giao trinh anh văn chuyên ngành công nghệ thực phẩm chuyên ngành 1

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anh văn chuyên ngành thực phẩmanh văn chuyên ngành thực phẩmanh văn chuyên ngành thực phẩmanh văn chuyên ngành thực phẩmanh văn chuyên ngành thực phẩmanh văn chuyên ngành thực phẩmanh văn chuyên ngành thực phẩmanh văn chuyên ngành thực phẩmanh văn chuyên ngành thực phẩmanh văn chuyên ngành thực phẩmanh văn chuyên ngành thực phẩmanh văn chuyên ngành thực phẩmanh văn chuyên ngành thực phẩmanh văn chuyên ngành thực phẩmanh văn chuyên ngành thực phẩmanh văn chuyên ngành thực phẩmanh văn chuyên ngành thực phẩmanh văn chuyên ngành thực phẩm UNIT 1: FOOD INDUSTRY *** READING COMPREHENSION The food industry comprises all business operations that are involved in producing a raw food material, processing it, and distributing it to sales outlets The entire complex of the industry includes: farms and ranches; producers of raw materials, such as phosphates, for agricultural use; water-supply systems; food-processing plants; manufacturers of packaging materials and food-processing and transportation equipment; transportation systems; and retail stores and food-service operations such as restaurants, institutional feeding commissaries, and vending-machine services HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRY The organized trading and transport of salt, spices, grain, olive oil, fermented beverages, and other foods have probably been practiced almost since the time of the first agricultural surpluses Inventories of livestock and foodstuffs are among the first written records However, until modern preservation methods were developed, the kinds of foods that could be traded were limited to those which did not spoil quickly Most food-processing operations seem to have begun as extensions of kitchen preparation techniques, scaled up to furnish enough surplus product to be bartered or sold outside the household Enlargement of a business entailed simply building more or larger processing equipment – oil presses, baking ovens, or wine vats Gradual improvements in design were made to increase yields or improve quality This was the general pattern until the Industrial Revolution, when major qualitative changes began to be made in food processing and distribution operations Not only were factories greatly enlarged and much of the manual labor replaced by machinery, but entirely new principles of processing, such as canning and spray drying, were invented Channels of distribution became much more complex and extended, and special techniques for retaining quality were used, for example, shipping by means of refrigerated railroad cars The present-day industry slowly took shape as it responded to ever-growing agricultural surpluses, to advances in transportation, and to the enormous changes made possible by the growth in processing technologies (Beef calves are often sent to feedlots.) DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS Farmers, ranchers, other producers of agricultural raw materials, and feedlot operators usually sell their output to collection points, such as grain terminals or stockyards The terminal or stockyard supplies the processing companies, which select needed raw materials from the available stock and process them either into finished foodstuffs – cuts of meat, for example – or into food ingredients, such as flour (Flow of goods in the food industry) From the final processor, finished food products are moved by truck or rail to warehouses, usually located near a city Most modern warehouses have storage areas for frozen and refrigerated food and are equipped to control temperature and humidity within a narrow range Warehouses can assemble full truckloads of products originating from many different suppliers for shipment to one large retailer or to a number of smaller outlets in a given region, allowing a great reduction in unit transportation costs as compared to shipping a small quantity of one item directly from the producer to the retailer If the retail outlet is large enough to accept complete truckloads directly from the manufacturer, direct shipments from the factory are sometimes made Processors of perishable foods (dairies, ice-cream manufacturers, wholesale bread bakeries, and meat-packers) usually maintain their own fleets of trucks for carrying fresh products directly to their retailer customers Truck drivers from bakeries