Cross culutural study adressing form

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UBND THÀNH PHỐ HẢI PHÒNG TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC HẢI PHÒNG  BÁO CÁO TỔNG KẾT ĐỀ TÀI NGHIÊN CỨU KHOA HỌC CỦA SINH VIÊN THAM GIA HỘI NGHỊ SINH VIÊN NCKH NĂM HỌC 2017 - 2018 A CROSS– CULTURAL STUDY OF ADDRESS FORMS IN GREETINGS IN VIETNAMESE AND ENGLISH CULTURES Thuộc Tiểu ban: NCKH khoa Ngoại Ngữ Hải Phòng, tháng năm 2018 TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC HẢI PHÒNG KHOA NGOẠI NGỮ  BÁO CÁO TỔNG KẾT ĐỀ TÀI NGHIÊN CỨU KHOA HỌC CỦA SINH VIÊN THAM GIA HỘI NGHỊ SINH VIÊN NCKH NĂM HỌC 2017 - 2018 A CROSS– CULTURAL STUDY OF ADDRESS FORMS IN GREETINGS IN VIETNAMESE AND ENGLISH CULTURES Thuộc Tiểu ban: NCKH khoa Ngoại Ngữ Sinh viên thực hiện: Ngô Hương Thảo (trưởng nhóm) Nữ Nguyễn Thị Thanh Nga Nữ Phạm Thị Thanh Nữ Dương Thị Liên Nữ Trần Quang Minh B Nam Dân tộc: Kinh Lớp, khoa: DHNNA3 K15 Năm thứ: 4/Số năm đào tạo: Ngành học: Ngôn Ngữ Anh Người hướng dẫn: Thạc sỹ Nguyễn Văn Phi Hải Phòng, tháng năm 2018 TABLE OF CONTENTS LISTS OF TABLES, FIGURES PART A: INTRODUCTION .3 1.Rationale Aims of the study Research questions 4 Scope of the study Method of the study Organization of the study PART B: DEVELOPMENT Chapter Theoretical background .6 1.1 Language and culture 1.2 Communication and cross- culture communication .7 Chapter 2: Addressing forms in greetings in Vietnamese and English 2.1 Addressing forms in greetings 2.3 Similarities and differences between Vietnamese and English informants in using address forms 13 2.4 Solutions for the cultural shock in greeting 24 PART C: CONCLUSION 26 Recapitulation .26 Suggestions for Further Studies 26 REFERENCES 28 LISTS OF TABLES No Name Table Some addressing forms can be classified in terms of Page 13 personal pronouns Table 2: English addressing forms 14 Table 3: Vietnamese addressing forms 15 Table 4: Lineal relations 17-18 Table 5: Collateral relations 19-20 PART A: INTRODUCTION Rationale An emphasis on language as a communication system not only helps uncover principles underlying social interactions, but also enables us to gain an access to ways of thinking, belief systems, and world views of people from various cultural backgrounds and thus enhances empathy and mutual understanding Understanding social conventions and attention to such concepts as politeness, and face, which are important to members in a particular culture, will certainly enable us to better comprehend the different ways of speaking by people from different cultures, thus helping eliminate ethnic stereotypes and misunderstanding There have been so far plenty of researches on the field of politeness from various perspectives Yet, addressing forms in languages is still an area available for more explorations This research has chosen addressing forms as a potential subject This study is done not only to see the similarities and differences between the two cultures Another goal of this research is to give the awareness of the language learners about the politeness of addressing forms in language, and to offer several suggestions in using the appropriate forms of addressing Nevertheless, addressing forms is a very broad area, and within the limit of the study, it is impossible to discuss all aspects of addressing forms in languages As greetings is the first step and it is also the most important in a conversation, so it requires the speakers address accurately in order not to lose the face of the hearers Compared with English addressing system, Vietnamese addressing system is much more complicated and diversified A lot of foreigners find it very difficult and confusing to use Vietnamese addressing forms They regard accessing to Vietnamese addressing forms as entering a maze Even Vietnamese natives sometimes make mistakes for using them Therefore, Vietnamese addressing forms are said to be the most intricate features in Vietnamese language for those who study Vietnamese For any of those purposes, the study promises to make itself meaningful, reliable and applicable to the reality Aims of the study For all the reasons mentioned above, the study contains the following different aims: First of all, the study can help learners know more about the relation between language and communication, culture and cross-cultural communication Secondly, we know that addressing forms is one of the important factors in conversation, that is why this study can help learners and users of English know how to address their interlocutors in a specific circumstance reasonably by using suitable forms of address Lastly, cross-cultural study can give us a chance to find out the similarities and differences in two countries through their cultures Thus, this study supports the fundamental knowledge of culture for Vietnamese users of English as students, translators and learners in order to avoid cultural shocks or cross-cultural conflicts involving the addressing forms in greetings in global communication Research questions The study aims at answering the following questions: - What are the greeting forms commonly used by English native speakers? - What are the greeting forms commonly used by Vietnamese people? - What are the differences of using addressing forms between Vietnamese and English people? Scope of