the effects of moodle activities on students’ writing performance at tien giang university

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HO CHI MINH CITY OPEN UNIVERSITY VO THI MINH DUE THE EFFECTS OF MOODLE ACTIVITIES ON STUDENTS’ WRITING PERFORMANCE AT TIEN GIANG UNIVERSITY A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS (TESOL) HO CHI MINH CITY, 2017 i STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP I certify that the thesis entitled “The effects of Moodle activities on students’ writing performance at Tien Giang University” is my original work All resources used in the thesis have been documented The work has not been submitted to Open University or elsewhere Ho Chi Minh, August 8th, 2017 Vo Thi Minh Due ii RETENTION AND USE OF THE THESIS I hereby state that I, Vo Thi Minh Due, being the candidate for the degree of Master of to the TESOL, accept the requirement of University relating to the retention and use of the Master’s theses deposited in the University library In terms of these conditions, I agree that the original of my thesis deposited in the University library should be accessible for the purposes of the studies and research, in accordance with the normal condition established by the library for care, loan, and reproduction of thesis iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS During the process of carrying out this research, I have received a lot of contribution and support from many people Therefore, I would like to express my special thanks to them Firstly, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor Assoc Prof Dr Nguyen Ngoc Vu for his untiring and useful assistance and invaluable advice to me throughout the process of my writing He spent his valuable time reading my thesis with much care and gave me his perceptive comments His encouragement and approval have also helped me a lot to overcome troubles in doing the research, without which I am not able to complete this study well Secondly, I am grateful to the Management of Tien Giang University and the Leaders of Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities who provided me with the opportunity to take this MA course and finish my thesis I also thank my colleagues, who substituted for me in my work-place during my absence for this MA course I also sincerely appreciate all the students in two classes 0724201 and 0724202 for their cooperation Lastly, my special thanks go to all my family and my friends who gave me time and opportunity to write and research and encouraged me whenever I got stuck iv ABSTRACT Computers and the Internet are important tools for developing autonomy through activities which help learners to study without assistance from teachers As an alternative to traditional face-to-face classroom, ICT provides blended learning, a new learning environment, in which students participate in both traditional face-to-face classes and online sessions This approach of learning has been widely used in many schools Through this kind of learning, what students learn online will support what they learn face-to-face in class, and vice-versa In fact, “Moodle” has become more and more popular in the field of education This study is conducted to investigate the effects of Moodle activities on students’ perceptions and writing performance Forty English majors are selected and divided into two groups: an experimental group and a control group Both groups have the same curriculum, course-book, facilities and teaching method in face-to-face class The main difference between these groups was that the experimental group did their writing exercises on Moodle while the control group did writing exercises on paper A questionnaire, an interview, a pretest and a post-test are used as instruments to measure the effects of Moodle activities on students’ writing performance and perceptions The findings proved that Moodle activities could enhance students’ writing performance significantly and their perceptions towards the use of Moodle activities were positive The study suggested implications for teaching and learning writing Keywords: Moodle activities, Writing performance, Perceptions, Blended learning v ABBRIVIATIONS A: Agree CALL: Computer-Assisted Language Learning CG: Control Group CMC: Computer Mediated Communication CMS: Classroom Management System D: Disagree EFL: English as a Foreign Language EG: Experimental Group ITC: Information Communication Technology L1: First language LMS: Learning Management System M: Mean MOODLE N: Neutral S: Student SA: Strongly Agree SD: Strongly Disagree