and dairies may also service retail outlets by rotating stock and picking up stale products and returning them to the factory Restaurants and institutional commissaries purchase staples and nonperishable foods from the warehouses of specialized distributors, but they also receive direct shipment from dairies, bakeries, and meat-packers GLOSSARY A retail store (n) /ˈriːteɪl stɔː /: cửa hàng bán lẻ Advance (n) / ədˈvɑːns /: tiến Assemble (v) / əˈsɛmb(ə)l /: thu thập Available (adj) / əˈveɪləb(ə)l /: có sẵn Bakery (n) / ˈbeɪk(ə)ri /: hiệu bánh mì Be involved in (exp) / ɪnˈvɒlvd/: có liên quan đến Beverage (n) / ˈbɛv(ə)rɪdʒ /: thức uống giải khát Commissary (n) / ˈkɒmɪs(ə)ri /: kho lương thực (quân đội) Complex (n) / ˈkɒmplɛks /: khu liên hợp (adj): phức tạp Comprise (v) / kəmˈprʌɪz /: bao gồm Dairy (n) / ˈdɛːri /: cửa hàng bơ sữa Feedlot (n) / ˈ iːdlɒt /: nơi nuôi béo súc vật Ferment (v) / f əˈmɛnt /: lên men Fermentation (n) / Fermentation /: lên men Fleet (n) / fli ːt /: đoàn tàu, đoàn xe Foodstuff (n) / ˈfuːdstʌf /: thực phẩm Inventory (n)/ ˈɪnv(ə)nt(ə)ri /: kiểm kê Livestock (n) / ˈlʌɪvstɒk /: gia súc Machinery (n) / məˈ iːn(ə)ri /: máy móc Maintain (v) / meɪnˈteɪn, mənˈteɪn/: trì Maintenance (n) / ˈmeɪnt(ə)nəns /: trì Material (n) / məˈtɪərɪəl /: nguyên liệu Outlet (n) / ˈaʊtlɛt /: đại lý Pattern (n) / ˈpat(ə)n /: kiểu mẫu, mơ hình Perishable (adj) / ˈpɛrɪʃəb(ə)l /: dễ hỏng, dễ thối Pick up (v): nhặt Plant (n) / plɑːnt /: nhà máy Preserve (v) / prɪˈzəːv /: bảo quản Preservation (n) / prɛzəˈveɪʃ(ə)n/: bảo quản Principle (n) / ˈprɪnsɪp(ə)l /: nguyên lý, nguyên tắc cấu tạo Ranch (n) / rɑːn(t)ʃ / : trại nuôi gia súc Raw (adj) / rɔː /: thô (chưa tinh chế), sống (chưa nấu chin) Respond to / rɪˈspɒnd/: hưởng ứng Rotate (v) / rə(ʊ)ˈteɪt /: luân chuyển Ship (v) / ʃɪp /: vận chuyển (hàng hóa đường biển) Shipment (n) / ˈʃɪpm(ə)nt /: vận chuyển Spoil (v) / spɔɪl /: làm hư hỏng Stockyard (n) / ˈstɒkjɑːd /: nơi nuôi nhốt gia súc trước bán Surplus (adj) / ˈsəːpləs /: dư thừa (n): thặng dư temperature and humidity / ˈtɛmp(ə)rətʃə, hjʊˈmɪdɪti/: nhiệt độ độ ẩm Trade (v) / treɪd /: buôn bán Trade (n): buôn bán, thương mại Vending-machine (n) / ˈvɛndɪŋmə iːn /: máy bán hàng tự động Warehouses (n) / ˈwɛːhaʊs /: nhà kho Yield (n) / jiːld /: sản lượng I Answer the questions about the reading 1) What does the food industry consist of? 2) When did the organized trading and transport of salt, spices, grain, olive oil, fermented beverages, and other foods begin? 3) What the processing companies terminals or stockyards supply do? 4) When can direct shipments from the factory to retailers be made? 5) Where restaurants and institutional commissaries buy staples and nonperishable foods? II Write T if the sentence is true and F if it is false 1) _ Most food-processing operations seem to have begun as extensions of kitchen preparation techniques 2) _ Farmers, ranchers, and other producers of agricultural raw materials seldom sell their output to grain terminals or stockyards 3) _ In the past, the kinds of foods that could be traded were limited to those which did not spoil quickly 4) _ Processors of perishable foods usually hire fleets of trucks for carrying fresh products directly to their retailer customers 5) _ Restaurants receive direct shipment from dairies, bakeries, and meat-packers VOCABULARY Fill in these statements with the words in the box Ferment stale vats commissary stockyard Dairy entails raw vending machine surplus 1) Sushi is a Japanese dish made from …………… fish 2) You make wine by leaving grape juice to …………… until all the sugar has turned to alcohol 3) Farmers are feeding all their …………… wheat to pigs 4) A …………… is a place where farm animals are kept for a short time before they are sold at a market 5) The wines used to be made in deep wooden …………… 6) While we were camping we bought our milk from a nearby farm …………… 7) Coffee goes …………… within a couple of weeks so it is best to buy it in small quantities 8) A …………… is a machine from which you can buy small items such as cigarettes, drinks and sweets by putting coins into it 9) A …………… is a shop which supplies food and goods, especially to people in the army or in prison 10) Enlargement of a food business simply …………… building more or larger processing equipment WORD STUDY A WORD FORMS Study the words in the list Notice how they are related to each other Then choose the best word to complete each sentence Use a word from line in