coordinates Neil V Budko, Superluminal, subluminal, and negative velocities in free-space electromagnetic propagation Rowan Leary and Rik Brydson, Chromatic aberration correction: the next step in electron microscopy Michele Marrocco, Methods for vectorial analysis and imaging in high-resolution laser microscopy Tomoya Sakai, Masaki Narita, Takuto Komazaki, Haruhiko Nishiguchi and Atsushi Imiya, Image hierarchy in Gaussian scale space Yusuf Ziya Umul, The theory of the boundary diffraction wave Emil Wolf, History and solution of the phase problem in the theory of structure determination of crystals from x-ray diffraction measurements Volume 166 Valeriy Syrovoy, Theory of Intense Beams of Charged Particles Contents of Volumes 151-190 316 Volume 167 Emmanuel de Chambost, A history of Cameca (1954–2009) Johan Debayle and Jean-Charles Pinoli, Theory and applications of general adaptive neighborhood image processing Mohamed ben Haj Rhouma, Mohamed Ali Khabou and Lotfi Hermi, Shape recognition based on eigenvalues of the Laplacian Nicolas Loménie and Georges Stamon, Point set analysis Leonid P Yaroslavsky, Image recovery from sparse samples, discrete sampling theorem, and sharply bounded band-limited discrete signals Volume 168 Luca Geretti and Antonio Abramo, The synthesis of a stochastic artificial neural network application using a genetic algorithm approach Michel Jourlin, Josselin Breugnot, Frédéric Itthirad, Mohammed Bouabdellah and Brigitte Closs, Logarithmic image processing for color images Rainer A Leitgeb, Current technologies for high-speed and functional imaging with optical coherence tomography Sergej A Nepijko and Gerd Sch€ onhense, Analysis of optical systems, contrast depth, and measurement of electric and magnetic field distribution on the object's surface in mirror electron microscopy Chad M Parish, Multivariate statistics applications in scanning transmission electron microscopy Hidetaka Sawada, Fumio Hosokawa, Takeo Sasaki, Toshikatsu Kaneyama, Yukihito Kondo and Kazutomo Suenaga, Aberration correctors developed under the Triple C project Tobias Schulz, Martin Albrecht and Klaus Irmscher, Spatially resolved thermoluminescence in a scanning electron microscope Volume 169 Erchan Aptoula and Sébastien Lefèvre, Morphological texture description of grayscale and color images Vera Guarrera and Herwig Ott, Electron microscopy of ultracold gases Konstantinos Konstantinidis, Ioannis Andreadis and Georgios Ch Sirakoulis, Application of artificial intelligence to content-based image retrieval Xingwei Yang, Daniel B Szyld and Longin Jan Latecki, Diffusion on a tensor product graph for semi-supervised learning and interactive image segmentation S.A Nepijko and G Sch€ onhense, Electron holography for electric and magnetic field measurement and its application for nanophysics Volume 170 Alex S Eggeman and Paul A Midgley, Precession electron diffraction Ray Hill, John A Notte and Larry Scipione, Scanning helium ion microscopy Hone-Ene Hwang and Pin Han, Signal reconstruction algorithm based on a single intensity in the Fresnel domain Kazuhisa Sato, Toyohiko J Konno and Yoshihiko Hirotsu, Electron microscpy studies on magnetic L10 FePd nanoparticles D.A Zanin, H Cabrera, L de Pietro, M Pikulski, M Goldmann, U Ramsperger, D Pescia and John P Xanthakis, Fundamental aspects of near-field emission scanning electron microcopy Volume 171 Gregor Esser, Wolfgang Becken, Werner M€ uller, Peter Baumbach, Josep Arasa and Dietmar Uttenweiler, Derivation of the reflection equations for higher order aberrations of local wavefronts by oblique incidence Lila Iznita Izhar and Maria Petrou, Thermal imaging in medicine Jean-Michel Tualle, Derivation of the radiative transfer equation in a medium with a spatially varying refractive index: a review Kamlesh Shrivas and Mitsutoshi Setou, Imaging mass spectrometry Sample preparation, instrumentation and applications Robert T Thompson and Steven A Cummer, Transformation optics Contents of Volumes 151-190 Tobias