ESSAYS ON ECONOMICS DEVELOPMENT

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BANKING UNIVERSITY OF HO CHI MINH CITY ESSAYS ON ECONOMICS DEVELOPMENT GLOBALIZATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LECTURERS: M.E TRẦN MẠNH KIÊN STUDENT: ĐỖ BÍCH NGỌC- 030632161469- D03 Đỗ Bích Ngọc _ Class _ D03 PREAMBLE A OVERVIEW OF GLOBALIZATION I The Definition of Globalization II The Nature of Globalization .5 B THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES I In The World II In Vietnam C DIRECTIONS AND SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME 14 CONCLUSION 15 REFERENCES 16 WEB SOURCES 16 Đỗ Bích Ngọc _ Class _ D03 ESSAYS ON ECONOMICS DEVELOPMENT GLOBALIZATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES PREAMBLE Globalization is currently very strong impact to the country, to social life of the whole human community, as well as the lives of individuals However, perceptions and attitudes towards globalization is very different While some countries approaching globalization an exhilaration in many other countries, the anti-globalization movement takes place in a wide and attracts thousands of participants But despite the different attitude, support or oppose globalization continues as an inevitable trend and increasingly expanding This is a matter of vast and so complex that we must approach the issue of globalization in many prisms, different angles But no matter the perspective or vision does necessarily point out: Nature, dynamics, trends and contradictions that arise in the process of globalization in general and the relationship between economic globalization and politics in particular in the current context Globalization is first expressed in the inevitability of economic globalization That is the most important factor, as the nucleus of globalization In Vietnam, after more than 20 years of innovation has achieved much success Economies operate under market economy-oriented socialist, trends are also very strong impact have great influence to all aspects of economic life - politics – social Currently, more and more deeply into the process of international integration, the more we perceive more clearly the positive aspects of this impact, at the same time as the negative impact that this trend by creating the financial crisis the East Asian currencies (1997) clearly shows that XXI century ushered in a new era with new opportunities and new challenges, our country is gradually transforming the quality of the development process, including the steps of international integration in substance, such as the implementation of the rules AFTA , APEC, WTO The research trends as globalization should be respected as one of the important basis for design guidelines and development strategy on the way forward Therefore, we have to learn this problem to look deeper and overview, as well as to find out the cause and solutions can development This is also the reason why I choose this topic Due to the wide range of research and access to information sources as well as competence and experience a limited coal should inevitably make mistakes I'm so Đỗ Bích Ngọc _ Class _ D03 looking forward to the teacher can get the directions, suggestions, fixes of the master to the article can improve I sincerely thank A OVERVIEW OF GLOBALIZATION I The Definition of Globalization The concept of globalization Globalization is a concept used to describe the changes in society and in the economy in the world, created by linkages and exchanges increased between nations, organizations or individuals in the corner Education, economy, etc on a global scale Looking critically at the concept, globalization in its broadest sense can be said to be a prismatic, complex, and multidisciplinary topic It can be examined from several angles which includes not only economic, the most common viewpoint, but also social, cultural, ideological and political ones James Rosenau, a foremost political scientist, defined globalization as ‘a label that is presently in vogue to account for peoples, activities, norms, ideas, goods, services, and currencies that are decreasingly confined to a geographic space and its local and established practices’ (Stallings 2000) For those looking at it from the economic angle, it refers to the increasingly internationalized character of the emerging global economy To the lawyers, it has to with ‘the threatened changes in legal status of states and their citizens” (Saker et al 2004) It means different things to different people, but the bottom-line is that these disciplinarybased viewpoints fail to take into consideration the multiplicity and complexity of change processes, and therefore fail to appreciate their effects, both directly and indirectly Globalization is widely accepted and referred to as ‘the widening, deepening and speeding up of world-wide interconnectedness in all aspects of contemporary social life, from the cultural to the criminal, the financial to the spiritual’ (Lawal 2006) This widely accepted definition shows the way in which globalization today connects the cultures and communities in one corner of the world to development occurring in another country Đỗ Bích Ngọc _ Class _ D03 History of Globalization Globalization, in the classical sense, began in the 15th century, after the maritime expeditions large scale Big expedition first round by Ferdinand Magellan world done in the year 1522 As well as appearing roads trade between Europe, Asia, Africa and America, the phenomenon is not near here In addition to the exchange of material goods, some varieties are planted from climates to other climates (such as potatoes, tomatoes and tobacco) The term "liberalization" appears to indicate a combination of economic theory on absolute free market and the cancellation of the barriers to the circulation of goods Period began using gold as the standard of the monetary system (gold) and liberalization in the 19th century is often officially called "the beginning of globalization" "At the beginning of globalization," fell into decline when