Tài liệu Assignment on intercultural communication giao thoa văn hoá-Download

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Tiểu luận bản đầy đủ môn Giao thoa văn hóa Khoa Tiếng Anh.ASSIGNMENT ON INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATIONĐề tài: COMPARISION ENGLISH GREETINGS AND VIETNAMESE GREETINGS(SO SÁNH LỜI CHÀO HỎI CỦA NGƯỜI ANH VÀ LỜI CHÀO HỎI CỦA NGƯỜI VIỆT) CONTENTS Contents…………………………………………………………………………………...1 I.Introduction…………………………………………………………………....2 II.Development………………………………………………………………...…3 1.Theory background……………….………………………………………............3 1.1.Definitions about “Greeting”……………………………………..................3 1.2.Greeting gestures…………………………………………………...……….4 2.Greetings in Vietnamese and in English………………………………………....4 2.1.Greetings in English…………………………………………………...……4 2.1.1.Greeting expressions………………………………………………….…4 2.1.2.Greeting gestures…………………………………………..……………5 2.1.3.Special greetings……………………………………………….………..5 2.2.Greetings in Vietnamese………………………………………………..…..5 2.2.1.Greeting expressions……………………………………………………6 2.2.2.Greeting gestures………………………………………………………..6 2.2.3.Special greetings………………………………………………………...7 3.A comparison between English and Vietnamese greetings………………….…7 3.1.Similarities………………………………………………………………….8 3.1.1.Greeting expressions………...………………………………………….8 3.1.2.Greeting gestures………………………..………………………………8 3.2.Differences…………………………………………………...……………..8 3.2.1.Culture…………………………………………………………………..9 3.2.2.Religion………………………………………………………………….9 III.Conclusion……………………………………………………………………10 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………...….11 I.Introduction As we know there are many countries in the world. Each has own it culture. ‘’A nation''''s culture resides in the hearts and in the soul of its people’’- Mahatma Gandhi. It is true that knowing the culture of a country is, in effect, a guide to understanding the soul of that country and its people. Culture refers to many factors such as art, music, food, literature, etc. However, on the study, I would like to show my understanding about greeting culture. As an English learner, first of all, I learn greeting in English such as: “Hi”, “Hello”, “Good morning”, etc, and learn how to use them. I find a lot of interesting points of English culture in common , English greetings in particularly. Hence, on this paper, I would like to show my understanding about English greetings. Specially, I will compare and contrast it with Vietnamese greeting to show the differences and similarity between greetings of two countries. I hope that my study will help people who are interested in English culture, will have more knowledge about English culture and intercultural communication of it with Vietnamese culture. II.Development 1.Theory background. 1.1.Definitions about “Greeting”. •When you see a friend or someone you may probably say “Hi”, “Hello”, “Good morning”, etc to them or you may wave or smile or maybe you do all of them. These actions are called greetings. Greetings are things people say or do to show that they recognize the presence of the others. Greeting is an important communicative etiquette and it is a cultural etiquette. Because of differences in culture, language, every country has its own ways yo form greetings. For examples: -“Good evening”, “Hello”, “What’s up!”, etc (in English) -“Chào”, “Xin chào”, “Chào bác”, etc (in Vietnamese) -“Konichiwa”, “Ohio”, etc (in Japan) •Perhaps, greeting is one of the most popular interactions among people. Everyone in the world greets each other, every country has its own greeting culture. Greeting is an important activity. Firstly, it is clear that almost every human interaction begins with greetings. When meeting, people do not start talking directly, first of all they greet each other then they talk about the topics. In other words, every communication begins with greetings. Greetings are not just sayings, gestures used to start the conservation, they also conveys messages. People’s greetings can show the relationships among greeters. A good greeting helps to maintain the conversation and leads the communicators to take interest in talking to each other. Through greetings, you can express your friendliness, respect, politeness, etc, or your friends by choosing suitable greetings and intonation. That is the key for you and your friends to have successful conversation. The ways people greet (gestures or saying) can tell us information about culture, customs, religion, etc. Basing on greetings, we can also indicate something about the social status, age-range of the greeters. 