sentence 1, and so on Verb Noun Adjective 1) die death dead 2) decorate decoration — 3) — cruelty cruel 4) describe description descriptive 5) breathe breath — 6) compute computer / computation — 7) reserve reservation — 8) revolt revolution revolutionary 9) know knowledge — 10) connect connection connected President John F Kennedy is ……………… He ………………… in 1963 Thousands of people went to his funeral In Canada and the United States, many people …………………… a tree with lights and colorful decorations for Christmas Amnesty International tries to stop …………………… to prisoners in all countries In many places, prisoners have terrible lives of pain and suffering For your homework tonight, write a ……………… of your home town Tell how it looks, where you like to go, and why you like it When people swim under water, they must hold their ………………… Fish can breathe under water, but humans cannot If you have a small calculator, you can ………………… your grocery bill while you are in the store 7) Next month Kei is going on a trip to New York He already made his plane …………………, so he is very excited 8) Thirteen colonies participated in the …………………… war against England They became the United States of America 9) The more you study, the more your …………………… increases 10) Maria is going to Julie’s house tonight to help her ……………………… her new computer Julie doesn’t know how to it by herself B WORD FORMS This exercise is just for fun, and it is difficult See if you can figure out the meanings of these words and use the correct word in each sentence commercialized multiplicity oversimplification undereducated discouraged non-warlike programmer unrecognizable 1) Paula dressed in strange clothes and put a lot of makeup on her face for a party She was completely ……………………… No one knew who she was! 2) One student said that his native country nationalized the oil companies because people were stealing the oil This is only part of what really happened This explanation is an ……………………… of the situation 3) There is a ………………………… of problems in Third World countries, such as poor living conditions, few jobs, and very little medical care for people 4) Another problem in Third World countries is that most of the people are ……………………… because they quit school at an early age to get jobs 5) Carl is a computer ………………………… for a large company He writes programs for businesses and industries 6) Christmas has become very ………………………… in the United States Marketing experts make a lot of money because of this 7) Don’t be ………………… ……… if you can’t this exercise The words are very difficult! C -OUS, -LIKE In English, we can add the suffix -ous and -like to some nouns to make adjectives Words that end in -ous mean “full of something.” Here is an example: Our classroom is very spacious (full of space) Words that end in -like mean “similar to,” or “like.” Here is an example: The painting that Simon made is very lifelike Spelling Note: If a noun ends in silent e, drop the e before adding the suffix -ous There are no spelling changes when you add the suffix -like Add the correct suffix to each noun in the chart -ous noun -like adjective noun adjective joy …………………………… life …………………………… fame …………………………… war …………………………… danger …………………………… child …………………………… poison …………………………… Now choose the best adjective to complete each sentence 1) Some plants are very …………………… to eat In fact, if you eat a ……………………… plant, you could become sick or even die 2) Holidays are usually ………………………… times People don’t have to work, and everyone celebrates and is happy 3) Albert Einstein is a ………………………… scientist Most people in the world know who he was 4) Eskimo carvings are very ……………………… They look exactly like living animals 5) In the 1930s Germany began to take ………………………… actions Then in 1939 it attacked Poland and started a war 6) When an adult does something that a child might do, people say he or she is ………………………… UNIT 2: FOOD AND NUTRITION *** READING COMPREHENSION All living organisms require food for survival, growth, and reproduction Most broadly, the term food can be taken to include any kind of nutrient needed by animals, plants, and simpler forms of life, on down to bacteria This would include, for example, the inorganic substances that plants draw from air and water The processes that circulate these basic nutrients in the environment are called nutrient cycles, and the processes by which organisms make use of nutrients are collectively known as metabolism