entered World War first, and then collapsed completely after the crisis of the gold in the late 1920s and early 1930s Since World War Second, the round of trade talks by the GATT initiative, has put the issue of globalization and thereby leading to a series of agreements to remove restrictions on "commercial free" Uruguay Round proposed treaty establishing the World Trade Organization or WTO trade, to settle trade disputes Treaties bilateral trade, including part of the Maastricht Treaty of the European Treaty of Free Trade of North America (NAFTA) has been signed aims to reduce the revenue equan and trade barriers Since the 1970s, the impact of international trade is increasingly clear, both positive and negative II The Nature of Globalization  Personality is a historical trend, globalization is determined by the development of powerful, landmark of the productive forces in an era of scientific and technological revolution  Globalization is both an objective nature, containing both liberal capitalist nature; both positive and negative; has brought opportunities, advantages and risks, challenges for the nation, especially the least developed countries and developing countries  Globalization is a process of open and cooperative, both fierce struggle, the complex between nations, corporations, communities and individuals together Đỗ Bích Ngọc _ Class _ D03  To protect national interests in the process of participating in globalization, countries around the world have been implementing robust processes regionalization B THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES I In The World Effects of globalization on world trade Globalization helps developing countries to deal with rest of the world increase their economic growth, solving the poverty problems in their country In the past, developing countries were not able to tap on the world economy due to trade barriers They cannot share the same economic growth that developed countries had However, with globalization the World Bank and International Management encourage developing countries to go through market reforms and radical changes through large loans Many developing nations began to take steps to open their markets by removing tariffs and free up their economies The developed countries were able to invest in the developing nations, creating job opportunities for the poor people For example, rapid growth in India and China has caused world poverty to decrease It is clear to see that globalization has made the relationships between developed countries and developing nations stronger, it made each country depend on another country According to Thirlwall (2003:13) " Developing countries depend on developed countries for resource flows and technology, but developed countries depend heavily on developing countries for raw materials, food and oil, and as markets for industrial goods" One the most important advantages of globalization are goods and people are transported easier and faster as a result free trade between countries has increased, and it decreased the possibility of war between countries Furthermore, the growth in the communication between the individuals and companies in the world helped to raise free trade between countries and this led to growth economy However, globalization has many economy and trade advantages in the developing countries, we must also note the many disadvantages that globalization has created for the poor countries One reason globalization increases the inequality between the rich and poor, the benefits globalization is not universal; the richer are getting rich and the poor are becoming poorer Đỗ Bích Ngọc _ Class _ D03 Many developing countries benefit from globalization but then again, many of such nations lag behind." In the past two decades, China and India have grown faster than the already rich nations However, countries like Africa still have the highest poverty rates, in fact, the rural areas of China which not tap on global markets also suffer greatly from such high poverty (blogspot.com.2009) On the other hand, developed countries set up their companies and industries to the developing nations to take advantages of low wages and this causing pollution in countries with poor regulation of pollution Furthermore, setting up companies and factories in the developing nations by developed countries affect badly to the economy of the developed countries and increase unemployment Globalization and cultural boundaries Globalization has many benefits and detriment to the culture in the developing countries Many developing countries cultures has been changed through globalization, and became imitate others cultures such as, America and European countries Before globalization it would not have been possible to know about other countries and their cultures Due to important tools of globalization like television, radio, satellite and internet, it is possible today to know what is happening in any countries such as, America, Japan and Australia Moreover, people worldwide can know each other better through globalization For example, it is easy to see more and more Hollywood stars shows the cultures different from America In addition, today we can see clearly a heavily effect that caused by globalization to the young people in the different poor nations, it is very common to see teenagers wearing Nike T-Shirts and Adidas footwear, playing HipHop music, using Apple iPad and iPhone and eating at MacDonald, KFC and Domino's Pizza It is look like you can only distinguish them by their language One the other hand, many developing countries are concerned about the rise of globalization because it might lead to destroy their own culture, traditional, identity, customs and their language Many Arab countries such as Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan, as developing countries have affected negatively in some areas, their cultures Developing Country Studies customs and traditional have been changed They wear and behave like developed nations, a few people are wearing their