Klein, Egbert Buhr and Carl Georg Frase, TSEM – a review of scanning electron microscopy in transmission mode and its applications Michel Jourlin, Maxime Carré, Josselin Breugnot and Mohamed Bouabdellah, Logarithmic image procesing: additive contrast, multiplicative contrast and associated metrics 317 Partha Pratim Mondal and Alberto Diaspro, Point spread function engineering for superresolution single-photon and multiphoton fluorescence microscopy Paul Murray and Stephen Marshall, A review of recent advances in the hit-or-miss transform Stephen J Sangwine, Perspectives on color image procesing by linear vector methods using projective geometric transformations Volume 172 Jay Theodore Cremer, Neutron and x-ray microscopy, Part Volume 173 Jay Theodore Cremer, Neutron and x-ray microscopy, Part Volume 174 Silicon-based Millimeter-wave Technology Measurement, Modeling and Applications M Jamal Deen and Ognian Marinov, Measurement techniques and issues Guennadi A Kouzaev, M Jamal Deen and Natalia K Nikolova, Transmission lines and passive components Mohamed H Bakr and Mohamed H Negm, Modeling and design of high-frequency structures using artificial neural networks and space mapping Oana Moldovan, Antonio Lỏzaro, Franỗois Danneville, Rodrigo Picos, Bogdan Nae, Benjamin Iniguez and M Jamal Deen, Nanoscale FETs M Daneshmand and R.R Mansour, RF MEMS switches and switch matrices Natalia K Nikolova, Maryam Ravan and Reza K Amineh, Substrate-integrated antennas on silicon Volume 175 Jay Theodore Cremer, Small angle scatter with correlation, scatter and intermediate functions Jay Theodore Cremer, Nuclear scatter of neutron spin states Christian Dwyer, Atomic-resolution core-level spectroscopy in the scanning transmission electron microscope Volume 176 Katsushige Tsuno, Damaschin Ioanoviciu, Early History of Wien Filters Damaschin Ioanoviciu, Katsushige Tsuno, Aberration Theory of the Wien Filter Katsushige Tsuno, Damaschin Ioanoviciu, Wien Filter Instrumentation Katsushige Tsuno, Damaschin Ioanoviciu, Simulation of Multipole Wien Filters Damaschin Ioanoviciu, Katsushige Tsuno, Wien Filter Applications to Ions Katsushige Tsuno, Damaschin Ioanoviciu, Application of Wien Filters to Electrons Volume 177 Michel Jourlin , Josselin Breugnot, Bassam Abdallah, Joris Corvo, Enguerrand Couka , Maxime Carré, Image Segmentation in the Field of the Logarithmic Image Processing Model: Special Focus on the Hierarchical Ascendant Classification Techniques Petros Maragos, Representations for Morphological Image Operators and Analogies with Linear Operators Kenneth C A Smith Electron Microscopy at Cambridge University with Charles Oatley and Ellis Cosslett: Some Reminiscences and Recollections Miguel José-Yacamán, Arturo Ponce, Sergio Mejía-Rosales, Francis Leonard Deepak, Advanced Methods of Electron Microscopy in Catalysis Research Volume 178 Tony Lindeberg, Generalized Axiomatic ScaleSpace Theory Agnieszka Lisowska, Smoothlet Transform: Theory and Applications Contents of Volumes 151-190 318 Evgeniy M Yakushev, Theory and Computation of Electron Mirrors: The Central Particle Method Volume 179 Claude Daviau, Invariant Quantum Wave Equations and Double Space-Time Niels de Jonge, In-Situ and Correlative Electron Microscopy Vladimir P Oleshko, James M Howe, Electron Tweezers as a Tool for High-Precision Manipulation of Nanoobjects Pilar Sobrevilla, Eduard Montseny, Aina Barcelo, Robustness Analysis of the Reduced Fuzzy Texture Spectrum and its Performance on Noisy Images Arturo Tejada, Wouter Van den Broek, Arnold J den Dekker, Measure-by-Wire (MBW): An Automatic Control Framework for HighThroughput Transmission Electron Microscopy Electron Microscopy (Institut f€ ur Biophysikund Elektronenmikroskopie der Universität D€ usseldorf ) 1958-1973 Nebojsa Neškovič, P Beličev, I Telečki, S Petrovič, Rainbow Lenses Ben Adcock, Anders Hansen, Bogdan Roman, Gerd Teschke, Generalized Sampling: Stable Reconstructions, Inverse Problems and Compressed Sensing over the Continuum Volume 183 M.M El-Gomati, C.G.H Walker, Toward Quantitative Scanning Electron Microscopy Laurent Navarro, Guy Courbebaisse, Michel Jourlin, Logarithmic Wavelets F Lanusse, J.