công nghệ lên men calvados

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lên men rượu táocalvadosghtyjeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeevvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb BACH KHOA UNIVERSITY FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY REPORT CALVADOS Group: Student Name Student number Huynh Kim Chi 1510287 To Phan Chieu Dan 1510620 Instructor: Le Van Viet Man HO CHI MINH CITY, 04/2018 CONTENT DANH MỤC HÌNH DANH MỤC BẢNG INTRODUCTION Calvados is an apple brandy from the Normandy region in France Apple orchards and brewers are mentioned as far back as the 8th century by Charlemagne The first known Norman distillation was carried out by Gilles Picot, Lord de Gouberville, in 1553, and the guild for cider distillation was created about 50 years later in 1606 In the 17th century, the traditional cider farms expanded, but taxation and prohibition of cider brandies were enforced elsewhere than Brittany, Maine, and Normandy The area called "Calvados" was created after the French Revolution, but eau de vie de cidre was already called calvados in common usage In the 19th century, output increased with industrial distillation and the working class fashion for café-calva When a phylloxera outbreak in the last quarter of the 19th century devastated the vineyards of France and Europe, calvados experienced a "golden age" During World War I, cider brandy was requisitioned for use in armaments due to its alcohol content The appellation contrôlée regulations officially gave calvados a protected name in 1942 After the war, many cider houses and distilleries were reconstructed, mainly in the Pays d'Auge Many of the traditional farmhouse structures were replaced by modern agriculture with high output The Calvados appellation system was revised in 1984 and 1996 Pommeau got its recognition in 1991; in 1997, an appellation for Domfront with 30% pears was created I Materials I.1 Main material: Apple Not any apples can also make Calvados, to distilled the precious Calvados bottles with beautiful scent and color, we need quality apples of Normandie, an area in west of French Figure 1 Normandie apple The apple varieties, classified in categories: bitter, acidulous, sweet or bittersweet, don't mature at the same time and are not intended for the same kind of production Table 1 Normandie apple classification Sweet Sharp Bittersweet Bitter Bedan, Bisquet, Douce coetligne, Tete de brebis Binet rouge, Clos renaux, Douce moen Avrollers, Judaine, Judeline, Juliana, Petit jaune Frequin rouge, Kermerrien, Peau de chien The most common are: Antoinette, Frequin Rouge, Bisquet, Moulin Vent (bitter and bittersweet apples, 70% of the production), Bedan, Noël des Champs (sweet apples, 20%), Rambaud, René Martin (acid apples, 10%) The early apples, collected between September 15 and October 30 are generally processed within 48 hours into juice which will be used for Calvados production The late apples, collected until December 15 can mature in openwork wooden boxes (palox) in a frost-free place during to weeks Sugars and flavours accumulate and constitute the main components of a quality cider and quality pommeau production Table 1.2 Nutrition of Normandie apple Nutrition Facts Finest, Tart, Normady Apple and Calvados Serving Size: tart ( 3,5 oz)  Amount Per Serving Calories Calories from Fat 256 Cal 63 Cal % Daily Value 11% _% _% % 14% 4% % 6% Total Fat Saturated Fat Cholesterol Sodium Total Carbonhydrate Dietary Fiber Sugar(Added) Protein 7g 0,6g mg 456mg 41g 1g 0g 3g Vitamins Vitamin A Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K IU 0.1mg 0.2mg 1.3mg mg mg 2.5 mcg % % % % % % % Minerals Calcium (Ca) Copper (Cu) Iron(Fe) Magnesium (Mg) Manganese (Mn) Potassium (K) Phosphorus (P) Selenium (Se) Zinic (Zn) 22mg 0.1 mg 0.8 mg 19 mg mg 139mg 84mg 5mg 0.8mg % % % % % % % % % Table Standard of Normandie apple Properties Shape Description Apple fruits must be free of decay or rot and well-matured Unripe or immatured fruits should not be used because they are rich in starch, acids and astringent compounds while low in sugar and flavoring compounds Overly matured fruits can be low in fresh and fruity flavor, difficult for further processing and also difficult to clarify Flavor No strange flavor Color Color of apples are uniformly pink Total soluble 12-13°Brix solid content I.2 Supplementary material I.2.1 Water  Function: Water involves in most of the operations in the manufacturing process of calvados Water is divided into: water used to wash the material, equipment and water employed as a component in the final product Therefore, water quality is important  Standards: Table Standard of water Target Physical Flavor Clearness (Dienert) Color (cobalt color scale) Chemical pH Residue levels fixed (600oC) Permanent hardness Full hardness CaO MgO Fe2O3 MnO BO4-3 SO4-2 Requirement No 100 ml 5o 6.0-7.8 75-150 mg/mL 7o Lower than 15o 50-100m g/L 50 mg/L 0.3 mg/L 0.2 mg/L 1.2-2.5 mg/L 0.5 mg/L NH4+ NO2NO3Pb As Cu Zn F Microbial Total aerobic microorganisms Coli index Coli standard number Pathogenic microorganisms 0.1-0.3 mg/L 0 0.1 mg/L 0.05 mg/L mg/L mg/L 0.3-0.5 mg/L
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