traditional cloths that the used to Furthermore, globalization leads to disappearing of many words and expressions from local language because many people use English and French words In addition, great changes have taken place in the family life, young people trying to leave Đỗ Bích Ngọc _ Class _ D03 their families and live alone when they get 18 years old, and the extended family tends to become smaller than before (Kurdish globe, 2010) Education and Health Systems Globalization contributed to develop the health and education systems in the developing countries We can clearly see that education has increased in recent years, because globalization has a catalyst to the jobs that require higher skills set This demand allowed people to gain higher education Health and education are basic objectives to improve any nations, and there are strong relationships between economic growth and health and education systems Through growth in economic, living standards and life expectancy for the developing nations certainly get better With more fortunes poor nations are able to supply good health care services and sanitation to their people In addition, the government of developing countries can provide more money for health and education to the poor, which led to decrease the rates of illiteracy This is seen in many developing countries whose illiteracy rate fell down recently It is truth that, living standards and life expectancy of developing countries increase through economic gains from globalization According to the World Bank " With globalization, more than 85 percent of the world's population can expect to live for at least sixty years and this is actually twice as long as the average life expectancy 100 years ago" In addition, globalization helped doctors and scientists to contribute to discover many diseases, which spread by human, animals and birds, and it helped them to created appropriate medicines to fight these deadly diseases For example, HIV/ADIS, swine flu and birds' flu whole world know about these diseases and they know how to avoid it By globalization, there are many international organizations, such as, Non-governmental Organization (NGO), World Health Organization (WHO) and UNESCO, trying to eliminate illiteracy and deadly diseases in the world and save the life In spite of these positive effects of globalization to the education and health fields in the developing countries However, globalization could have negative impacts also in these fields; globalization facilitates the spread of new diseases in developing nations by travelers between countries Due to increased trade and travel, many diseases like HIV/ADIS, Swine Flu, Bird Flu and many plant diseases, are facilitated across borders, Đỗ Bích Ngọc _ Class _ D03 from developed nations to the developing ones This influences badly to the living standards and life expectancy these countries According to the World Bank (2004) "The AIDS crisis has reduced life expectancy in some parts of Africa to less than 33 years and delay in addressing the problems caused by economic" Another drawback of globalization is, globalized competition has forced many minds skilled workers where highly educated and qualified professionals, such as scientists, doctors, engineers and IT specialists, migrate to developed countries to benefit from the higher wages and greater lifestyle prospects for themselves and their children This leads to decrease skills labour in the developing countries III In Vietnam Globalization and its effect on Vietnamese culture Globalization does bring convenience and comfort to Vietnamese people Now we can enjoy goods and services with high quality and competitive prices as many foreign companies join our market Advances in communication help eradicate geographic borders among countries and therefore connect our world Especially, globalization shortens the long-standing distance among different cultures For example, right here in Vietnam, we can watch latest movies made in Hollywood: Adventure, Pacific Rim,… We can read famous books written by authors from US, UK, EU, Japan, China… We can’t help from observe the appearance of restaurants serving Thai, Italian, Chinese, Japanese, American, Latin American food in Ho Chi Minh City Moreover, globalization is fast and useful ways to present Vietnamese culture to the whole wide world However, that does not means globalization does no harm to the culture of our country One of the most concerning problems caused by globalization is the dominance of foreign culture on Vietnamese life “Embedded in the concept of globalization is the notion of the cultural domination of developing nations by more affluent nations Simply put, people lose theirs traditional values and begin to identify with the culture of dominant nations They may discard or neglect their native language and dress as they attempt to copy the icons of mass-market entertainment and fashion” Perhaps, the most transparent and serious effect is language Our Vietnamese language is facing “severe competition” from other languages, especially English Đỗ Bích Ngọc _ Class _ D03 English advertisement on the streets of Ha Noi Where are we? Are we in Vietnam? The address of this shop is completely written in English No Vietnamese The official language of our nation is Vietnamese So, why not appear any Vietnamese words in these advertisements? Certainly, English is very necessary to the development of tourism as well as nation’s economy However, I still wonder whether the authors of these advertisements, accidentally or deliberately, are neglecting the mother language No matter how it takes, that proves the dominance of foreign language to our Vietnamese 10 Đỗ Bích Ngọc _ Class _ D03 Particularly, nowadays, many children who are sent to international schools find it difficult to express their ideas in Vietnamese because they use English as their mother tongue Someone says that it is acceptable but I totally disagree Certainly, I not deny the importance of English, even I agree with the policy that English should be