ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (PETRO)

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ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Dr Nam T S Phan Faculty of Chemical Engineering HCMC University of Technology Office: room 211, B2 Building Phone: 8647256 ext 5681 Email: ptsnam@hcmut.edu.vn Chapter 4: ALKANES NOMENCLATURE OF ALKANES ALKYL SUBSTITUENTS IUPAC NAMES OF BRANCHED ALKANES Determine the parent hydrocarbon – the longest continuous carbon chain • Substituents are listed in alphabetical order • Carbon chain is numbered with the lowest possible number in the compound Substituents are the same • Di, tri, tetra, n, sec, and tert are ignored in alphabetizing substituents • Iso, neo, and cyclo are not ignored NATURAL SOURCES OF ALKANES C1-4 C5-11 Natural gas & petroleum (fossil fuels) C9-16 C15-25 PREPARATION OF ALKANES Catalytic hydrogenations of alkenes / alkynes 10 Reduction reactions 11 Wurtz reactions symmetric alkane Limitations: + The Wurtz reaction is limited to the synthesis of symmetric alkanes from alkyl iodides & bromides + If two dissimilar alkyl halides are taken as reactants, then the product is a mixture of alkanes that is, often, difficult to separate + A side reaction also occurs to produce an alkene + The side reaction becomes more significant when the alkyl 12 halides are bulky at the halogen-attached carbon Corey-House synthesis – the reaction of a lithium dialkyl cuprate with an alkyl halide to form a new alkane Corey-House synthesis overcomes some of the limitations of the Wurtz reaction 13 REACTIVITY OF ALKANES • Alkanes have only strong σ bonds • Electronegativity of C & H are approximately the same • None of the atoms in alkanes have any significant charge • Neither nucleophiles nor electrophiles are attracted Alkanes are very unreactive 14 HALOGENATION OF ALKANES 15 16 17 PRODUCT DISTRIBUTION It must be easier to abstract a hydrogen atom from a secondary carbon than from a primary carbon 18 Reactivity - relative rate at which a particular hydrogen is abstracted in chlorination reactions: At room temperature 19 Product distribution can be estimated: 20 Br2 is less reactive towards alkane than Cl2, but Br2 is more selective Bromination at 125 oC 21 Too violent Too slow 22 STEREOCHEMISTRY OF RADICAL SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS Have no asymetric carbon Racemic mixture 23 Already have asymetric carbon 24 COMBUSTION OF ALKANES 25 ... alkane than Cl2, but Br2 is more selective Bromination at 125 oC 21 Too violent Too slow 22 STEREOCHEMISTRY OF RADICAL SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS Have no asymetric carbon Racemic mixture 23 Already
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