the study Addressing forms in communication is really an interesting issue, especially in crosscultural communication There are many famous Vietnamese and foreign linguistics and scholars having done researches on this linguistics field such as Brown and Levinson (1987), Nguyen Quang (2001), etc They have analyzed or compared almost all aspects of this field However, in cross-cultural communication we want to reach communication goal and also take addressing forms into consideration A person in different relationship has different addressing forms The speaker may be children, parents, brothers in family or relatives The speakers may be in high or low rank in office, he/she may be older or younger compared interlocutors Therefore, the study enables learners to thoroughly understand addressing forms of the foreign language in comparison with mother tongue In this paper, we only deal with the characteristics of the addressing forms in greetings in Vietnamese and English cultures and the similarities and differences in using them in cross-cultural communication Method of the study The first step was to search the library and the Internet for books, magazines and articles on etiquettes, especially on addressing forms in greetings as well as previous researches in the field The main method employed in this study is quantitative with material collecting and analyzing Organization of the study This research consists of three main parts They are: Part A is the introduction of the research paper in which the author presents the reason for choosing the subject, the aims, the scope, the methods and the organization of the study Part B is the development with two main chapters: Chapter 1: Theoretical background Chapter 2: Addressing forms in greetings of Vietnamese and English Part C is the conclusion of the research paper, which summarizes the content mentioned in part B and gives suggestions for further studies PART B: DEVELOPMENT Chapter Theoretical background 1.1 Language and culture 1.1.1 What is language? According to Grigg (1993), “Language is the remarkable system that allows people to communicate an unlimited combination of ideas using a highly structured stream of sounds” Language is the method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in an agreed way As we know that, a language is a system of sign for encoding and decoding information So, language is a system for communicating Written language use symbols to build words The entire set of words is the language’s vocabulary The ways in which the words can be meaningfully combined is defined by the language’s syntax and grammar The actual meaning of words and combinations of words is defined by the language’s semantics 1.1.2 What is culture? There are many various definitions Culture would be defined by some as the art, literature, and music of the people It might include their architecture, history, religion and their traditions Other definitions would focus more on the customs or values of the people According to the UNESCO, “culture is a set of symbolic systems which regulate the behavior and mutual communication of a plurality of people, establishing them into particular and distinct community” (cited from Bui Tuan Anh, 2006) 1.1.3 The relation between language and culture The connection between the human capacities for culture and language has been noted as far back as classical antiquity As language and culture are both in essence symbolic systems, 20th century culture theorists, have applied the methods of analyzing language developed in the science of linguistics to also analyze culture According to Levine and Adelman (1982), the relation between language and culture is more complex than the coordinate title language and culture would suggest Language is, of course, an integral part of culture, defined simplistically as the totality of beliefs and practices of a society 1.2 Communication and cross- culture communication 1.2.1 Communication Definition of communication Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs or behavior (Pride, 1985) It is clearly seen that the way we communicate and the way we understand another person’s communication is a result of our knowledge and past experiences That means communication can take place anywhere and is carried out by anybody People communicate as eye contact, facial expression, proximity, posture, gesture and verbal language which are more used In communication, interlocutors show their attitude, relationship, mood, understanding, confusion and a whole range of other things and convey a range of meaning in deferent culture, from insults to approval or even attraction The role of addressing forms in communication In communication, language plays an important role in conveying our thinking and expressing our feeling and attitude in daily communication, meanwhile, addressing forms belongs to the language system That is why using address forms are compulsory in communication It allows participants to make turn taking, reveal relationship, social status… Participants are both speaker and listeners involved directly in conversation And using forms of address, especially forms of address in greetings can help us know interlocutors’ emotion, feeling as well as their knowledge, culture, politeness and respect to