used as official language in education and workplace However, there is no need to abandon our Vietnamese This trade-off is not worth happening Quality of life in Vietnam The Vietnamese people have an overall low quality of life According to the 2014 Human Development Index, which measures together a country's average life expectancy, education and average income, Vietnam has a medium human development index, and ranked 121 in the world The average life expectancy of a Vietnamese citizen is 73 years, and their literacy rate is 94.5% In its urban areas, Vietnam has a high accessibility to water, but in rural areas only 39% of the population have access to clean and safe water However, disparity (uneven distribution of resources) is an issue in Vietnam Ethnic minorities make up much of the poor in Vietnam, and have a much lower standard of living than their Vietnamese counterparts More rural areas also tend to be less improved Human Rights: Vietnam vs Canada Human rights are rights that every person should reasonably have, regardless of race, culture, religion, gender or other factor Human rights should be inalienable, which means they can’t be taken away The following chart compares Vietnam to the developed country of Canada 11 Đỗ Bích Ngọc _ Class _ D03 Right Vietnam Right to freedom of expression Canada People are allowed “freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication” under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Nguyễn Văn Đài is a human rights lawyer, democracy activist and blogger arrested by the Vietnamese government for "propaganda against the state." People who criticize Vietnam’s government online, in print, or in other media are often arrested and prosecuted under Vietnam’s decree 174 Suffrage (Voting Rights) Citizens are eligible to vote at 18 years of age or older, regardless of sex, ethnicity or other factor A protest in Canada Canadian citizens may also vote at 18 However, unlike Vietnam, they may also be eligible to vote while in jail if their sentence is less than two years 12 Đỗ Bích Ngọc _ Class _ D03 Court Marriage Right to be safe from inhuman or cruel torture or punishment The right to run for office In Vietnam all people are equal before the law, are presumed innocent until proven guilty, and have the right to a defense lawyer and to a speedy public trial The minimum age for marriage is 18 for girls and 20 for boys Same-sex marriage is no longer banned, but not recognized; they don't receive the benefits and rights that should come with marriage such as inheritance rights if their partner died Vietnam has ratified the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UN CAT) The Communist Party of Vietnam tries very hard to block candidates it doesn’t want with administration Democratic freedom is therefore low because Vietnam has only one political party In Vietnam’s 2011 election, 83 people independent from the CPV ran for parliament Only 15 were approved, and of those, four were elected Canada has the same set of legal rights The minimum age for marriage is 16 Same sex marriage has been legal and recognized in Canada since 2005 Torture is also illegal in Canada Canadian citizens 18 and over can run for office Canada has a wide range of political parties and independent candidates are not impeded 13 Đỗ Bích Ngọc _ Class _ D03 How does global awareness impact children? Global awareness is the understanding of how other countries work, essentially, including religion, cultural beliefs, politics and economics This has affected the education of Vietnamese children Vietnam has been fighting illiteracy since the start of Ho Chi Minh’s became president, after officially becoming independent from France Ho Chi Minh’s mission was “fighting against poverty, illiteracy, and invaders.” The way he saw it, “an illiterate nation is a powerless one.” Vietnam recognized the need for education because they realized the positive impact of education on societies by looking at the rest of the world Education was needed to narrow the gap in power and wealth between Vietnam and other countries The education system is still lacking in Vietnam, but their literacy rate is high, at 94.5% Global awareness impacts children through exposure to other cultures In this modern age, exposure would come in the form of the internet, social media, literature, advertisements, films or even a foreigner living in Vietnam This mostly affects the younger generation Internet penetration, that is, the percentage of people with access to the internet, is 34% and growing, as compared to the global average of 33% A whopping 95% of Vietnamese people aged 15-24 have internet access Last but not least, online news sites are visited by 95% of Vietnam’s internet users Taken together, these statistics say that the younger generation of Vietnam are more likely to be globally aware and have values and ideas influenced by other nations So, while it doesn’t mean that the younger generation will overthrow Vietnam’s communist government, they are certainly more dynamic, and will bring change to the country with their different perspectives So how can global awareness affect this new generation? Naturally, their values would be different from those of older generations Secondly, they’d have a more diverse and open outlook The younger generation will become the future government, and this will affect how they interact with and understand other nations Third, global awareness is empowering 55% of Vietnam’s internet users think the internet has increased their self-esteem The Vietnamese people live in a country where expression is subject to strict control by the Communist Party of Vietnam If they should dare to speak out against the government, it would mean arrest However, that hasn’t stopped people from blogging and writing about it, fighting for a right that other countries already have 14 Đỗ Bích Ngọc _ Class _ D03 This is not to say that information transfer is wholly beneficial Globalization is integration So while new perspectives are being gained, old traditional values