-L Starck , A Woiselle, M J Fadili, 3-D Sparse Representations Volume 184 Volume 180 Anatoli A Ischenko, Sergei A Aseyev, TimeResolved Electron Diffraction: for Chemistry, Biology and Materials Science Mikhail Ya Schelev, Mikhail A Monastyrskiy, Nikolai S Vorobiev, Sergei V Garnov and Dmitriy E Greenfield, Aspects of Streak Image Tube Photography Volume 185 Ying Bai, Xiao Han, Jerry L Prince, Octree Grid Topology-Preserving Geometric Deformable Model (OTGDM) Maïtine Bergounioux, Second-order Variational Models for Image Texture Analysis Victoria Klang, Nadejda B Matsko, Electron Microscopy of Pharmaceutical Systems Pawel Berczynski, Slawomir Marczynski, Gaussian Beam Propagation in Inhomogeneous Nonlinear Media Description in Ordinary Differential Equations by Complex Geometrical Optics David Agard, Yifan Cheng, Robert M Glaeser, Sriram Subramaniam, Single-Particle Cryo-Electron Microscopy (Cryo-EM): Progress, Challenges, and Perspectives for Further Improvement Martin Welk, Michael Breuß, Morphological Amoebas and Partial Differential Equations Volume 182 Volume 186 Hans R Gelderblom, Detlev H Kr€ uger, Helmut Ruska (1908–1973): His Role in the Evolution of Electron Microscopy in the Life Sciences, and Especially Virology Hans R Gelderblom, Detlev H Kr€ uger, Peter W Hawkes Publications from the D€ usseldorf University Institute for Biophysics and Niels de Jonge, Marina Pfaff, Diana B Peckys Practical Aspects of Transmission Electron Microscopy in Liquid Jian-Jiun Ding, Soo-Chang Pei Linear Canonical Transform Andrey I Denisyuk, Alexey V Krasavin, Filipp E Komissarenko, Ivan S Mukhin Volume 181 Contents of Volumes 151-190 Mechanical, Electrostatic, and Electromagnetic Manipulation of Microobjects and Nanoobjects in Electron Microscopes Volume 187 Ahmed Elgammal, Homeomorphic Manifold Analysis (HMA): Untangling Complex Manifolds Teruo Kohashi, Spin-Polarized Scanning Electron Microscopy Volume 188 Allen M Carroll, Pattern Generators for Reflective Electron-Beam Lithography (REBL) Frank Gunzer, J€ urgen Grotemeyer, Recent Developments in Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Margit Pap, A Special Voice Transform, Analytic Wavelets, and Zernike Functions Colin J.R Sheppard, Shan S Kou, Jiao Lin, The Hankel Transform in n-dimensions and Its Applications in Optical Propagation and Imaging 319 Volume 189 Georges Lochak, Theory of the Leptonic Monopole, Part Harald Stumpf, Symmetry Breaking by Electric Discharges in Water and Formation of Lochak’s Light Magnetic Monopoles in an Extended Standard Model, Part Volume 190 Niels de Jongek, CISCEM 2014: Proceedings of the Second Conference on In situ and Correlative Electron Microscopy, Saarbr€ ucken, Germany, October 14–15, 2014 A R Faruqi, Richard Henderson, and Greg McMullan, Progress and Development of Direct Detectors for Electron Cryomicroscopy Peter W Hawkes, Electron Optics and Electron Microscopy Conference Proceedings and Abstracts: A Supplement Grzegorz Wielgoszewski and Teodor Gotszalk, Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM): How to Map Temperature and Thermal Properties at the Nanoscale INDEX Note: Page numbers followed by “f ” indicate figures and “t ” indicate tables A Aberration function, 186 AFM See Atomic force microscope (AFM) Amplitude contrast transfer function (ACTF) defocus dependence, 186–188, 187f Dekkers/De Lang detector, 167–168, 168f quadrant detector, 168–174, 170f Analytic Gaussian model, UEM, 124 cigarlike pulses, 125–127, 126t longitudinal and transverse bunch sizes, 125–126, 126f pancakelike pulses, 125–127, 126t pulse parameters, 125, 125f, 126t Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) plasmonic phenomena, 22 topological insulator, 30 Annular dark-field STEM detector, 161, 162f APEX gun, 7–8, 41 ARPES See Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) Asymptotic