each other People who are involved in conversation should depend on objects and other features of communicative situation such as age, sex, family relationship, social status and power 1.2.2 Cross- culture communication The term “cross- culture” usually refers to the meeting of two cultures or two languages across the political boundaries of nation states They are predicated on the equivalence of one nation- one culture- one language, and on the expectation that “culture shock” may take place upon crossing national boundaries Cross- cultural communication: communication (verbal and nonverbal) between people from different cultures; communication that is influenced by culture values, attitude and behavior; the influence of culture on people’s reactions and responses to each other (Nguyen Quang, 2012) 1.2.3 Cross- culture of addressing forms in greetings According to Smith (1987), addressing forms in greeting is a phenomenon of language And as language is believed to be women into every fabric of every human culture, it can be said that addressing forms in greetings is an element of culture The use of addressing forms in greeting by Vietnamese and English people is surely affected by cultural features and cross- culture communication To partially help avoid the culture shock in this area, this research will discuss some main characteristics of the way Vietnamese and English people using forms of address in greeting It also can help us know more about the way we can make a polite greeting by using the forms of address of Vietnamese and English people 14 forms don’t include in themselves any information of sociolinguistic factors or the formality of the communication 2.3.2.Contrasting of English and Vietnamese addressing form Personal pronoun Personal pronoun is a word used instead of a noun that represents a specific person Its use depends on number (singular, pural), person (first, second, third), gender (male, female, neutral), and case (subject, object) These two following tables will illustrate the difference between English and Vietnamese personal pronoun English personal pronoun singular subject Plural object reflexive subject object Reflexive me myself we us Ourselves you yourself you you Yourselves third masculine he him himself they them Themselves feminine she her Herself neuter it it Itself first second you Table 2: English addressing forms Persons Number 15 P1 (addressor) P2 (English "I/we") tao ta tớ / Chúng tơi Chúng tao ta/chúng ta (addressee) P3 (third person (English "you") referent) (English "he, she, it/they") nó, hắn, y / Singular mày, mi mi cậu, bạn, trò bạn Các bạn Chúng nó, chúng, Plural Chúng mày, họ, bây,chúng bây ,tụi mày, tụi bây Chúng tớ Các cậu mình, chúng mình, Các bạn tụi Table 3: Vietnamese addressing forms As these two tables can be seen, Vietnamese and English personal pronoun must be in agreement with correct gender and number of people being described However, Vietnamese has more forms of personal pronoun than English does There are five common pronouns for the first person singular reference and the corresponding plural forms for five singular forms by adding “chúng” to them “Mình” and “ta: can be used in both plural and singular form In the second person reference, there exist three singular and corresponding plural forms The third person reference includes four commonly used pronouns in the singular form and three in plural In English personal pronoun, there are only two forms for the first person: I (singular) and we (plural) You are used for both the second singular and plural person The third person includes three singular forms, such as he, she and it; and only one plural form - they In the first and second person, they exist in to neutral dyadic pairs (I - You and We - You) which are regarded as prefabricated units because they are used to communicate in any context and with everyone, not containing any information of gender, age or social and family relationship as well as the formality of communication The third person is 16 only used to refer to the difference of gender but age between the speakers and listeners in any dimensions of the communication As for grammar, Vietnamese personal pronoun, unlike English personal pronoun, does not have transformation from subjective form to objective form so Vietnamese one can be used as both subject and object in sentences In English personal pronoun, there is a clear distinction between subjective and objective forms of addressing Each subjective form also has its own relevant objective form Eg: Cô yêu She loves me Tôi yêu cô I love her In Vietnamese personal pronoun: the subjects are the same with the objects: cô ấy, In English personal pronoun: “she” has the objective form “her”, “I” have the objective form “me” Kinship Term Kinship terms, according to E R Leach , are “category words by means of which an individual is taught to recognize the significant groupings in the social structure into which he is born” (as cited in Leach,1958, p 143) All languages in the word have kinship terms, which are clearly highlighted in addressing forms of a language Without exception, all kinship terms make use of such factors as age, sex, generation, blood and marriage in their society Both English and Vietnamese languages also have their own kinship