SPSS: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences S.D: Standard Deviation Sts: Students VLE: Virtual Learning Environment vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1: Spectrum of E-learning adapted after Procter (2002) Figure 2.2: Concept of Blended Learning adapted after Heinze and Procter (2004) Figure 2.3: Progressive convergence of face-to-face and online learning environments allowing development of blended learning systems (C J Bonk & C R Graham ,2006) Figure 3.1: Chatroom used in the course 37 Figure 3.2: Threads in Moodle forum during the course 38 Figure 3.3: A workshop from the course 39 Figure 3.4: An exercise in journal 40 Figure 3.5: Example of Standard Deviation 49 Figure 4.1 Normal Q-Q plots for the writing pre-test results 56 Figure 4.2 Normal Q-Q plots for the writing pre-test results 60 Figure 4.3 Comparison of means of pretest and posttest scores 62 vii LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1: Eight dimensions of blended learning (Sharpe, Benfield et al., 2006) 11 Table 3.1: Summary of the writing course syllabus 33 Table 3.2: General Information of participants before the treatment 35 Table 3.3: Summary of the treatment for experimental group 41 Table 3.4: The summary of the scoring rubric 44 Table 3.5: The questionnaire structure 45 Table 3.6: Summary of data collection instruments 47 Table 3.7: Schedule for the main stages of data collection 47 Table 4.1 Correlation of pretests scores of the CG by two raters 53 Table 4.2 Correlation of pretests scores of the EG by two raters 54 Table 4.3 Descriptive statistics of pretests scores 55 Table 4.4 Independent Sample T-Test of pretests results 57 Table 4.5 Correlation of posttests scores of the CG by two raters 58 Table 4.6 Correlation of posttests scores of the EG by two raters 58 Table 4.7 Descriptive statistics of posttests scores 59 Table 4.8 Independent Sample t Test of posttests results 61 Table 4.9 Moodle activities influence in writing performance 63 Table 4.10 Moodle activities in collaboration and interaction 63 Table 4.11 General perceptions of Moodle activities 64 Table 4.12 Perceptions of enjoyment in discussion in Moodle activities 64 Table 4.13 Perceptions of motivation in Moodle activities 64 Table 4.14 Moodle activities influence in writing performance 65 Table 4.15 Moodle activities in collaboration and interaction 66 Table 4.16 General perceptions of Moodle activities 68 Table 4.17 Perceptions of enjoyment in discussion in Moodle activities 69 Table 4.18 Perceptions of motivation in Moodle activities 71 Table 4.19 Students’ obstacles in learning with Moodle activities 76 viii TABLE OF CONTENTS RETENTION AND USE OF THE THESIS ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii ABSTRACT iv ABBRIVIATIONS v LIST OF FIGURES vi LIST OF TABLES .vii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study 1.2 Rationale for the study 1.3 Questions of the study 1.4 Hypotheses of the study 1.5 Purpose of the study 1.6 Significance of the study CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 CALL 2.1.1 Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) 2.1.2 Writing performance 2.1.3 Computer-assisted language learning and EFL writing 2.2 Blended Learning 2.2.1 What is Blended learning? 2.2.2 Dimensions of blended learning 10 2.2.3 Models of blended learning 13 2.2.4 History of blended learning 14 2.2.5 Blended Learning and Constructivism 17 2.3 Moodle 19 2.3.1 What is Moodle? 19 ix 2.3.2 Functions of Moodle 20 2.3.2.1 Layout 21 2.3.2.2 Course Management 21 2.3.2.3 Quizzes Moodle provides users with various assessment strategies 21 2.3.2.4 Cooperative Learning 22 2.3.3 Chat, Forum, Journal and Workshop 22 2.3.3.1 Chat 22 2.3.3.2 Forum 23 2.3.3.3 Journal 24 2.3.3.4 Workshop 25 2.4 Perceptions 25 2.5 Related studies 26 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 31 3.1 Research Design 31 3.2 Research site 31 3.3 Participants 35 3.4 Research Instruments 37 3.4.1 Treatment for the Experimental group 37 3.4.2 Measurement Instruments 42 3.4.2.1 The Pre- and Posttest 42 3.4.2.2 Questionnaires 44 3.4.2.3 Interview 46 3.4.2.4 Summary of data collection instruments 46 3.5 Data Collection Procedures 47 3.6 Analytical framework 48 92 Miao, Y., van der Klink, M., Boon, J., Sloep, R., & Koper, R (2009) Enabling teachers to develop pedagogically sound and technically executable learning designs Distance Education, 30(2), 259-277 Mills, J (2007) The benefits of Internet chatting Retrieved from http://www.insidetechnology360.com/index.php/the-benefits-of-Internetchatting-335357/ Miyazoe, T., & Anderson, T (2010) Learning outcomes and students' perceptions of online writing: Simultaneous implementation of a forum, blog, and wiki in an EFL blended learning setting System, 38(2), 185-199 Moodle Statistics (2010) Retrieved June 8, 2010, from http://moodle.org/stats/ Morrison, D (2003) E-Learning strategies: How to get implementation and delivery right first time San Francisco CA: Pfeiffer (Wiley) Naraghizadeh, M., & Barimani, S (2013) The effect of CALL on the vocabulary learning of Iranian EFL learners Journal of Academic and Applied Studies, 3(8), 1-12 Oliver, M., & Trigwell, K (2005) Can ‘blended learning’be redeemed? 