POGTD, 285–286 Atomic-detail structural dynamics, 16 Atomic force microscope (AFM), 96 Atomic-scattering factors, 188, 200, 211, 218 Attosecond temporal resolution, 4–5, 14, 22, 31 B Beam dynamics and optics Coulomb interaction effects, 52–53 electron bunch compression, 55 high-order spatiotemporal aberrations, 47 monochromatization, 48–49 pulsed photoemission TEM optimization, 50 short-pulse electron probe instruments, 51 space charge simulations, 56 Beam-sensitive material analysis diffractive imaging, 76–78 dose-limited resolution, 73–76, 75f radiation damage, 71–73 secondary damage, 78–79 TEM, 70–71 Binary optical filters, bright-field STEM Calcomp 1670 plotter, 206 central notch filter, 204f, 207 computer-plotted holograms, 202 ferritin optical system, 209–211, 210f off-axis reconstruction, 207, 208f preparation and use, 207–209 wavefront sampling, 204–206 Bohm-Pines plasma theory, 212, 226–227, 232–237 Bothe electron scattering model, 224–227, 226f Bright-field scanning transmission electron microscope imaging (Bright-field STEM) binary optical filters Calcomp 1670 plotter, 206 central notch filter, 204f, 207 computer-plotted holograms, 202 ferritin optical system, 209–211, 210f off-axis reconstruction, 207, 208f preparation and use, 207–209 wavefront sampling, 204–206 optical filtering, micrographs for, 188 phase and amplitude contrast images, 160–161, 163–167 Dekkers/De Lang detector, 161, 167–168, 168f quadrant detector, 168–174, 169–174f Rose detector, 161, 167 phase and amplitude contrast transfer functions, 186–188 spatial coherence, 192–193 temporal coherence, 194f weak-amplitude object, 190–192 weak-phase object, 188–190 321 322 C Calcomp 1670 plotter, 206 Campbell-Baker-Hausdorff theorem, 90–91 Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, 143–144, 148, 211–212, 302 Central notch filter, 204f, 207 Central slice theorem, 239 Charge and structural orders mapping, 5–6, 38 Charge coupled devices (CCDs), 3–4 Charge-density-wave insulator, 6, 29 Charged particle radiography, 116 Coherence length, 123–124, 123f Coherent acoustic modes graphite samples, 4, 18 metal films, 4, 16 solids, 4, 17 Coherent tabletop high-harmonic X-ray microscope, 5–6, 31 Cold ablation, 19 Compact DC electron diffractometer, 18 Compressed conventional electron microscope images collagen fibrils, 154, 156, 156f pattern recognition procedure, 157–158 thin tissue cell, 154, 157f yeast cell, 154, 155f Computer-plotted holograms, 183, 202, 205–206 Conference on Femtosecond Electron Imaging and Spectroscopy (FEIS 2013) beam dynamics Coulomb interaction effects, 52–53 electron bunch compression, 55 high-order spatiotemporal aberrations, 47 monochromatization, 48–49 pulsed photoemission TEM optimization, 50 short-pulse electron probe instruments, 51 space charge simulations, 56 current state-of-the-art development cold ablation study, 19 femtosecond and attosecond temporal resolution, 14 Index intense femtosecond laser pulse, 23–24 LPAs, 20 materials behavior probing, 2, 26 megaelectron-volt electron beam, 25 metal film structural dynamics, 16 phase transformation kinetics, 15 plasmon charge density, 3, 21 single crystalline graphite dynamical processes, 18 solids temporal resolution, 17 SPP wave propagation, 22 emerging scientific opportunities charge-density-wave insulators, 29 coherent tabletop high-harmonic X-rays, 31 Fermi surface photogeneration, 32 Floquet-Bloch bands, 5, 30 fsLEED, 33–34 manganite transition dynamics, 35 model systems, 28 oxides, metal-insulator transitions in, 36 polymer superstructure dynamics, 37 transition metal compounds, 38 high-brightness technologies APEX gun, 41 high-brightness electron beams, 44 laser RF synchronization, 42 RF gun, 45 single-shot ultrafast transmission electron microscopy, 43 X-band deflectors, 40 objectives, 1–2 synergistic development beam-sensitive material analysis, 70 cool beams, 115 Holstein model, 11, 83 interfacial dynamics probing, 132 multigigaelectron-volt electron radiography, 116 nanoscale specimen