Hội thảo khoa học - tài liệu tham khảo

63 52 0
  • Loading ...
1/63 trang

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 25/04/2018, 16:16

Biofuels Sustainability in Africa    Alexandros Gasparatos Alexandros Gasparatos Associate Professor, IR3S Associate Professor, IR3S Vietnam­Japan University, Hanoi Vietnam­Japan University, Hanoi 6 December 2017 6 December 2017 About myself 2004 BSc Chemistry, University of Patra (Greece) 2005 MSc Environmental Science, Imperial College London 2005 Environmental Consultant, Capita Symonds Ltd 2006-2008 EPSRC Researcher (SUE-MOT programme), University of Dundee 2008-2009 Canon Foundation Fellow, UNU-IAS 07/2009 PhD in Ecological Economics, University of Dundee “Sustainability assessment with reductionist tools: Methodological issues and case studies” 2009-2011 JSPS-UNU Fellow, UNU-IAS 2011-2013 Marie Curie Fellow and James Martin Fellow, Oxford University 2013- Associate Professor in Sustainability Science What are biofuels? Biofuels are a type of liquid fuel that is derived from biomass through different chemical processes First generation biofuels -biodiesel and bioethanol from sugar, starch and oil bearing crops or animal fats that in most cases can also be used as food and feed Second generation biofuels - mainly bioethanol produced from cellulose, hemicellulose or lignin Biofuel uses Transport: biofuel is added or completely substitutes conventional transport fuel (e.g E15) Rural electrification: locally produced biofuel is used to power small generators Cooking: biofuel (e.g ethanol) is used in cooking stoves First generation bioethanol  Maize (US, China) Wheat (Europe) Sugarcane (Brazil) Sugar beet (Europe) Molasses (India) Cassava (Southeast Asia, China) Sweet sorghum (China) Stromberg and Gasparatos, 2012 First generation biodiesel Rapeseed (Europe) Sunflower seed (Europe) Soybeans (US, Brazil, Argentina) Oil palm (Indonesia, Malaysia) Jatropha (China, India, sub-Saharan Africa) Stromberg and Gasparatos, 2012 Second­generation biofuels Short rotation coppice: poplar (Populus spec.), willow (Salix spec.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spec.) Perennial grasses: miscanthus  (Miscanthus sinensis), switchgrass (Panicum vigratum), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) Agricultural by-products: straw, stover, shells, husks, cobs, bagasse, pulp and fruit bunches from different food crops Forestry by-products: treetops, branches, woodchips, sawdust, bark The biofuel lifecycle  Drivers and impacts Zhou and Thomson, 2009 Gasparatos et al., 2013 Drivers of biofuel production  Biodiversity loss Large scale plantations Original landscape Low density Medium density Graphic produced by Graham von Maltitz, CSIR Small scale plantations Biodiversity loss High density Biodiversity loss Rural development  Biofuel production and use can contribute to rural development by generating income and employment opportunities Employment generation might be very uneven along the biofuel chain Most jobs are created during the feedstock production stage (agricultural phase, usually low-skill activities) rather than feedstock processing and biofuel production, which usually offer much higher salaries Rural development The impact of biofuel expansion on rural development also depends greatly on the type of production system adopted (smallholder schemes vs large plantations) Large plantations: smaller outreach, economies of scale, and stable salaries Smallholder schemes: larger outreach, might offer far greater poverty alleviation benefits Rural development The use of locally produced biofuel (small-scale biofuel production) could further contribute to rural development in a positive way Biofuel-related income and employment generation can be precarious: – uncertainties and risks associated with biofuel production (particularly for small-holders) – international trade – mechanization of agricultural production Dimensions and indicators Source: Alkire & Santos (2011:5) Multi­dimensional poverty Health  Biofuel production and use might constitute a public health hazard: – Atmospheric emissions associated with biofuel production and combustion – Pesticides and other agrochemicals that are used during feedstock production – The manual and intensive nature of jobs associated with feedstock production, particularly in developing nations Some biofuel uses can have public health co-benefits: – Ethanol stoves can improve indoor as quality if they substitute charcoal/wood stoves Access to land Land-grabbing phenomenon, i.e access of poor people on land has been compromised through displacement of poor families, concentration of land to powerful actors, loss of land rights through coercion/lack of information and aggressive land seizures But is it only biofuel related? What are the mechanisms of communal land allocation for large agroinvestments? Gender issues The risks of biofuel expansion might be gender- differentiated with women being more likely to face the negative impacts associated with biofuel expansion However there are also several cases where small- and largescale biofuel initiatives have contributed to the wellbeing of women Understanding the net welfare contribution of biofuels across genders can be very complicated with very little research to date … perspectives matter Moreno-Penaranda et al., 2015 Take home messages… The term “biofuels” includes vastly different production practices that take place in different ecosystems, for different reasons and compete with other human activities For example, the drivers, impacts and trade-offs of large scale sugarcane bioethanol production in Brazil are most certainly different from the drivers, impacts and trade-offs of small scale biodiesel production in rural Sub-Saharan Africa or India Further to the environmental and socioeconomic context the impact of biofuels also depends on the technological processes and the policy instruments adopted during biofuel production, use and trade Take­home messages…  Biofuels’ negative impacts have attracted most of the attention Yet there are examples of biofuel practices providing significant environmental and socioeconomic benefits, contributing positively to human wellbeing It is important to clarify to the extent possible context specific biofuel trade-offs when planning biofuel projects/policies Appropriate solutions might depend greatly on local context Time for discussion! gasparatos@ir3s.u-tokyo.ac.jp ... bark The biofuel lifecycle  Drivers and impacts Zhou and Thomson, 2009 Gasparatos et al., 2013 Drivers of biofuel production  Gasparatos et al., 2011; 2012 Impacts Case studies Illovo-Dwangwa Malawi... High density Landscape transformations Source: Google Maps Photo: Alexandros Gasparatos Energy security Stromberg and Gasparatos, 2012 E M e n ic h e t t i a n d M O t t o Energy security E ... beet (Europe) Molasses (India) Cassava (Southeast Asia, China) Sweet sorghum (China) Stromberg and Gasparatos, 2012 First generation biodiesel Rapeseed (Europe) Sunflower seed (Europe) Soybeans (US,
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: Hội thảo khoa học - tài liệu tham khảo, Hội thảo khoa học - tài liệu tham khảo

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn

Nhận lời giải ngay chưa đến 10 phút Đăng bài tập ngay