1.2.Greeting gestures Greetings are not just words, sayings. Body language –the way people stand, people look at the other’s faces, the movement you make during greeting process are the greeting gestures. There are a lot of greeting gestures, and greeting gestures vary from culture to culture. For example: Kissing, handshake, bow, waving, eyes contact,…; greetings used in formal situations, greetings used in informal situations, special greetings, religious greetings. 2.Greetings in Vietnamese and in English 2.1.Greetings in English Like many countries in the world, England has the system of greeting including greeting expressions and greeting gestures. 2.1.1.Greeting expressions •Direct greeting expressions: In English, there are a number of direct greeting expressions, which contain verbs of greeting like “greet”, “welcome”, greeting words like “Hello” , “Hi” , “Hey” , etc. The interjections “hello, hi, hallo,” are often used in informal situations. They are used commonly by young generation and among close friends, etc, and people who have slight relationship with each other. The greeting expressions which include the verbs of greeting like “greet”, “welcome” are often used in writing, or informal situations. For examples: I greet her by saying good morning (in writing) “Greetings Ladies and Gentlemen!” Or “Ladies and Gentlemen!” (formal) Welcome to our Beauty contest. (greeting of a speaker) Welcome to Hanoi city. •Indirect greeting expressions: In English, there are a lot of indirect greeting expressions. There are some ways of forming indirect greeting expressions. This kind of greeting in English is divided into two groups basing on the linguistic forms. They are: “Good + part of the day” such as: “Good morning” , “Good evening” , “Good afternoon” and “questions (usually open questions)” such as: “How are you?”, “How do you do?” , “what’ s new?” , “what’ s up?” , etc. 2.1.2.Greeting gestures Whereas in many countries and in the European continent, handshaking is done when meeting and departing day in and day out and even the same assortment of acquaintances, in England as well as Great Britain, it is done less frequently. It is sometimes difficult to know when to shake hands with English people in business situations, men always shake hands when they first meet each other. Recently, especially in the business world, women have begun to shake hands, too. And younger women shake hands more often than older women do. 2.1.3.Special greetings In English, there are not many special greetings their religion -Christianity- does not affect their greeting much. On special days, they have special greetings for the days. On the New Year days, they usually greet each other by saying “Happy new year” in the birthday party, they say “Happy birthday” to that person. On the Christmas day, people would say: “Merry Christmas”. These greetings function as a greeting, and a wish that many good things come with you. These greetings are indirect greeting expressions. In the old time, the Queen of England was greeted very formally by her subjects, usually when someone greeted the Queen, he had to knee and kiss the Queen’s hand when she offered her hand. 2.2.Greetings in Vietnamese To Vietnamese culture, the greeting is very important in everyday conversation, as there is a saying that: “A greeting is more important than a meal” (Lời chào cao hơn mâm cỗ). As the Vietnamese have to greet people everywhere, every time they meet. Therefore, there are a great number of greetings in Vietnamese and they can also be divided into two main kinds: Greeting expressions and greeting gestures. 2.2.1.Greeting expressions As Vietnamese greet each other usually, there are many greeting expressions in Vietnamese. There are also direct expressions and indirect greeting expressions. •Direct greeting expressions: The direct greeting expressions (expressions which contain verbs of greeting and greeting words) are formed as follow: Chào + title or name of the greeter or both For examples: “Chào bác”, “Chào anh”, “Chào cô”, etc. When the greeting expressions include “chào + title and name”, it is more formal greeting. To be more formal we can add some more extra words like: “xin, kính, ạ” For example: -Chào bác ạ! -Ừ. Chào cháu! -Xin kính chào quý vị và các bạn! In Vietnamese, there are many direct greeting expressions that are used widely. They are used in both formal and informal situations depending on the choice of the greeters. •Indirect greeting expressions: In Vietnamese, the number of indirect greeting expressions are much more than any countries in the world. For examples: About health: “Anh khỏe chứ?”, “Bác khỏe không?”, “Chị nhà thế nào rồi?”,… About work: “Đang làm gì rồi cháu?”