volumes, 81–82 in situ stages, 68–69 SPLEEM design, 131 TRXL, 96 UEM, multiscale modeling of, 11, 117 X-band radio frequency photoelectron guns, 98 synopsis, 2–11 323 Index Conventional electron microscope (CTEM) discrete cosine transform, 153–154 K-L transform, 153 optical image processing, 181–182 original vs compressed images collagen fibrils, 154, 156, 156f pattern recognition procedure, 157–158 thin tissue cell, 154, 157f yeast cell, 154, 155f Conventional FMM, 47 Cooperative Awards in Science and Engineering (CASE) studentships, 146 Cosslett’s rule, 154 COSY INFINITY (program), 58, 118 Coulomb interactions, 8, 53 CTEM See Conventional electron microscope (CTEM) D DA methods See Differential algebraic (DA) methods DCT See Discrete cosine transform (DCT) Dekkers/De Lang detector, 161, 167–168, 168f Detour phase method, 202, 202f, 204–209 Differential algebraic (DA) methods, 8–9, 47, 56–58 Diffractive imaging, 76–78 Discrete cosine transform (DCT), 153–154, 175 Dose-limited resolution (DLR), 73–76, 75f Dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM), 2–3, 15, 48–49, 51, 68 Dyson equation, 87–88 E EELS See Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) Electron bunch compression, 8, 55 Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) beam-sensitive material analysis, 70–71 layered manganite, 35 Electronic sum rules, 84–88 Electron imaging CTEM (see Conventional electron microscope (CTEM)) Elmiscope, 148–150, 149f Metropolitan Vickers EM3 electron microscope, 150–151 STEM (see Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)) Electron scattering differential total scattering cross sections, 228–231, 230–232f, 234–235f mass measurements, 212–214, 214f plural scattering, 223–228 Bothe approach, 224–227 Wentzel approach, 227–228 single elastic, 214–217 single inelastic, 217–222, 219–222f small angle single scattering, 232–237 Elmiscope, 148–150, 149f Energy spread, 123f, 124 Environmental scanning electron microscopy, 10, 132 ESPRIT I and II, 144–145 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 243–244, 252–257 F Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET), 40 FEIS 2013 See Conference on Femtosecond Electron Imaging and Spectroscopy (FEIS 2013) FELs See Free electron lasers (FELs) Femtosecond electron diffraction (FED), 4, 19 Femtosecond low-energy electron diffraction (fsLEED), 5–6, 33–34 Filter function (F’), 32 Fixed-beam TEM, 74 Floquet-Bloch bands, 5, 30 Fourier phase retrieval problem complex zero locations, 238–239 compressive sensing, 240 1D problems, 239 LDR, 238–239 nerve myelin, 239 Rouche’s theorem, 238 two-measurement approach, 239–240 zero factor flipping, 240–241 Fraunhofer optical diffraction pattern, 182, 202 Free atom inelastic scattering theory, 218, 219f, 232–237 324 Free electron lasers (FELs), 1, 98–99 fsLEED See Femtosecond low-energy electron diffraction (fsLEED) G Gaussian model See Analytic Gaussian model, UEM Geometric theory of diffraction, SAR imaging edge diffraction coefficient, 282–283 PO approximation (see Physical optics geometric theory of diffraction (POGTD)) vertex diffraction coefficient, 282–285 Green’s function, 83–85, 87–89 H Hanszen and Trepte envelope function, 193–194 Hartree-Fock wave functions, 216–217 Heisenberg representation operator, 89–90 Helstrom filter, 195 Heterogeneous catalysis, 132 High-brightness electron beam science, 7, 44 High-fidelity electron pulse characterization, 7–8, 40 High-order spatiotemporal aberrations, 47 High-resolution electron microscopy, 182–183 Holographic filter, 200–201 Holstein model, 84, 89–92 atomic limit electron density, 91–92 Heisenberg representation operator, 89–90 Newton’s generalized binomial theorem, 91 partition function, 90–91 electronic sum rules Green’s function, 84–85 moments, 85 self-energy moments, 87–88, 92 time derivative, Heisenberg representation of, 85–86 Hamiltonian, 84 phononic sum rules Green’s function, 88 moment, 88–89 Index retarded phonon Green’s function, 89 Hubbard-Holstein model, 94 