terms, which cannot be translated into each other equivalently There are both similarities and differences between English and Vietnamese kinship terms through the following table and table 4: Relation to ego English term Vietnamese term 17 Reciprocal grandfather Ông nội Ông ngoại Cháu cháu grandmother Bà nội Bà ngoại Cháu cháu Father father Ba, cha, tía, bố Mother mother Mẹ, má, u, bầm elder brother brother Anh trai Em trai em sister Chi gái Em gái Cha, má, bố, mẹ… Son son Con trai Cha, má, bố, mẹ… Daughter daughter Con gái Cha, má, bố, mẹ… son’s son grandson Cháu trai ( cháu Ơng bà nội, ơng bà paternal grandfather maternal grandfather paternal grandmother maternal grandmother younger brother elder sister younger sister nội daughter’s son or cháu ngoại ngoại) son’s daughter granddaughter Cháu gái ( cháu Ơng bà nội, ơng bà daughter’s nội daughter ngoại) or cháu ngoại Table 4: Lineal relations Relation to ego father’s elder brother English term uncle Vietnamese Reciprocal term Vietnamese Bác cháu 18 father’s younger brother Chú mother’selder brother Bác mother’s younger brother Cậu father’s elder/ younger sister aunt Bác, cô cháu mother’s elder/ younger sister Bác, dì father’s brother’s son (elder / cousin Anh em trai Em, anh, chi younger) bà father’s sister’s son (elder / Anh em trai younger) họ hàng mother’s brother’s son(elder / younger) mother’s sister’s son(elder / Chị em gái younger) họ hàng father’s brother’s daughter(elder Chị em gái / younger) bà father’s sister’s daughter(elder / younger) mother’ brother’s daughter(elder / younger) mother’s daughter(elder / younger) brother’s son sister’s son wife’s sibling’s son husband’s sibling’s son sister’s nephew Cháu trai Chú, 19 brother’s daughter niece Cháugái Cậu, dì aunt Bác cháu sister’s daughter wife’s sibling’s daughter husband’s sibling’s daughter mother’selder brother ‘ wife mother’s younger brother’ wife Mợ father’s elder brother’ wife aunt Bác cháu father’s younger brother’ wife thím Father in law ( paternal and Father in law Ba, cha bố maternal ) chồng/vợ Mother in law ( paternal and Mother maternal ) law Elder/ younger brother’s wife Sister Elder/younger sister’s husband in Mẹ, má chồng/ vợ Chị dâu Em, chị, anh Em dâu brother Anh rể, em rể Elder/ younger brother in Brother law( paternal and maternal ) Anh/ em Anh, chi, em chồng ( vợ) sister Elder/younger sister in Chi/ law( paternal and maternal ) em chồng ( vơ) Daughter’s husband Daughter in Con dâu Son’s husband law Ba.mẹ 20 Son in law Con rể Table 5: Collateral relations In both English and Vietnamese kinship systems, addressing forms are used to emphasize people who are related by blood and marriage (collateral and lineal) Eg: Parent’s parents: grandparents (English), ông bà (Vietnamese) Parent’s sister: aunt (English), cơ, dì, bác (Vietnamese) In both languages, kinship terms differentiate between generations (the difference between a child and a parent) and between sexes (the difference between a brother and a sister) Moreover, both the two kinship systems distinguish between relatives by blood and marriage Eg: son/daughter: Offspring son/ daughter (English), đẻ/ ruột (Vietnamese) Son in law, daughter in law (English); rể, dâu (Vietnamese) In contrast to English kinship terms, there exist more specific and complex kinship terms in Vietnamese, most of which not have equivalents in English language Kinship and family relationships in Vietnam are more accurately described as an intricate network and complicated pattern of relationships, while English ones are less complex, full and fastidious Why the Vietnamese kinship system is more complicated than English one? Firstly, Vietnam is a family-centered tradition country, while English culture focuses on the independence of individuals Vietnamese people treasure the close family relationship highly and like to live together with or near their families (Ho Thi Loan, 2007) Complicated Vietnamese family hierarchy is the dominant factor in choosing the right addressing term By contrast to Vietnamese, individualism has long been considered as a characteristic of the dominant ideology in English culture They think much of privacy of individuals Hence, they don’t need so many kinship terms to keep together the familial relations.Secondly, Vietnamese kinship emphasizes patrilineal relationship, while English one does not Vietnamese people attach much importance 21 to consanguineous relations and affinal ones, which connotes by kinship terms apparently There are the difference of kinship terms between paternal lineages and maternal ones, such as :cháu nội/cháu ngoại, ông nội/ ông ngoại and ba vợ/ ba chồng While in English, maternal and paternal lineages are not distinguished so distinctly We even cannot distinguish an “uncle” whether is one’s father’s brother or one’s mother’s brother Thirdly, Vietnamese culture emphasizes “superior controls junior”, while the descendant and the elderly relate to each other as friends in English In Vietnam, that the descendant is not allowed to call the elderly by name is considered against the traditional morality and social order Therefore, exact kinship forms are necessary in addressing to distinct elderly kinds In English, the descendant is allowed to call the elderly by name, which is a way to perform intimacy in English