. “Công việc lương lậu thế nào?”, “Giờ làm ở đâu rồi anh?”,… About weather: “Thời tiết hôm nay ngột ngạt quá bác nhỉ?”,… 2.2.2.Greeting gestures Greeting gestures of Vietnamese are very abundant because of the influence of the Western culture. Shaking hands is the Western custom, but it has been spreading rapidly since the colonization of the France and Western countries. Now it probably becomes the customary form of greeting gestures. Bow is another kind of greeting gesture in Vietnam as well as some other Asian countries, like China, Japan. Bow is used when people greet a 34 person with high position in society. Friends never greet each other with bow. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGLISH  ASSIGNMENT ON INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION COMPARISION ENGLISH GREETINGS AND VIETNAMESE GREETINGS (SO SÁNH LỜI CHÀO HỎI CỦA NGƯỜI ANH LỜI CHÀO HỎI CỦA NGƯỜI VIỆT) Supervisor: Nguyen Van A Hanoi, 2017 CONTENTS Contents………………………………………………………………………………… I Introduction………………………………………………………………… II Development……………………………………………………………… …3 Theory background……………….……………………………………… 1.1 Definitions about “Greeting”…………………………………… 1.2 Greeting gestures………………………………………………… ……….4 Greetings in Vietnamese and in English……………………………………… 2.1 Greetings in English………………………………………………… ……4 2.1.1 Greeting expressions………………………………………………….…4 2.1.2 Greeting gestures………………………………………… ……………5 2.1.3 Special greetings……………………………………………….……… 2.2 Greetings in Vietnamese……………………………………………… … 2.2.1 Greeting expressions……………………………………………………6 2.2.2 Greeting gestures……………………………………………………… 2.2.3 Special greetings……………………………………………………… A comparison between English and Vietnamese greetings………………….…7 3.1 Similarities………………………………………………………………….8 3.1.1 Greeting expressions……… ………………………………………….8 3.1.2 Greeting gestures……………………… ………………………………8 3.2 Differences………………………………………………… …………… 3.2.1 Culture………………………………………………………………… 3.2.2 Religion………………………………………………………………….9 III Conclusion……………………………………………………………………10 REFERENCES………………………………………………………………… ….11 I Introduction As we know there are many countries in the world Each has own it culture. ‘’A nation's culture resides in the hearts and in the soul of its people’’- Mahatma Gandhi It is true that knowing the culture of a country is, in effect, a guide to understanding the soul of that country and its people Culture refers to many factors such as art, music, food, literature, etc However, on the study, I would like to show my understanding about greeting culture As an English learner, first of all, I learn greeting in English such as: “Hi”, “Hello”, “Good morning”, etc, and learn how to use them I find a lot of interesting points of English culture in common , English greetings in particularly Hence, on this paper, I would like to show my understanding about English greetings Specially, I will compare and contrast it with Vietnamese greeting to show the differences and similarity between greetings of two countries I hope that my study will help people who are interested in English culture, will have more knowledge about English culture and intercultural communication of it with Vietnamese culture II Development Theory background 1.1 Definitions about “Greeting”  When you see a friend or someone you may probably say “Hi”, “Hello”, “Good morning”, etc to them or you may wave or smile or maybe you all of them These actions are called greetings Greetings are things people say or to show that they recognize the presence of the others Greeting is an important communicative etiquette and it is a cultural etiquette Because of differences in culture, language, every country has its own ways yo form greetings For examples: - “Good evening”, “Hello”, “What’s up!”, etc (in English) - “Chào”, “Xin chào”, “Chào bác”, etc (in Vietnamese) - “Konichiwa”, “Ohio”, etc (in Japan)  Perhaps, greeting is one of the most popular interactions among people Everyone in the world greets each other, every country has its own greeting culture Greeting is an important activity Firstly, it is clear that almost every human interaction begins with greetings When meeting, people not start talking directly, first of all they greet each other then they talk about the topics In other words, every