I Image correction, 183 Imaging X-ray laser microscope (IXLM), 259–265, 261f, 263–264f Incoherent scattering factor, 219–221, 220–223f Intense femtosecond laser accelerated electron pulses, 4–5, 23–24 Interferometric time resolved photoemission electron microscopy (ITR-PEEM), 22 Ionization damage See Radiolysis IXLM See Imaging X-ray laser microscope (IXLM) J Joint Photographics Experts Group (JPEG) compression system, 154 K Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) transform, 153, 175–181 Knock-on displacement damage, 72–73 K-shell electron energy loss spectrum, 161, 162f L Laser-cooled, trapped rubidium atoms, 9, 115 Laser-plasma electron accelerators (LPAs), 4–5, 20 Laser RF synchronization, 7, 42 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), 243 LDRs See Logarithmic dispersion relations (LDRs) LEED See Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) Leica Cambridge electron beam system, 247–248, 248f Liouville’s theorem, 48–49 LLNL See Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Logarithmic dispersion relations (LDRs), 238–239 325 Index Lohmann-type computer-plotted binary holograms, 183, 202, 205–206 Los Alamos National Laboratory, 9, 116 Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), 5–6, 37 LPAs See Laser-plasma electron accelerators (LPAs) Luttinger theorem, 32 M Manganite, 5–6, 35 Mass scattering coefficient, 213 Materials and Radiation in the Extremes (MaRIE) facility, 116 Materials behavior probing, 26 Maxwell’s equations, 253–254, 275–276, 294 Metal film structural dynamics, 16 Metropolitan Vickers EM3 electron microscope, 150–151 MeV ultrafast electron diffraction and imaging, 4–5, 25 Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, 10, 71 Migdal-Eliashberg theory, 92 Mission Research Corporation’s MAGIC FDTD software package, 294–298, 295f, 297f MLFMM simulations See Multiplelevel, fast multipole method (MLFMM) simulations Modified Theory of Physical Optics (MTPO), 298 Molecular structural dynamics, 10, 96 Monochromators, 8, 48 Mott and Peierls physics, 38 MTPO See Modified Theory of Physical Optics (MTPO) Multi-GeV electron radiography, 9, 116 Multimodality, 6–7, 139 Multiplelevel, fast multipole method (MLFMM) simulations, 8–9, 56–57, 119–120, 121f N Nanoscale specimen volumes, 81–82 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross Section Database, 216 Next-generation ultrafast electron microscopes APEX gun, 41 high-brightness electron beams, 44 laser RF synchronization, 42 RF gun, 45 single-shot ultrafast transmission electron microscopy, 43 X-band deflectors, 40 Numerical simulation, 56 O Object wave function, 183–184 Optical image processing, 181–182 Order-selecting aperture (OSA), 248–249, 250f, 255–257 P Partial spatial coherence surface, 193, 193f Phase contrast transfer function (PCTF) defocus dependence, 186–188, 187f Dekkers/De Lang detector, 167–168, 168f quadrant detector, 168–174, 169f zero positions, loci of, 198–199, 199f Phase transformation kinetics, 15 Philips EM300 See Conventional electron microscope (CTEM) Phononic sum rules, 88–89 Phonon-window effect, 83 Photoemission electron microscopy, 22 Photo-induced structural dynamics, 33–34 Photon-induced near field electron microscopy (PINEM), 3, 14, 21 Physical optics geometric theory of diffraction (POGTD) asymptotic contribution, 285–286 edge diffraction coefficient, 283–284 experimental verification, 286–298 hypothetical canonical problems, 283, 285 PINEM See Photon-induced near field electron microscopy (PINEM) Plasma oscillation inelastic scattering theory, 218, 219f Plasmon charge density, 3, 21 Plural total electron scattering 326 Plural total electron scattering (Continued ) Bothe approach, 223–227, 226f Wentzel approach, 223–224, 227–228 PMMA See Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) POGTD See Physical optics geometric theory of diffraction (POGTD) Point spread function (PSF), 154, 160–161, 185, 205 Poisson distribution, 227 Polymer superstructure dynamics, 5–6, 37 Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), 37, 72, 74, 245, 252–253 Probing interfacial dynamics, 132 Probing materials behavior, 2, 26 PSF See Point spread function (PSF) Pulsed electron beams, 52 Pulsed transmission electron microscope, 8, 50 Pump-probe experiments, 28, 41, 100, 107, 117–118 Q Quadrant detector, 168–174, 169–174f Queen Elizabeth College University of London (QEC), 139, 141–145, 141f, 147–148, 150–151, 299–301 R Radiation dose, 72 Radiolysis, 71–73 Rapid relaxation dynamics, 6, 32 Rayleigh-Rice scattering theory, 276–277 Repulsive Coulomb interactions, 52 RF gun–based MeV transmission electron microscope, 7, 45 Rodman Medal of the Royal Photographic Society, 300 Rose detector, 161, 167 Rouche’s theorem, 238 Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE), 146, 275, 281–282f S SAR imaging See Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging S-band radio frequency photoelectron guns Index bunch length vs space charge, 102–106, 104–105f electron energy, 101–102, 102f Scanning near-field X-ray microscope (SNXM), 252–257, 253–255f, 258f Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) analyzer modes, 158–159, 160f annular dark-field detector, 161, 162f bright-field imaging (see Bright-field scanning transmission electron microscope imaging) collecting areas, design for, 158, 159f data acquisition system types, 158 diffraction mode, 158–159, 160f dose-limited resolution, 74 HB5 STEM prototype, 301–302 K-L transform, 175–181 K-shell electron energy loss spectrum, 161, 162f large collection angle mode, 159–160, 160f larger area mode, 159, 160f multiimage recording, 175 optical design, 163, 164f original vs compressed images, 180–181, 180t quadrant images, 176–178f in situ gas and liquid stages, 68–69 vs STOM, 163–164, 164f VG HB5 prototype, 151–152, 152f Scanning transmission optical microscope (STOM), 163–164, 164f Scanning-transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), 74, 248–251, 249f, 251–252f, 301–302 Schwarzchild condenser, 100–101 Secondary damage, 78–79 Short-pulse electron probe instruments, 51 Siemens Elmiscope I, 148–150, 149f Single crystalline graphite, 18 Single elastic electron scattering, 53, 214–217 Single inelastic electron scattering, 217–222, 219–222f Single-shot picosecond temporal resolution transmission electron microscopy, 7–8, 43 Single-shot tomographic imaging, 20 327 Index Single-shot ultrafast electron diffraction, 23–24 Small angle single scattering, 232–237 Small angular bright-field STEM detector, 160–161 SNXM See Scanning near-field X-ray microscope (SNXM) Soft X-ray absorption coefficients, 242–243, 242f Soft X-rays, 70–71 Space charge effects, 2–5, 8, 33–34, 47, 64–65, 76, 101–102, 118, 120, 126–128 Space charge limit equation, 102–103 Space charge simulations, 56 Spatial coherence bright-field STEM, 192–193 x-ray imaging dispersing diagnostic, 265–270, 265f, 267–268f, 270–272f evaluation parameters, 273–274 source size, 274 target configurations, 274 time dependence, 271–272, 273–274f Spatial coherence envelope function, 192–194, 194f Spin-polarized LEEM (SPLEEM), 9, 131 SPPs See Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) STEM See Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) Stochastic blur, 50 STOM See Scanning transmission optical microscope (STOM) Stroboscopic techniques, 52 Stroke’s double-sandwich holograph filter, 205–206 STXM See Scanning-transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), 22 Synchrotron X-rays, 70–71 Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging diffuse images, 277–280, 279f GTD edge diffraction coefficient, 282–283 PO approximation (see Physical optics geometric theory of diffraction (POGTD)) vertex diffraction coefficient, 282–285 object view, 277, 278f Olney, Bucks, 281, 281f RSRE, 275 specular images, 277, 280, 280f urban areas, 275–277, 281 T Tantalum disulfide (1T-TaS2), 38 Tecnai Femto ultrafast electron microscope, 50 TEM See Transmission electron microscope (TEM) TI See Topological