Strategic financial management

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R.A Hill Strategic Financial Management Download free eBooks at bookboon.com Strategic Financial Management 1st edition © 2008 R.A Hill & bookboon.com ISBN 978-87-7681-425-0 Download free eBooks at bookboon.com Strategic Financial Management Contents Contents About the Author Part One: An Introduction 10 Finance – An Overview 11 1.1 Financial Objectives and Shareholder Wealth 11 1.2 Wealth Creation and Value Added 13 1.3 The Investment and Finance Decision 14 1.4 Decision Structures and Corporate Governance 17 1.5 The Developing Finance Function 18 1.6 The Principles of Investment 22 1.7 Perfect Markets and the Separation Theorem 24 1.8 Summary and Conclusions 28 1.9 Selected References 29 www.sylvania.com We not reinvent the wheel we reinvent light Fascinating lighting offers an infinite spectrum of possibilities: Innovative technologies and new markets provide both opportunities and challenges An environment in which your expertise is in high demand Enjoy the supportive working atmosphere within our global group and benefit from international career paths Implement sustainable ideas in close cooperation with other specialists and contribute to influencing our future Come and join us in reinventing light every day Light is OSRAM Download free eBooks at bookboon.com Click on the ad to read more Strategic Financial Management Contents 30 Part Two: The Investment Decision 2Capital Budgeting Under Conditions Of Certainty 31 2.1 The Role of Capital Budgeting 32 2.2 Liquidity, Profitability and Present Value 33 2.3 The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) 39 2.4 The Inadequacies of IRR and the Case for NPV 40 2.5 Summary and Conclusions 42 3Capital Budgeting and the Case for NPV 43 3.1 Ranking and Acceptance Under IRR and NPV 44 3.2 The Incremental IRR 46 3.3 Capital Rationing, Project Divisibility and NPV 46 3.4 Relevant Cash Flows and Working Capital 47 3.5 Capital Budgeting and Taxation 3.6 NPV and Purchasing Power Risk 3.7 Summary and Conclusions 360° thinking 360° thinking 49 50 53 360° thinking Discover the truth at www.deloitte.ca/careers © Deloitte & Touche LLP and affiliated entities Discover the truth at www.deloitte.ca/careers Deloitte & Touche LLP and affiliated entities © Deloitte & Touche LLP and affiliated entities Discover the truth at www.deloitte.ca/careers Click on the ad to read more Download free eBooks at bookboon.com © Deloitte & Touche LLP and affiliated entities Dis Strategic Financial Management Contents The Treatment of Uncertainty 54 4.1 Dysfunctional Risk Methodologies 55 4.2 Decision Trees, Sensitivity and Computers 55 4.3 Mean-Variance Methodology 56 4.4 Mean-Variance Analyses 58 4.5 The Mean-Variance Paradox 60 4.5 Certainty Equivalence and Investor Utility 62 4.6 Summary and Conclusions 64 4.7Reference 64 65 Part Three: The Finance Decision 5Equity Valuation and the Cost of Capital 66 5.1 The Capitalisation Concept 67 5.2 Single-Period Dividend Valuation 68 5.3 Finite Dividend Valuation 68 5.4 General Dividend Valuation 69 5.5 Constant Dividend Valuation 69 5.6 The Dividend Yield and Corporate Cost of Equity 70 5.7 Dividend Growth and the Cost of Equity 71 We will turn your CV into an opportunity of a lifetime Do you like cars? 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We will appreciate and reward both your enthusiasm and talent Send us your CV You will be surprised where it can take you Download free eBooks at bookboon.com Send us your CV on www.employerforlife.com Click on the ad to read more Strategic Financial Management Contents 5.8 Capital Growth and the Cost of Equity 72 5.9 Growth Estimates and the Cut-Off Rate 73 5.10 Earnings Valuation and the Cut-Off Rate 75 5.11 Summary and Conclusions 78 5.12 Selected References 78 6Debt Valuation and the Cost of Capital 79 6.1 Capital Gearing (Leverage): An Introduction 80 6.2 The Value of Debt Capital and Capital Cost 80 6.3 The Tax-Deductibility of Debt 84 6.4 The Impact of Issue Costs 87 6.5 Summary and Conclusions 89 7Capital Gearing and the Cost of Capital 91 7.1 The Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) 92 7.2 WACC Assumptions 93 7.3 The Real-World Problems of WACC Estimation 95 7.4 Summary and Conclusions 100 7.5 Selected Reference 100 I joined MITAS because I wanted real responsibili� I joined MITAS because I wanted real responsibili� Real work International Internationa al opportunities �ree wo work or placements �e Graduate Programme for Engineers and Geoscientists Maersk.com/Mitas www.discovermitas.com �e G for Engine Ma Month 16 I was a construction Mo supervisor ina const I was the North Sea super advising and the No he helping foremen advis ssolve problems Real work he helping fo International Internationa al opportunities �ree wo work or placements ssolve pr Download free eBooks at bookboon.com Click on the ad to read more Strategic Financial Management Contents Part Four: The Wealth Decision 101 8Shareholder Wealth and Value Added 102 8.1 The Concept of Economic Value Added (EVA) 103 8.2 The Concept of Market Value Added (MVA) 104 8.3 Profit and Cash Flow 104 8.4 EVA and Periodic MVA 105 8.5 NPV Maximisation, Value Added and Wealth 106 8.6 Summary and Conclusions 112 8.7 Selected References 114 Linköping University – Innovative, well ranked, European Interested in Strategy and Management in International Organisations? 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Download free eBooks at bookboon.com Click on the ad to read more Strategic Financial Management About the Author About the Author With an eclectic record of University teaching, research, publication, consultancy and curricula development, underpinned by running a successful business, Alan has been a member of national academic validation bodies and held senior external examinerships and lectureships at both undergraduate and postgraduate level in the UK and abroad With increasing demand for global e-learning, his attention is now focussed on the free provision of a financial textbook series, underpinned by a critique of contemporary capital market theory in volatile markets, published by bookboon.com To contact Alan, please visit Robert Alan Hill at www.linkedin.com Download free eBooks at bookboon.com Part One An Introduction 10 Download free eBooks at bookboon.com   >    @$FFHSW (TXLYDOHQW8WLOLW\ 8L      :HLJKWHG8WLOLW\ 8L3L !