In terms of the energy needs of humans and other animals, food consists of carbohydrate, fat, and protein, along with vitamins and minerals Humans may consume a wide range of different food substances, as long as they meet nutrition requirements Otherwise nutritional-deficiency diseases will develop Nutrition is the science that interprets the relationship of food to the functioning of the living organism It is concerned with the intake of food, digestive processes, the liberation of energy, and the elimination of wastes, as well as with all the syntheses that are essential for maintenance, growth, and reproduction These fundamental activities are characteristic of all living organisms – from the simplest to the most complex plants and animals Nutrients are substances, either naturally occurring or synthesized, that are necessary for maintenance of the normal function of organisms These include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals, water, and some unknown substances The nutritionist, a scientist working in the field of nutrition, differs from the dietitian, who translates the science of nutrition into the skill of furnishing optimal nourishment to people Dietetics is a profession concerned with the science and art of human nutrition care, an essential component of the health sciences The treatment of disease by modification of the diet lies within the province of the physician and the dietitian The foods consumed by humans must contain, in adequate amounts, about 45 to 50 highly important substances Water and oxygen are equally essential Starting only with these essential nutrients obtained from food, the body makes literally thousands of substances necessary for life and physical fitness Most of these substances are far more complicated in structure than the original nutrients Energy metabolism and requirements are customarily expressed in terms of the calorie, a heat unit Adoption of the calorie by nutritionists followed quite naturally from the original methods of measuring energy metabolism The magnitude of human energy metabolism, however, made it awkward to record the calorie measured, so the convention of the large calorie, or kilocalorie (kcal), was accepted Atwater factors, also called physiologic fuel factors, are based on the corrections for losses of unabsorbed nutrients in the feces and for the calorie equivalent of the nitrogenous products in the urine These factors are as follows: 1g of pure protein will yield calories, 1g of pure fat will yield calories, and g of pure carbohydrate will yield calories GLOSSARY A living organism / ˈlɪvɪŋ, ˈɔːg(ə)nɪz(ə)m/: sinh vật sống Absorb (v) / əbˈzɔːb, əbˈsɔːb /: hấp thu Absorption (n) / əbˈzɔːpʃ(ə)n, əbˈsɔːpʃ(ə)n /: hấp thu Unabsorb (v) / ʌnəbˈzɔːb, ʌnəbˈsɔːb /: chưa hấp thu Adoption (n) / əˈdɒpʃ(ə)n /: chấp nhận As long as: miễn Bacteria (n) / bakˈtɪəriə /: vi khuẩn be concerned with (exp) / kənˈsəːnd/: đề cập đến Characteristic (n) / karəktəˈrɪstɪk /: nét đặc trưng Circulate (v) / ˈsəːkjʊleɪt /: lưu thông Complicated (adj) / ˈkɒmplɪkeɪtɪd/: rắc rối Component (n) / kəmˈpəʊnənt /: thành phần Consume (v) / kənˈsjuːm /: tiêu thụ (thực phẩm) Consumption (n) / kənˈsʌm(p)ʃ(ə)n /: tiêu thụ 10 Questions 18 – 21 Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this 18 Several species of wildlife in the British countryside are declining 19 The taste of food has deteriorated in recent years 20 The financial costs of environmental damage are widely recognized 21 One of the costs calculated by Professor Pretty was illness caused by food Questions 22 – 26 Complete the summary below Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer Professor Pretty concludes that our (22) ……………… are higher than most people realize, because we make three different types of payment He feels it is realistic to suggest that Britain should reduce its reliance on (23) ……………… , although most farmers would be unable to adapt to (24) ………………, Professor Pretty wants the government to initiate change by establishing what he refers to as a (25) ……………… He feels this would help to change the attitudes of both (26) ……………… and ……………… 34 UNIT 6: THE CAN – A BRIEF HISTORY LESSON *** -A The story of the can begins in 1795 when Nicholas Appert, a Parisian, had an idea: why not pack food in bottles like wine? Fifteen years later, after researching and testing idea, he published his theory: if food is sufficiently heated and sealed in an