communication begins with greetings Greetings are not just sayings, gestures used to start the conservation, they also conveys messages People’s greetings can show the relationships among greeters A good greeting helps to maintain the conversation and leads the communicators to take interest in talking to each other Through greetings, you can express your friendliness, respect, politeness, etc, or your friends by choosing suitable greetings and intonation That is the key for you and your friends to have successful conversation The ways people greet (gestures or saying) can tell us information about culture, customs, religion, etc Basing on greetings, we can also indicate something about the social status, age-range of the greeters 1.2 Greeting gestures Greetings are not just words, sayings Body language –the way people stand, people look at the other’s faces, the movement you make during greeting process are the greeting gestures There are a lot of greeting gestures, and greeting gestures vary from culture to culture For example: Kissing, handshake, bow, waving, eyes contact, …; greetings used in formal situations, greetings used in informal situations, special greetings, religious greetings Greetings in Vietnamese and in English 2.1 Greetings in English Like many countries in the world, England has the system of greeting including greeting expressions and greeting gestures 2.1.1 Greeting expressions  Direct greeting expressions: In English, there are a number of direct greeting expressions, which contain verbs of greeting like “greet”, “welcome”, greeting words like “Hello” , “Hi” , “Hey” , etc The interjections “hello, hi, hallo,” are often used in informal situations They are used commonly by young generation and among close friends, etc, and people who have slight relationship with each other The greeting expressions which include the verbs of greeting like “greet”, “welcome” are often used in writing, or informal situations For examples: I greet her by saying good morning (in writing) “Greetings Ladies and Gentlemen!” Or “Ladies and Gentlemen!” (formal) Welcome to our Beauty contest (greeting of a speaker) Welcome to Hanoi city  Indirect greeting expressions: In English, there are a lot of indirect greeting expressions There are some ways of forming indirect greeting expressions This kind of greeting in English is divided into two groups basing on the linguistic forms They are: “Good + part of the day” such as: “Good morning” , “Good evening” , “Good afternoon” and “questions (usually open questions)” such as: “How are you?”, “How you do?” , “what’ s new?” , “what’ s up?” , etc 2.1.2 Greeting gestures Whereas in many countries and in the European continent, handshaking is done when meeting and departing day in and day out and even the same assortment of acquaintances, in England as well as Great Britain, it is done less frequently It is sometimes difficult to know when to shake hands with English people in business situations, men always shake hands when they first meet each other Recently, especially in the business world, women have begun to shake hands, too And younger women shake hands more often than older women 2.1.3 Special greetings In English, there are not many special greetings their religion -Christianity- does not affect their greeting much On special days, they have special greetings for the days On the New Year days, they usually greet each other by saying “Happy new year” in the birthday party, they say “Happy birthday” to that person On the Christmas day, people would say: “Merry Christmas” These greetings function as a greeting, and a wish that many good things come with you These greetings are indirect greeting expressions In the old time, the Queen of England was greeted very formally by her subjects, usually when someone greeted the Queen, he had to knee and kiss the Queen’s hand when she offered her hand (The Queen was being greeted) 2.2 Greetings in Vietnamese To Vietnamese culture, the greeting is very important in everyday conversation, as there is a saying that: “A greeting is more important than a meal” (Lời chào cao mâm cỗ) As the Vietnamese have to greet people everywhere, every time they meet Therefore, there are a great number of greetings in Vietnamese and they can also be divided into two main kinds: Greeting expressions and greeting gestures 2.2.1 Greeting expressions As Vietnamese greet each other usually, there are many greeting expressions in Vietnamese There are also direct expressions and indirect