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Identity, Motivation and Autonomy in Language Learning Bristol, U.K.: Multilingual Matters, pp 11-24 ISBN 9781847693730 Verkroost, M.-J., Meijerink, L., Lintsen, H., & Veen, W (2008) Finding a Balance in Dimensions of Blended Learning International Journal on E-Learning, 7(3), 499-522 Waddoups, G., & Howell, S (2002) Bringing online learning to campus: The hybridization of teaching and learning at Brigham Young University International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 2(2) Watson, J (2008) Different types of blended learning Retrieved on Jan 2010 from: https://sites.google.com/a/idahopd.org/blended-learning/different-types Weimer, M (2002) Learner-centered teaching: Five key changes to practice John Wiley & Sons Westera, W (1999) Paradoxes in Open, Networked Learning Environments: Toward a Paradigm Shift Educational Technology, 39(1), 17-23 Wu, W S., & Hua, C (2008) The application of Moodle on an EFL collegiate writing environment Journal of education and foreign languages and literature, 7(1), 45-56 Yang, H (1985) The use of computers in English teaching and research in China English in the world: teaching and learning the language and literature, 86-100 Young, J R (2002) "Hybrid" Teaching Seeks To End the Divide between Traditional and Online Instruction Chronicle of Higher Education, 48, 33-34 Zoran, A G., & Rozman, K (2010) Students Perceptions of Using Moodle In 4th International Conference Proceedings, Koper 21 May 2010 96 APPENDIX A Analytic Scoring Rubric Mark Format and content 40 marks Fulfills task fully; correct convention for the assignment task; features of chosen 31–40 excellent to genre mostly adhered to; good ideas/good use of relevant information; substantial very good concept use; properly developed ideas; good sense of audience 21–30 Fulfills task quite well although details may be underdeveloped or partly to irrelevant; correct genre selected; most features of chosen genre adhered to; average satisfactory ideas with some development; quite good use of relevant good information; some concept use; quite good sense of audience 11–20 fair poor Generally adequate but some inappropriate, inaccurate, or irrelevant data; an to acceptable convention for the assignment task; some features of chosen genre adhered to; limited ideas/moderate use of relevant information; little concept use; barely adequate development of ideas; poor sense of audience 1–10 Clearly inadequate fulfilment of task; possibly incorrect genre for the inadequate assignment; chosen genre not adhered to; omission of key information; serious irrelevance or inaccuracy; very limited ideas/ignores relevant information; no concept use; inadequate development of ideas; poor or no sense of audience Mark 16–20 Organization and coherence 20 marks Message followed with ease; well organized and thorough development through excellent to introduction, body, and conclusion; relevant and convincing supporting details; very logical progression of content contributes to fluency; unified paragraphs; good effective use of transitions and reference 11–15 Message mostly followed with ease; satisfactorily organized and developed 97 to through introduction, body and conclusion; relevant supporting details; average mostly logical progression of content; moderate to good fluency; unified good paragraphs; possible slight over- or under-use of transitions but correctly used; mostly correct references 6–10 Message followed but with some difficulty; some pattern of organization – fair to an introduction, body, and conclusion evident but poorly done; some poor supporting details; progression of content inconsistent or repetitious; lack of focus in some paragraphs; over- or under-use of transitions with some incorrect use; incorrect use of reference Message difficult to follow; little evidence of organization – introduction and 1–5 inadequate conclusion may be