airtight container, it will not spoil In 1810 Peter Durand, an Englishman, wanted to surpass Appert’s invention, so he elected to try tin instead of glass Like glass, tin could be sealed airtight but tin was not breakable and was much easier to handle Durand himself did no canning, but two other Englishmen, Bryan Donkin and John Hall, used Durand’s patent After experimenting for more than a year, they set up a commercial canning factory and by 1813 they were sending tins of food to British army and navy authorities for trial B Perhaps the greatest encouragement to the newborn canning industry was the explosion in the number of new colonial territories As people and goods were being transported to all parts of the world, the can industry itself was growing in new territories Englishmen who emigrated to America brought their newfound knowledge with them One of these was Thomas Kensett, who might fairly be called the father of the can manufacturing industry in the United States In 1812, he set up a small plant on the New York waterfront to can the first hermetically sealed products in the United States C Just before the Civil War, a technical advance by canners enabled them to speed up production Adding calcium chloride to the water in which cans were cooked raised the water temperature, speeding up the canning process Also for almost 100 years, tin cans were made by artisans by hand It was a laborious process, requiring considerable skills and muscle As the industrial revolution took hold in the United States, the demand for cans increased and machines began to replace the artisans’ handiwork A good artisan could make only 10 cans a day True production progress in can making began in 1922, when American engineers perfected the body making process New methods soon increased production of cans to as many as 250 a minute D As early as 1940, can manufacturers began to explore the possibility of adapting cans to package carbonated soft drinks The can had to be strengthened to accommodate higher internal can pressures created by carbonation (especially during warm summer months), 35 which meant increasing the thickness of the metal used in the can ends Another concern for the new beverage can was its shelf life Even small amounts of dissolved tin or iron from the can could impair the drinking quality of drinks Also the food acids, including carbonic, citric and phosphoric, in soft drinks presented a risk for the rapid corrosion of exposed tin and iron in the can At this point the can was upgraded by improving the organic coatings used to line the inside The can manufacturers then embarked on a program of material and cost savings by reducing both the amount of steel and the amount of coating used in can making These efforts were in part inspired by a new competitor – aluminium E Beverage cans made from aluminium were first introduced in 1965 This was an exciting innovation for the packaging industry because the aluminium can was made with only two pieces – a body and an end This made production easier Some of the reasons for the aluminium can’s acceptance were its ductility, its support of carbonation pressure, its lighter weight and the fact that aluminium does not rust Both steel and aluminium cans used an easy-open end tab but the aluminium tab was much easier to make Perhaps the most critical element in the aluminium can’s market success was its recycling value Aluminium can recycling excelled economically in the competition with steel because of the efficiencies aluminium cans realized in making new cans from recycled materials compared with 100 percent virgin aluminium Steel did not realize similar economies in the recycling process F Prior to 1970, can makers, customers and consumers alike were unaware of the impact that the mining and manufacturing of steel or aluminium had on the environment The concept of natural resource preservation was not an issue of great importance and the low growth of population during these early years further de-emphasized concerns for resource depletion Both industries, however, came to realize the importance of reducing their impact on the environment in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a new environmentally conscious generation emerged Manufacturers began to recognize the economics of recycling, namely lower manufacturing costs from using less material and less energy By the 1980s and 1990s, recycling had become a way