culture The relative age of a sibling relation may be not considered while addressing For example, “brother” applied to “elder brother” and “younger brother” are both practicable Fourthly, the gender of the relative is distinguished in Vietnamese culture, while not in English In Vietnamese culture, the gender of the relative is differentiated distinctly For example, title for “father’s brother’s son” (anh bà con) is strictly distinguished from that for “father’s brother’s daughter” (chị bà con) English kinship system may ignore the sex distinction For example, all male and female children of a person’s father/mother’s brother/sister can be called by the same term “cousin” It may refer to the mother’s brother’s son, mother’s brother’s daughter, mother’s sister’s son, mother’s sister’s daughter, father’s brother’s son, father’s brother’s daughter, father’s sister’s son, father’s sister’s daughter, and so on As for grammar, Vietnamese kinship terms are used for all first, second and third person reference in structural sentences In contrast to Vietnamese ones, English kinship terms are only used for 3rd person reference Eg: In Vietnam: - Con yêu mẹ ( mẹ: the second person) Mẹ yêu ( mẹ: the first person) Cháu yêu mẹ ( mẹ: the third person) In England: 22 - I love my mother ( my mother: the third person) Apart from above two main contrastive points: personal pronouns and kinship terms, Vietnamese and English also have differences in using occupational titles, demonstrative pronouns and proper names In Vietnamese, occupational titles, demonstrative pronouns and personal names are used as modes of address and reference to address others and to refer to oneself more commonly than in English Proper Name Vietnamese speakers refer to themselves and others by name where it would be strange if used in English, eliminating the need for personal pronouns altogether For example, consider the following conversation Peter: Mary làm vậy? Mary: Mary gọi Joe John có biết Joe đâu không? John: Không, John Joe đâu hết Directly translated into English, the conversation would run thus: John: What is Mary doing? Mary: Mary is calling Joe Does John know where Joe is? John: No, John doesn't know where Joe is While referring to oneself or the audience by name would be considered strange in English because English people always use surname with the titles, such as Mr, Miss, Mrs and Ms in formal context or just use “I and You” in any context , in Vietnamese it is considered friendly, and is the preferred way to communicate with close friends However, Vietnamese with a lower rank cannot refer to their superiors by name in a kinship context Occupational status The next point I want to contrast between English and Vietnamese addressing system is occupational status In Vietnamese addressing system, there are occupational titles used to address someone by their own occupation, such as đồng chí ('comrade'), giáo sư ('professor'), and bác sĩ ('doctor') Moreover, there also exist occupational 23 titles with proper names, such as “giáo sư Mai”, “thầy giáo Hùng” and “trưởng phòng Lan” They are can be used as the second and third personal reference Eg: In Vietnam Patient: Bác sĩ ơi, khám thử xem tay em bị mà chảy mổ hôi miết Doctor: Được rồi, chị ngồi xuống để khám English addressing system, unlike Vietnamese one, they use a neutral dyad “ I and You” when talk to each other It does not depend on their occupation as well as their position in the society They often use their own occupation following with their sur name as the third person in formal content For example, when introducing someone, they combine his/her own occupation with the sur name, such as Doctor David and Professor Mark Demonstrative Pronoun Demonstrative pronoun is used to distinguish the particular objects or people that are referred to from other possible candidates (this, that, these and those) More interestingly, it is a special addressing term that exists only in Vietnamese addressing form, especially in love relationship, such as đây, đằngnày…for the speaker and đây, đằng ấy, for the hearer It can be used independently (not follow with noun) to refer somebody as the first and second person Eg: Boy: Cho đằng hỏi đằng câu nhé? Girl: Dạ, đằng hỏi As for English language, demonstrative pronoun is also used to demonstrate people but must follow with a noun when referring someone, for example: this teacher, that person Eg: Marry: Do you know that person over there? Peter: Yes, he is my brother in law 2.4 Solutions for the cultural shock in greeting 2.4.1 Keep an open mind Do not automatically perceive anything that is different to be "wrong" Withholding judgment will allow you to be an objective observer and will facilitate the process of 24 cross-cultural understanding (Yule, 1996) Also, if you are going to a country with which you know close to nothing about, a little background information As you learn about the country in which you are going to, keeping an open mind is necessary, and, who knows, you may find the reason for something you may not understand 2.4.2 Make an effort to learn the local language This increases your communication skills and it helps you to integrate with the local community It also demonstrates your interest in the new country 2.4.3 Get acquainted with the social