greeting expressions  Direct greeting expressions: The direct greeting expressions (expressions which contain verbs of greeting and greeting words) are formed as follow: Chào + title or name of the greeter or both For examples: “Chào bác”, “Chào anh”, “Chào cô”, etc When the greeting expressions include “chào + title and name”, it is more formal greeting To be more formal we can add some more extra words like: “xin, kính, ạ” For example: - Chào bác ạ! - Ừ Chào cháu! - Xin kính chào quý vị bạn! In Vietnamese, there are many direct greeting expressions that are used widely They are used in both formal and informal situations depending on the choice of the greeters  Indirect greeting expressions: In Vietnamese, the number of indirect greeting expressions are much more than any countries in the world For examples: About health: “Anh khỏe chứ?”, “Bác khỏe không?”, “Chị nhà rồi?”,… About work: “Đang làm cháu?” “Cơng việc lương lậu nào?”, “Giờ làm đâu anh?”,… About weather: “Thời tiết hôm ngột ngạt bác nhỉ?”,… 2.2.2 Greeting gestures Greeting gestures of Vietnamese are very abundant because of the influence of the Western culture Shaking hands is the Western custom, but it has been spreading rapidly since the colonization of the France and Western countries Now it probably becomes the customary form of greeting gestures Bow is another kind of greeting gesture in Vietnam as well as some other Asian countries, like China, Japan Bow is used when people greet a 34 person with high position in society Friends never greet each other with bow In every school in Vietnam, when the teacher comes into class, the students stand up and greet the teacher This is a kind of formal greeting because Vietnamese people respect teachers very much The children are told to greet adults respectively by crossing their arms in front of their chest when greeting (students greet the teacher) 2.2.3 Special greetings There are not many special greetings in Vietnamese Some of them come from the other cultures because of being invaded For example: “Chúc mừng năm mới!”, “An khang thịnh vượng, vạn ý!”, “Nam mô a di đà phật.” A comparison between English and Vietnamese greetings English and Vietnamese people, as well as people of many countries in the world use greetings to open communication As we have noted, greeting are affected by many factors such as: culture, religion, custom, lifestyle etc Each country has their own culture, religions, custom, etc That is the reason why there are a lot of differences between Vietnamese and English greetings However, there are similarities too 3.1 Similarities 3.1.1 Greeting expressions Both Vietnamese and English have direct and indirect greeting expressions Vietnamese people use “Chào+ title or name” to form greeting: “Chào anh, chào chị” Vietnamese people sometimes add empty words: “ạ, à,…” after name or title to form greeting “Bác ạ!”, “Mỹ à!”,…etc Engish people use verbs of greeting such as: “Welcome, greet, etc.” or words:“ Hello, Hi, Hey etc.”to form greetings - “ Greetings, ladies and gentlemen! ” - “ Welcome to Hanoi Open university! ” - “ Welcome all ladies and gentlemen! However, these kinds of greetings are less common than “Hello , Hi , Hey” - Hello, Potter - Hi, Granger English people use “Good + part of the day ” and “ questions” to form indirect greeting expressions Vietnamese people use only questions to form greeting but the number is quite large and the topics to be concerned are various 3.1.2 Greeting gestures As a result of the globalization, there are some common greeting gestures of the Vietnamese and the English such as waving, high-five, and handshaking 3.2 Differences Vietnamese and English are two different languages English culture is different from Vietnamese culture, so there are many differences in greetings The number of greeting expressions in Vietnamese is more than that in English In Vietnam, there are no permanent greeting structures as in English People ask each other question to greet These questions are not for getting information, they are known as “greeting - questions” Many of greetings used in everyday conversation of Vietnamese are personal questions: “Làm xong tập chưa?”, “Cả nhà ăn cơm chưa?” In English “greeting - questions” are about general topics such as heath, job, weather etc - “It is nice today, isn’ t it ” (weather) - “What ‘s new?” , “What’ s up?” (job) - “How are you?” (health) As English people not want to poke their nose in the other’s affairs but mind about their own business To