of life Aluminium can recycling has become a billion-dollar business and one of the world’s most successful environmental enterprises Over the years, the aluminium can has come to be known as America’s most recyclable package, with over 60 percent of cans being recycled annually G Advances in can manufacturing technology have also brought us lighter aluminium cans In 1972, one pound of aluminium yielded only 21.75 cans Today, by using less material to 36 make each can, one pound of aluminium makes approximately 32 cans – a 47 percent improvement Just the lightening of can ends makes a huge difference When you multiply the savings by the 100 billions cans that are made each year, the weight and savings are phenomenal – over 200 millions pounds of aluminium! GLOSSARY Aluminium (n) / al(j)ʊˈmɪnɪəm /: nhôm Artisan (n) / ˈɑːtɪzan, ɑːtɪˈzan/; thợ thủ công Can (n) / kan /: đồ hộp colonial territory (exp) / kəˈləʊnɪəl, ˈtɛrɪt(ə)ri /: vùng lãnh thổ thuộc địa Competitor (n) / kəmˈpɛtɪtə / đối thủ Corrosion (n) / kəˈrəʊʒ(ə)n /: ăn mòn de-emphasized (v) / diːˈɛmfəsʌɪz/: giảm thiểu Depletion (n) / dɪˈpliːʃn /: cạn kiệt dissolved (adj) / dɪˈzɒlv /: hòa tan Ductility (n) / dʌk'tiliti /: dễ uốn nắn Embark (v) / ɪmˈbɑːk, ɛmˈbɑːk /; bắt đầu làm Emerge (v) / ɪˈməːdʒ /: xuất Encouragement (n) / ɪnˈkʌrɪʤm(ə)nt /: khuyến khích Experiment (v) / ɪkˈspɛrɪm(ə)nt , ɛkˈspɛrɪm(ə)nt /: làm thí nghiệm (n): thí nghiệm Explosion (n) / ɪkˈspləʊʒ(ə)n, ɛkˈspləʊʒ(ə)n /: bùng nổ Handiwork (n) / ˈhandɪwəːk /: công việc làm tay Hermetically (adv) / hə:'metikəli /: kín mít Impair (v) / ɪmˈpɛː /: làm suy Innovation (n) / ɪnəˈveɪʃ(ə)n/: đổi Invention (n) / ɪnˈvɛnʃ(ə)n /: sáng chế navy authority (exp) / ˈneɪvi, ɔːˈθɒrɪti/: quan hải quân Pack (v) / pak /: đóng gói, đóng hộp Publish (v) / ˈpʌblɪʃ /: công bố 37 shelf life (exp) / ʃɛlf lʌɪf/ : thời hạn sử dụng speed up (v) / spiːd/: xúc tiến Surpass (v) / səˈpɑːs /: vượt hơn, vượt qua Theory (n) / ˈθɪəri /: học thuyết Tin (n) / tɪn /: hộp thiếc Trial (n) / ˈtrʌɪəl /: thử nghiệm Waterfront (n) / ˈwɔːtəfrʌnt/: khu cảng Questions 27 – 32 The reading passage on The Can – A Brief History Lesson has paragraphs A – G NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all Example Answer Paragraph A iv i The Invention of the Aluminium Can ii technological Breakthroughs iii Canning and the Beer Industry iv The Invention v Canning and War vi Further Manufacturing Advances vii Problems with Spoiled Contents viii Expansion of the Industry ix Today’s Uses for Canning x Drinks Canning xi Cans and The Environment 27 Paragraph B 28 Paragraph C 29 Paragraph D 30 Paragraph E 31 Paragraph F 32 Paragraph G 38 Questions 33 – 38 Below are two lists The first list (questions 33 – 38) is a list of dates of events in Reading Passage 3: The Can – A Brief History Lesson The second list (A – G) is a list of the events Match the year with the correct event in the history of the can One of the dates and one of the events are matched as an example Example Answer 1810 E QUESTION DATE EG 1810 33 1922 34 1812 35 1813 36 1965 39 Unit 7: A GREAT WAY TO LIVE LONGER Two major studies, one on heart disease (MONICA) and the other on cancer (EPIC), are giving researchers a new look at the connection between diet and disease They offer the hope of saving hundreds of thousands of lives a year by adjusting the way we feed ourselves The studies leave little doubt that many of us – especially in wealthy countries – are eating ourselves into an early grave Of the two studies, MONICA (Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) has covered the most ground It was started ten years ago by the World Health Organization (WHO), and the £33 million project is the most ambitious study ever undertaken on heart and vascular disease Using standardized data collection techniques, WHO’s correspondents gathered statistics on more than ten million men and women in more than 39 population centres, ranging from Siberia to California, Australia to Israel The study rapidly disclosed some startling facts MONICA showed that in Finland, for example, men die of coronary disease 11 times more often than they in Japan, while in Glasgow women die of heart disease 12 times more often than those in north-eastern Spain or southern France Compass points As the results flowed in, a clear pattern emerged: in Europe, the further north you live, the more likely you are to die from a heart attack Two cities typical of this north-south