insulators (TI) Time-resolved aberration corrected spinpolarized LEEM (TR-ACSPLEEM), 131 Time-resolved angle-resolved photoemission systems (tr-ARPES), 93 Time-resolved diffraction, 18 Time-resolved experiments, 83 Time-resolved X-ray solution scattering/ liquidography (TRXL), 10, 96 Topological insulators (TI), 5, 30 Total electron scattering cross sections aluminum films, 230–231, 232f, 235f carbon films, 229, 230–231f gold films, 231, 234f Transmission electron microscope (TEM), 70–71 Transverse emittance, 122, 123f tr-ARPES See Time-resolved angleresolved photoemission systems (trARPES) TRXL See Time-resolved X-ray solution scattering/liquidography (TRXL) U Ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) application, 3–4 metal films, 16 photoelectron RF gun (see X-band radio frequency photoelectron guns) Ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM), analytic Gaussian model, 124 cigarlike pulses, 125–127, 126t 328 Ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM) (Continued ) longitudinal and transverse bunch sizes, 125–126, 126f pancakelike pulses, 125–127, 126t pulse parameters, 125, 125f, 126t coulomb interactions, 52–53 femtosecond and attosecond temporal resolution, 14 nanoscale specimen volumes, 81–82 photoemission pulse generation longitudinal pulse width, 120, 121f MLFMM simulations, 119–120, 121f pancake regime vs.cigar regime, 122–124, 123f three-step photoemission model, 119 time-dependent longitudinal charge density profiles, 120, 121f virtual cathode limit, 118, 120–122, 122f plasmon charge density, 21 Ultrafast low energy electron diffraction (ULEED), 37 Ultrafast nonequilibrium processes application, 117 pump-probe technique, 117–118 Ultrafast phase transitions, 6, 36 Ultrafast photoemission sources, V Vacuum Generators HB5 STEM prototype, 245, 246f Vanadium dioxide (VO2), 38 van Cittert–Zernike theorem, 192 VG STEM HB5 prototype, 151–152, 152f, 301–302 Virtual cathode limit, 118, 120–122, 122f W Waller-Hartree electron exchange expression, 217–220, 220–221f, 226–227, 237 Water window, 241–242, 242f, 247–248 Weak-amplitude object imaging image intensity, 186 optical filtering concerns, 190–192 vs pure amplitude object imaging, 190 Weak-phase object imaging Index delocalization, 188–189 electron scattering factors, 189–190, 189t filter implementation (see Binary optical filters, bright-field STEM) image intensity, 185 sharpened radial distribution functions, 200 Wentzel electron scattering model, 227–228 Wiener-Helstrom optimum filter, 195 X X-band deflectors, 7–8, 40 X-band radio frequency photoelectron guns, 10–11 operation procedure, 98–99 vs S-band gun bunch length vs space charge, 102–106, 104–105f electron energy, 101–102, 102f schematic diagram, 100, 101f TOF vs laser-to-RF timing jitter, 109–110, 109f measurements, 110–112, 111f vs RF field amplitude, 108, 108f X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL), 25 X-ray imaging absorption coefficients, 242, 242f IXLM, 259–265, 261f, 263–264f SNXM, 252–257, 253–255f, 258f spatial coherence dispersing diagnostic, 265–270, 265f, 267–268f, 270–272f evaluation parameters, 273–274 source size, 274 target configurations, 274 time dependence, 271–272, 273–274f STXM, 248–251, 249f, 251–252f transmission and surface topography, 257–259, 260f zone plate fabrication, 245–248, 246–248f Z Zone plate fabrication carbon contamination, 245, 246f Leica Cambridge electron beam system, 247–248, 248f polyimide, 245, 247f ... Ronald E Burge; Imaging with Electrons, X-rays, and Microwaves: Some Scattered Thoughts Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics (2015) 191, pp 135–308 Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier... experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and. .. Miniature electron optics and applications M.A O’Keefe Electron image simulation V Ortalan Ultrafast electron microscopy D Paganin, T Gureyev and K Pavlov Intensity-linear methods in inverse imaging
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