conduct of your new environment Do not assume or interpret behavior from your own cultural perspective or "filter" Behavior is not data For example, British often use the phrase "How are you?" to mean "hello" or "I acknowledge your presence as I pass you in the hall." A foreigner may wonder why Americans don't respond in detail to this question about one's wellbeing Thus they may interpret the behavior of walking away before one has a chance to respond to the question to be "uncaring", "superficial" or even "rude" A British knows otherwise and would probably not be offended that someone did not take the time to respond to this question Remember: If in doubt, check it out! 2.4.4 Do not take cultural familiarity or knowledge at face-value Even as you become more savvy about rituals, customs and protocol in your new environment, be careful not to attribute an explanation or rationale to what you now believe you know A little bit of knowledge can be misleading Psychologist Geert Hofstede wrote that 'culture' is like an onion that can be peeled, layer by layer, to reveal the content It takes a long time to really understand a culture in its social and historical context 25 PART C CONCLUSION Recapitulation It is said that more is communicated than said In cross-cultural communication, people may get stuck or misunderstanding because of the lack of knowledge in using addressing forms in greetings of both countries However, the author expected that the “A Cross-cultural study of addressing forms in Greetings in Vietnamese and English” helps get a better knowledge of addressing forms as well as factors affecting the use of it across culture And above all, readers will find it interesting and take its aesthetic value into consideration The statement, “language is the address of culture”, one more, is admitted in the study When we study the meaning and how to address forms, simultaneously we are studying the culture of that language However, cross-cultural communication is a new field for study It is very interesting and it can make us have a new sight for every things in our life today, addressing forms in greetings is not exception As can be seen from above, addressing forms in greetings in cross-cultural communication is an interesting language phenomenon but very complex When addressing someone, the addresser must thoroughly understand the meaning of various kinds of address forms, therefore, he could use the addressing forms reasonably and successfully Actually, the correct employment of the addressing forms in use can express culture, knowledge, politeness and other important things of interlocutors Actually, there are many ways of addressing forms in greetings in Vietnamese and English However, in this the study the author only gives some main characteristics of addressing forms in greetings and clarifies the similarities and differences of using address items in greeting across culture The author hopes that it would be analyzed in more detail in the next study Suggestions for Further Studies This study is hoped to provide a brief foundation for a look into address forms in greetings in Vietnamese and English If we have a chance to continue this topic, we 26 hope to investigate more address forms in more kinds of speech act in real life in order to provide a system more comprehensively 27 REFERENCES Brown, P and Levinson, S (1987) Politeness Some Universals in Language Usage Cambrige University Press Goffman, E (1971) Relations in public: microstudies of the public order Basic Books Grigg, J Y (1993) Communication and culture Heinle and Heile publishers Ho Thi Loan, (2007) English Vocative in Comparison With Vietnamese one Graduation Thesis Levine, R L & Adelman, M B (1993) Beyond language- cross cultural communication Prentice Hall, Inc Levinson, S C (1983) Pragmatics Cambrige University Press Nguyen Quang, (2001) Một số vấn đề giao tiếp giao tiếp văn hóa Hanoi National University Press Nguyen Quang, (2003) Một số vấn đề giao tiếp nội văn hóa giao văn hóa Hanoi National University Press Pride, J B (1985) Cross-cultural encounters: communication and miscommunication River Seine publications 10 Searl, J (1965) What is a Speech Act? Cambrige University Press 11 Emanuel A Schegloff, (2016), "Increments", In Accountability in Social Interaction (Jeffrey D Robinson, ed.), Oxford University Press 12 Emanuel A Schegloff, (2015), "Conversational Interaction The Embodiment of Human Sociality", In The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, (Deborah Tannen, Heidi E Hamilton, Deborah Schiffrin, eds.) 13 Yule, G (1996), Pragmatics Oxford University Press Websites 28 http:// ... admitted in the study When we study the meaning and how to address forms, simultaneously we are studying the culture of that language However, cross- cultural communication is a new field for study It... that the “A Cross- cultural study of addressing forms in Greetings in Vietnamese and English” helps get a better knowledge of addressing forms as well as factors affecting the use of it across culture... using suitable forms of address Lastly, cross- cultural study can give us a chance to find out the similarities and differences in two countries through their cultures Thus, this study supports
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