gradient are Belfast and Toulouse, in south-western France In the most recent period studied, the heart-disease death rate for men aged 45 to 54 is 237 per 100 000 population in Belfast, but only 56 in Toulouse For the age group 55 to 64, the contrast is even more striking: 761 for Belfast, 175 for Toulouse – a difference of 4.3 to EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) is a more recent study Organized in seven European countries including Britain, by the Lyons-based International Agency for Research on Cancer, it began collecting data in 1993, and already shows a remarkably similar outcome: for most forms of cancer, the north is dangerous and the south relatively benign Luxembourg and Belgium lead the mortality figures for men (Denmark and the UK for women), while Greece, Portugal and Spain are at the bottom Split results Why should residence in the developed north, with all its wealth and public services, make death by cardiovascular disease or cancer more likely than in the generally poorer south? The question seems to be all the more puzzling because MONICA found no significant differences in smoking, high-blood pressure or cholesterol – the three classic indicators of heart trouble – to explain the regional disparities The further the investigations progress, the more one factor presents itself as the likely answer: diet 40 Clearly, southern Europeans know something about eating that their northern brethren not The most confounding information is in the MONICA data from France, the country with the western world’s highest life expectancy The French outlive Americans, for example, by more than four years, suffer less than half as much from coronary heart disease and yet smoke more, drink more and have blood pressure and cholesterol counts just as high – while enjoying the diet that has made French cuisine a byword for high living Those startling facts are the basis of ‘the French paradox’ Dr Serge Renaud, epidemiologist and director of nutritional studies at france’s National Institute of Health and Medical Research, had been studying the relation between nourishment and heart disease for more than 30 years in serene anonymity Then the MONICA figures revealed the differences between France and more other industrialized nations: Scotland, Finland, the United States and Australia were at the top of the scale for premature deaths from heart disease, while France was nearly at the bottom, edged out only by rice and fish eating Japan Renaud was suddenly besieged with queries Could he shed some light on the puzzle? He could indeed His five-year study of some 600 Lyons area cardiac patients, completed in Spring 1993, proved to be a show-piece for the influence of diet on health Renaud put half of his volunteers on the medically recommended diet for heart-attack victims Safe and sound, and the other half on a diet for heart-attack victims, and the other half on a diet he developed himself, reducing red-meat consumption and calling for greater amounts of bread, fresh and dried vegetables, fruits, fish and white meat His diet also replaced butter with a margarine-style spread developed in his laboratory Renaud’s greater emphasis on fruits, grains, vegetables and his margarine cut the chances of death from a second heart attack by 76 per cent GLOSSARY Adjust (v) / əˈdʒʌst /: điều chỉnh Anonymity (n) / anəˈnɪmɪti /: tình trạng giấu tên Byword (n) / ˈbʌɪwəːd /: điển hình cardiac patient (exp) / ˈkɑːdɪak, ˈpeɪʃ(ə)nt /: bệnh nhân tim Cardiovascular (adj) / ˌkɑːdɪəʊˈvaskjʊlə /: thuộc tim mạch Correspondent (n) / kɒrɪˈspɒnd(ə)nt /: thơng tín viên Determinant (n) / dɪˈtəːmɪnənt /: yếu tố định 41 Die of / from (v) / dʌɪ /: chết Disclose (v) / dɪsˈkləʊz /: tiết lộ Disparity (n) / dɪˈsparɪti /: chênh lệch : nhấn mạnh vào emphasis on (v) / ˈɛmfəsɪs/ Figure (n) / ˈfɪgə/: số học heart and vascular disease (exp) / hɑːt: ənd ˈvaskjʊlə, dɪˈziːz/: bệnh tim mạch Indicator (n) / ˈɪndɪkeɪtə /: số Investigate (v) / ɪnˈvɛstɪgeɪt /: điều tra Investigation (n) / ɪnˌvɛstɪˈgeɪʃ(ə)n /: điều tra life expectancy (n) / lʌɪf,ɪkˈspɛkt(ə)nsi /: tuổi thọ trung bình Look (n) / lʊk / nhìn Multinational (adj) / mʌltɪˈnaʃ(ə)n(ə)l /: đa quốc gia Outlive (v) / aʊtˈlɪv /: sống lâu Paradox (n) / ˈparədɒks /: ngược đời Premature (adj) / ˈprɛmətjʊə /: sớm Puzzle (n) / ˈpʌz(ə)l /: vấn đề nan giải Query (n) / ˈkwɪəri /: thắc mắc show-piece (n) / ʃəʊ- piːs /: kệt tác Startling (adj) / ˈstɑːtlɪŋ /: đáng ý Statistic (n) / stəˈtɪstɪk /: số liệu thống kê 42 43 Questions – 11 Choose the appropriate letter Which is the best description of ‘the French paradox’? A The French live longer than Americans B The French are thought to have an unhealthy lifestyle, yet have a long life expectancy C Although the French are heavy smokers, they have low rates of heart disease D French cuisine has a very high reputation and is enjoyable 10 Which statement best describes the author’s attitude to the theory that there is a connection between diet and disease? A S/he is undecided B S/he supports it cautiously C S/he supports it wholeheartedly D S/he rejects the theory 11 What is the author’s purpose in describing Japan as ‘rice-and-fish-eating’? A To show that Japan was part of the studies B To show that Japan has a similar diet to France C To show that Japan has a healthy diet D To show that Japan has an unusual diet APPENDIX *** -POPULAR VIETNAMESE CUISINE Phở bò chín noodle soup with cooked beef Phở bò tái noodle soup with rare beef Phở gà noodle soup with chicken Bún thang vermicelli and chicken soup Bún chả vermicelli with grilled meat Bún ốc vermicelli with snails Bún riêu cua vermicelli and sour crab soup Cháo gà chicken porridge Cháo cá fish porridge 10 Miến gà translucent noodles with chicken soup 11 Nem rán crispy-fried spring rolls 44 12 Nem lụi (món Huế) meat ball on a skewer (Hue dish) 13 Gỏi (miền nam) cool spring rolls (southern dish) 14 Bò lụi beef on a skewer 15 Cá lóc nướng trui grilled snake-head mullet on a skewer (món miền nam) (southern dish) 16 Thịt bò lốt nướng grilled beef wrapped in lot leaves 17 Bánh xèo (miền nam) rice pancake folded in half 18 Nộm đu đủ green papaya salad 19 Gà xé phay chicken salad 20 Nộm hoa chuối banana inflorescence salad 21 Nộm rau muống trộn khuế chua water morning – glory and sour carambola salad 22 Dưa (miền trung) vegetable pickle (central dish) 23 Cà pháo muối xổi preserved eggplant 24 Chim hầm cốm, hạt sen quail dove stewed with green rice and lotus seeds 25 Gà rút xương chưng stewed boned chicken 26 Mướp đắng xào trứng colocynth stir-fried with egg 27 Ốc xào khế snails sautéed with carambola 28 Tép khô rang khế tiny shrimp fried with carambola 29 Thịt bò kho gừng beef cooked with ginger 30 Cá thu kho nước chè mackerel cooked with tea 31 Sườn xào chua sweet and sour pork ribs 32 Cánh gà tẩm bột rán chicken wing fried in batter 33 Bê xào sả ớt veal stir-fried with citronella grass and chili 34 Thịt lợn kho nước dừa pork cooked in coconut milk (southern dish) 35 Đậu phụ nhồi thịt om cà chua tofu with pork stuffing cooked with tomato 36 Mướp đắng nhồi thịt colocynth with pork stuffing 37 Cá diếc kho tương giebel carp cooked with soya sauce 38 Thịt lợn kho củ cải pork cooked with turnip 39 Cá bống thệ kho cooked goby 40 Cà bung eggplant boiled soft 41 Canh mọc pork meatball soup 42 Canh cá rô rau cải xanh fish soup with mustard greens 43 Canh cua mùng tơi, rau đay field crab soup cooked with basella rubra and corchorus olitorius 44 Canh cá nấu giấm (miền bắc) fish sour soup (northern dish) 45 45 Canh chua cá (miền nam) fish sour soup (southern dish) 46 Canh thịt nạc hoa lý pork soup with Tonkin flower (pergularia odoratissima) 47 Xôi vò steamed glutinous rice mixed with green bean paste 48 Xôi gấc đỗ xanh steamed momordica glutinous rice mixed with green bean 49 Bánh trôi floating cake 50 Bánh chay cake and sweet soup 51 Chè bắp sweet corn pudding 52 Chuối chưng banana sweet soup 53 Chè cốm green rice sweet soup 54 Chè kho soft green-lentil cake 55 Chè đậu đãi green bean compote 56 Chè sen long nhãn longan fruit sweet soup 57 Mứt gừng candied ginger 58 Mứt bí dry preserved squash APPENDIX *** ABBREVIATIONS 46 APPENDIX *** 47 PREFIXES (Tiếp đầu ngữ) SUFFIXES (Tiếp vị ngữ) 48 ... water by water companies; 12 5m for damage to wildlife habitats, hedgerows and dry stone walls; 1, 113 m from emissions of gases likely to contribute to climate change; 10 6m from soil erosion and... ……………………… in northern Canada It is very peaceful there smooth 10 ) Handling the carvings makes them smoother, and ……………………… improves them start 11 ) The students finished their homework in the cafeteria... carvings are very ……………………… They look exactly like living animals 5) In the 19 30s Germany began to take ………………………… actions Then in 19 39 it attacked Poland and started a war 6) When an adult does something
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