missing; few or no supporting details; no obvious progression of content; improper paragraphing; no or incorrect use of transitions; lack of reference contributes to comprehension difficulty Mark Sentence construction and vocabulary 40 marks 31–40 Effective use of a wide variety of correct sentences; variety of sentence length; excellent to effective use of transitions; no significant errors in agreement, tense, number, very person, articles, pronouns and prepositions; effective use of a wide variety of good lexical items; word form mastery; effective choice of idiom; correct register Effective use of a variety of correct sentences; some variety of length; use of 21–30 to transitions with only slight errors; no serious recurring errors in agreement, average tense, number, person, articles, pronouns and prepositions; almost no good sentence fragments or run-ons; variety of lexical items with some problems but not causing comprehension difficulties; good control of word form; mostly effective idioms; correct register 98 11–20 fair poor A limited variety of mostly correct sentences; little variety of sentence length; to improper use of or missing transitions; recurring grammar errors are intrusive; sentence fragments or run-ons evident; a limited variety of lexical items occasionally causing comprehension problems; moderate word form control; occasional inappropriate choice of idiom; perhaps incorrect register 1–10 A limited variety of sentences requiring considerable effort to understand; inadequate correctness only on simple short sentences; improper use of or missing transitions; many grammar errors and comprehension problems; frequent incomplete or run-on sentences; a limited variety of lexical items; poor word forms; inappropriate idioms; incorrect register Adopted from Hyland (2004, p 243-244) 99 APPENDIX B Writing test Pretest Choose one of these tasks: write a paragraph about 100-150 words (in 30 minutes) Describe how you met your best friend/partner/wife/husband Describe the achievement in your life which you are most proud of Posttest Choose one of these tasks: write about 100-150 words (in 30 minutes) Describe the funniest thing that has ever happened to you Describe in detail where would you like to live Adapted from Swan, M., Walter, C., & O'Sullivan, D (1993) 100 APPENDIX C STUDENT INTERVIEW QUESTIONS What you think about the learning writing with Moodle course? What are your favorite activities in Moodle? Why? What difficulties you often face when learning with the help of Moodle activities? Is your writing performance improved after learning with Moodle? Do you find Moodle activities promote your attitudes and motivation towards paragraph writing? Why? Do you have any suggestions or comments regarding the Moodle activities for writing? 101 APPENDIX D QUESTIONNAIRE (ENGLISH VERSION) (Questionnaire for English majored students at Tien Giang University) Dear students! I am doing a research study entitled “The effects of Moodle activities on English majors’ writing performance at Tien Giang University” Your cooperation is extremely essential for my study This questionnaire concerns how you feel about learning English writing with Moodle activities It is not part of your course evaluation I hope you will try your best to complete this questionnaire Please tick (✔) the answer that you find most appropriate You can choose only ONE answer Thanks for your responses! 1-Strongly Disagree, -Disagree, 3- Neutral, 4- Agree, 5-Strongly Agree Moodle activities influence in writing performance Moodle activities help me to improve general skills in writing Moodle activities help me to improve learning quality Moodle activities help me to improve my communication skills Moodle activities help me to broaden my knowledge Moodle activities are useful to my learning Moodle activities in collaboration and interaction Moodle activities help me to learn a great deal from peers Moodle activities provide useful social interaction Moodle activities create a great chance to share opinions among peers and instructors I was comfortable in asking for clarification from the instructor and/or other students using 102 synchronous/asynchronous chat discussion when I needed help General perceptions of Moodle activities 10 Synchronous/asynchronous chat discussion gave me more effective writing practice than that of the regular classroom 11 I participate more in synchronous/ asynchronous chat discussion than in regular class discussion 12 Synchronous/asynchronous chat discussion activities maximized my involvement in study 13 My experience