>    @5HMHFW  Now look at the utility data, which rejects the project To understand why, assume you ask the investor to enter a game with a 50/50 chance of receiving nothing or £100k to which we attach arbitrary utility values of zero and one respectively Next you ask what the game is worth The investor’s response is £40k This represents their indifference between certain cash and the game Thus, three points on the individual’s utility curve associated with certain cash equivalents can be obtained (shown in bold) based on the following equation of indifference: (8) Certain Utility = Probabilistic Utility + U (£40,000) [0.5 U (£0) = 0.5(0)] + [0.5 U (£100,000) = 0.5 (1.0)] = 0.5 = Probabilistic Utility If the game’s entry price was £50k he would walk away However, other scale points, such as £50k (with a value of 0.65 say) can be established by gaming cash amounts for known utilities If the procedure is repeated exhaustively, the investor’s utility function consistent with his risk attitude will emerge, like the profile plotted in Figure 4.2 overleaf The curve’s geometry (if not its specific values) applies to any rational investor Except for small gambles relative to current wealth, it reveals risk aversion, denoted by the convex shape of the function (looking from above) Near the origin, the concave sector denotes risk preference Note that the utility of one for £100k is only twice that of 0.5 for £40k (which we originally calculated) but more than half the utility of £200k, as risk aversion sets in Returning to our example, the application of Equation (8) using the investor’s utility curve reveals that despite a positive ENPV the project should be rejected The utility of its cost exceeds the cash equivalent of the expected utility of the discounted cash flow distribution U (£50,000) = 0.65 > S{0.167+0.300+0.260+(0.075)+(0.152)} = 0.5 = U (£40,000) Review Activity Summarise the problems that confront practising financial managers who use certainty cash equivalents, rather than mean-variance as a basis for investment appraisal 63 Download free eBooks at bookboon.com Strategic Financial Management The Treatment of Uncertainty Figure 4.2: The Investor Utility Curve 4.6 Summary and Conclusions ENPV maximisation using the certainty cash equivalents of expected utilities is more sophisticated than mean-variance analysis because it not only incorporates probabilistic estimates of a project’s outcomes but also the investor’s risk psychology But remember: Utility functions, like project probability distributions, are subjective, differ from individual to individual, susceptible to change and must be combined (somehow) for group decisions Certainty cash equivalents, like mean-variance analyses, not only depend upon the borrowing and reinvestcdsment assumptions of the basic NPV model but must also utilise gains and losses discounted at a risk-free rate to avoid the duplication of risk 4.7Reference Arnold, G.C and Hatzopoulos, P.D., “The Theory-Practice Gap in Capital Budgeting: Evidence from the United Kingdom”, Journal of Business Finance and Accounting, Vol 25 (5) and (6), June/July, 2000 64 Download free eBooks at bookboon.com Part Three The Finance Decision 65 Download free eBooks at bookboon.com Strategic Financial Management Equity Valuation and the Cost of Capital 5Equity Valuation and the Cost of Capital Introduction Part Two provided a detailed explanation of the investment decision with only oblique reference to the finance decision, which determines a company’s cost of capital (discount rate) designed to maximise shareholder wealth But if wealth is to be maximised, management must determine what return their shareholders require from an investment and then only accept projects that have a positive NPV when discounted at that rate There is also the question as to what cut-off rate should apply to investment proposals if corporate finance were obtained from a variety of sources, other than ordinary shares? Each stakeholder requires a rate of return that may differ from the equity market and may be unique In this newly leveraged situation, the company’s overall cost of capital (rather than its cost of equity) measured by its weighted, average cost of capital (WACC) would seem to be the appropriate investment acceptance criterion This e-book is made with SETASIGN SetaPDF PDF components for PHP developers www.setasign.com 66 Download free eBooks at bookboon.com Click on the ad to read more Strategic Financial Management Equity Valuation and the Cost of Capital Given the normative assumption of financial management, the purpose of Part Three is straightforward How does a firm maximise corporate wealth by securing funds at minimum cost that not only provides shareholders with their desired rate of return, once investment takes place, but also satisfies the expectations of all capital providers? To set the scene, Chapter Five provides an explanation of the most significant explicit, opportunity cost of external funding available to management The cost of ordinary shares measured by their rate of return, often termed the equity capitalisation rate or yield 5.1 The Capitalisation Concept In Chapter Two we defined an investment’s present value (PV) as its relevant periodic cash flows (Ct) discounted at a constant cost of capital (r) over time (n) Expressed algebraically:  Q  39Q 6&W U ...R.A Hill Strategic Financial Management Download free eBooks at bookboon.com Strategic Financial Management 1st edition © 2008 R.A Hill & bookboon.com... bookboon.com Strategic Financial Management Finance – An Overview Finance – An Overview Introduction In a world of geo-political, social and economic uncertainty, strategic financial management. .. *DLQV 6KDUHSULFH  Figure 1.3: Strategic Financial Management 16 Download free eBooks at bookboon.com Strategic Financial Management 1.4 Finance – An Overview Decision Structures
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