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Ngày đăng: 14/04/2018, 14:58

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Dr Nam T S Phan Faculty of Chemical Engineering HCMC University of Technology Office: room 211, B2 Building Phone: 8647256 ext 5681 Email: Chapter 7: ALKYNES An sp hybridized carbon NOMENCLATURE OF ALKYNES The IUPAC name of an alkyne is obtained by replacing the “ane” ending of the corresponding alkane with “yne” In common nomenclature, alkynes are named as ‘substituted acetylenes’ Both ethyne & acetylene are acceptable names for C2H2 Lowest possible number, regardless of which functional group gets the lower number The same low number for both directions, lower number for C=C PREPARATION OF ALKYNES Sources of acetylene Alkynes by elimination reactions REACTIONS OF ALKYNES Acidic hydrogen Only for primary alkyl halides Additions of hydrogen halides (AE) Additions of halogens (AE) 10 Additions of water – hydration reactions Markovnikov’s rule Terminal alkynes are less reactive than internal alkynes, need Hg2+ as a catalyst 11 Additions of boran – hydroboration & oxidation 12 Regioselectivity Markovnikov’s rule Anti-Markovnikov 13 Additions of hydrogen – hydrogenation Product is alkane Product is alkene 14 Ozonolysis of alkynes Ozonolysis used to be employed in structure determination, but has been superseded by spectroscopic methods 15 Polymerizations 16
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