with synchronous/ asynchronous chat discussion was positive 14 After finishing this class, I can say that I became a better writer Perceptions of enjoyment in discussion in Moodle activities 15 I felt anxiety during synchronous/asynchronous chat discussion 16 To me, online conversations turn into interesting discussion 17 My peers' comments during synchronous/ asynchronous chat discussion interest me 18 Synchronous/asynchronous chat discussions improve my learning interest 19 I enjoy online synchronous/asynchronous chat discussion 20 I enjoy sharing knowledge with peers in online synchronous/ asynchronous chat discussion Perceptions of motivation in Moodle activities 21 Moodle activities motivate me to learn more 103 22 Moodle activities motivate me to my best work 23 The Moodle format is appropriate and effective for this course 24 Moodle was a useful tool for this writing course 25 I like to work with peers on Moodle, via the computermediated synchronous/asynchronous chat discussion 26 When I use Moodle, I feel comfortable expressing my ideas and asking questions 27 I would prefer to have Moodle in future English course 28 Using Moodle had a positive impact on my learning Adapted from Hsieh, P C., & Ji, C H (2013) 104 APPENDIX E BẢNG CÂU HỎI (Bảng câu hỏi dành cho sinh viên chuyên ngữ trường ĐH Tiền Giang) Các em sinh viên thân mến! Tôi thực nghiên cứu việc ứng dụng hoạt động Moodle để nâng cao kết viết sinh viên chuyên ngành Tiếng Anh Sự hợp tác bạn cần thiết cho nghiên cứu Bảng câu hỏi cảm nhận bạn việc học viết với hoạt động Moodle Nó khơng ảnh hưởng đến điểm số bạn khóa học Tôi hi vọng bạn cố gắng để hồn thành bảng câu hỏi Vui lòng đánh dấu (✔) vào câu trả lời hợp lý với bạn Các bạn chọn câu trả lời Cảm ơn câu trả lời bạn! 1-Strongly Disagree, -Disagree, 3- Neutral, 4- Agree, 5-Strongly Agree Ảnh hưởng hoạt động Moode khả viết Các hoạt động Moodle giúp cải thiện kỹ tổ ng quát môn viết Các hoạt động Moodle giúp cải thiện chất lượng việc học viết Các hoạt động Moodle giúp cải thiện kỹ giao tiếp Các hoạt động Moodle giúp mở rộng kiến thức Các hoạt động Moodle hữu ích cho việc học Các hoạt động Moodle hợp tác tương tác Các hoạt động Moodle giúp co thể học nhiều từ bạn bè Các hoạt động Moodle cung cấp tương tác xã hội hữu ích 105 Hoạt động Moodle tạo hội tuyệt vời để chia sẻ ý kiến bạn nhóm giảng viên Tơi cảm thấy thoải mái yêu cầu giáo viên hoặc/và bạn nhóm giải thích rõ vấn đề thơng qua thảo luận đồng không đồng cần giúp đỡ Nhận thức chung hoạt động Moodle 10 Thảo luận trò chuyện đồng / khơng đồng cho thực hành viết hiệu nhiều so với lớp học thông thường 11 Tôi tham gia nhiều vào thảo luận trò chuyện đồng / không đồng thảo luận thông thường lớp 12 Các hoạt động thảo luận trò chuyện đồng / khơng đồng tối đa hố tham gia tơi việc học 13 Kinh nghiệm tơi với thảo luận trò chuyện đồng / khơng đồng tích cực 14 Sau kết thúc lớp học này, tơi nói tơi có khả viết tốt Nhận thức thích thú thảo luận hoạt động Moodle 15 Tôi cảm thấy lo lắng thảo luận trò chuyện đồng / khơng đồng 16 Đối với tơi, trò chuyện trực tuyến trở thành thảo luận thú vị 17 Bình luận bạn tơi trò chuyện đồng / khơng đồng làm tơi thích thú 18 Thảo luận trò chuyện đồng / khơng đồng nâng cao sở thích học tập tơi 19 Tơi thích trò chuyện trực tuyến đồng / khơng đồng 106 20 Tơi thích chia sẻ kiến thức với bạn bè trò chuyện trực tuyến đồng / không đồng Nhận thức động lực học hoạt động Moodle 21 Các hoạt động Moodle thúc đẩy học nhiều 22 Các hoạt động Moodle thúc đẩy tơi hồn thành tốt việc học 23 Định dạng Moodle thích hợp có hiệu cho khóa học 24.Moodle cơng cụ hữu ích cho khóa học viết 25 Tơi thích làm việc với bạn nhóm Moodle, qua thảo luận trò chuyện đồng / khơng đồng qua máy tính trung gian 26 Khi sử dụng Moodle, cảm thấy thoải mái bày tỏ ý tưởng đặt câu hỏi 27 Tơi muốn có Moodle khóa học tiếng Anh sau 28 Sử dụng Moodle có tác động tích cực đến việc học tơi Adapted from Hsieh, P C., & Ji, C H (2013) ... from the appropriate use of Moodle activities in teaching and learning writing 1.2 Rationale for the study The research topic: The effects of Moodle activities on students’ writing performance at. .. Questions of the study To what extent Moodle activities (chat, forum, journal, and workshop) enhance students’ writing performance? What are the students’ perceptions of the use of Moodle activities. .. enhance students’ writing performance Students have positive perceptions of the use of Moodle activities 1.5 Purpose of the study This study aims to investigate the effects of Moodle activities on students’
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