them, Vietnamese greetings may be too curious, and they will be annoyed if someone greets them such personal questions Their greetings are usually formal The greetings expressions “good morning, good afternoon”, etc, bearing meaning of a wish Why are there these differences? Every difference has its origins As having mentioned the factors such as religions, culture, social development, govern the greeting culture We will gradually investigate factors to find the origin of the differences 3.2.1 Culture The geographical location and the natural condition of Vietnam are much different from England And these differences lead to the difference in the ways people produce food, goods, etc which is the root of difference in culture Vietnam is an agricultural country, people live on planting rice During the process of planting rice, peasants have to the farming and harvest in season at the same time England has become an industrial country for long A big percent of English people are workers, they work mainly in factories, companies And most of people in U.K live in suburbs, towns and cities These things make lifestyle of English differ from Vietnamese To English people, they mind their family, their work only So, the time they spend on small talk and greetings is not as much as Vietnamese people They often soon go directly to the topics Their greetings are not as diverse as Vietnamese greetings They not like personal questions The topics they concern in greeting and small talk are about job, health, weather, world affairs, not personal affairs as Vietnamese people Vietnamese culture is the agricultural culture People like stability, they pay much attention to spaces, so they distinguish the greetings basing on social relationship and sentiment The Westerners distinguish basing on time, so greetings are divided clearly into parts of the day like: morning, afternoon, evening and there are greetings: Good morning, good afternoon, etc 3.2.2 Religion Religion affects much communication style, and greeting culture Each religion ordered rules that followers have to obey In Vietnam, there have been popular religions such as Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, etc According to the rules of Confucianism, male’s social status are higher than female’s So, usually women greet men formally and respectively Male friends are not allowed to touch female friends There are no greeting gestures like: kissing, hugging, etc Since the Western culture was brought into Vietnam, there have been the greeting gestures like handshaking, hugging (sometimes, and for the same gender only) In England, the religion Christianity gives prominence to equality between male and female and freedom of love So, greeting gestures like: kissing, hugging, or handshaking, etc are common The conversational distance among Vietnamese is often shorter than Anglicists As "English people seem cold They seem to get upset when you stand close to them." It is obvious that culture, religion, social development affect much communication style as well as greeting III Conclusion Apparently, greeting plays an important part in spiritual life It is the starter of communication process There is a saying that “a good beginning is a half of the battle” (Đầu xi đuôi lọt) Greeting is the process that will decide the successfulness of the communication Thus, I study this thesis with the aims of providing users of English a system of greeting and ways of greeting so that they can use greeting actively and correctly in certain contexts By comparing the greeting of Vietnamese and English to find out the similarities and differences, I hope it will help the Vietnamese learners of English use English greetings appropriately After reading this thesis I hope the Vietnamese users of English will not use greeting habits of Vietnamese people to greet Anglistcic with personal questions such as: "where are you going?, "what are you doing?" (bạn đâu đấy?, bạn làm đấy?) However, this thesis will surely have much restriction, I am very happy to receive all your comments and advice REFERENCES Karin Luisa, Greetings!, Children Press, Chicago, 1994 Roger E Axtell, Gestures, Jonh widely and son, Inc, 1997 10 Tran Ngoc Them, Cơ sở văn hóa Việt Nam, nhà xuất giáo dục,1997 Nguyen Quang, Intercultural Communication, Vietnam national, University Ha Noi College of foreign languages, 1999 Pham Van Binh, Tục ngữ nước Anh thành ngữ tiếng anh giàu hình ảnh, NXB Hải Phòng, 1999 11
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