may become obsolete How has global awareness affected gender roles? In Vietnam, it used to be the case that the father worked outside the house while the mother managed domestic affairs The father was the head of the household Vietnamese culture was very male-dominant In older generations, evidence of this idea is very much still present For example, it was believed that if the woman was asked a question, it was her husband who was supposed to answer During the Vietnam War, the role of women increased as most men were fighting and only women and children were left in their households Females in Vietnam can have just as good an education as boys In fact, a larger percentage of girls receive higher schooling than boys At the secondary level of school, the enrolment rate is 63.1 percent for girls and 53.7 percent for boys Gender pay gaps are the percentage that female workers paid as compared to male workers In Vietnam, income on average only has a difference of 9.4% across the genders In comparison, American females on average get paid 77% of the salary American men enjoy In Canada, women make 72 cents for every dollar a man makes Employment equity is not a big problem in Vietnam The participation rate of women in the workforce is 73.56 percent compared to men’s 82.64 percent Unemployment is about the same between the two genders As for labor standards, employers are expected to show no gender discrimination regarding hire, utilization, wage, and raises Although Vietnam has come farther than many countries in gender equality in some areas, Vietnam has yet to achieve full equality for men and women Vietnam has signed the UN Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) However, critics have noticed that Vietnam’s actions have mostly been on paper, and doesn’t actively enforce its policies and protect women from discrimination Women are still second-class citizens in Vietnam A UN committee is concerned over the violence against women, patriarchal attitudes, and gender stereotypes still prevalent in Vietnam Nguyen Bao Thanh Nghi, a sociology professor at Ho Chi Minh City Open University, notes that the role of women has long been embedded into Vietnamese culture and society, and that it’d be difficult to change it According to her, awareness of gender 15 Đỗ Bích Ngọc _ Class _ D03 equality and feminism is very low, and few Vietnamese people call themselves feminists While accessible information and global awareness is affecting Vietnam more strongly than it ever has, it has had little effect on gender equality C DIRECTIONS AND SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME State needs to complete systems management tool macro, create a favorable environment for the business operations, investments of all enterprises and individuals, on the other hand the management of state for work business and investment within the framework of a legal system in line with the market economy Organizing scientific research and information systems on the world market, forming the organizational structure reasonable foreign economic relations, preparation of human resources for the future Creating sync economy domestic market, encourage competition, antitrust, organic sticking international integration with the economic strategy - the country's society, creating breakthrough strategies Human resources the country is a decisive factor in the country's sustainable development Need appropriate solutions to the system of education and training Education formed a team of officials and cadres of scientific and technical enough political ability and qualifications, our team of skilled workers to meet the demand for labor reforms the country in cents globalization What is my role in the globalizing world as a global citizen?  As a global citizen, like any citizen, my role is to take care of the place where I live This includes being aware of world issues, responding to it, and getting others to the same  As a global citizen I should be globally aware and have some understanding of other cultures Perhaps I won’t end up making a huge difference in the world, but I can manage just small things For example, gender equality is an important issue to me, and when my friends have misconceptions of “femi-nazis” and “man-haters” I try to teach them the difference Globalization means countries are more interconnected Change happens faster than it ever has due to communication technology and transportation  As a global citizen I want to be aware of these changes: why they happened, their ramifications, and how it affects me Using my awareness I can get involved politically, 16 Đỗ Bích Ngọc _ Class _ D03 even if it’s just by voting or peaceful protest Not only should I have an understanding of other countries, I should look for the impacts my country has on the rest of the world I am ethically and economically accountable  As a global citizen my economic choices are important If I boycotted goods produced by child labour that would have an impact, however small, and would reflect my values I should develop my own opinions and inform myself While I may have a small responsibility to the world, I have a bigger responsibility to myself CONCLUSION Topic "globalization" a highly developed step of internationalization Beyond national boundaries with Vietnam, but the integration process of globalization slow but analytical results above we trust more Competitiveness can not keep pace with the developed countries, we have many years ahead, but in the region, it is possible to catch up and develop outstanding When we tear down tariff barriers with countries in the ASEAN region is favorable conditions for fair competition From our regional integration towards global integration Then there will be many conditions economic development, cultural exchange of different cultures We have been able to benefit, limit the negative side due to the unprepared Direction is "Integration not dissolved", ie economyoriented socialist, developed in its own right, cultures ethnic exchanges without losing identity inherent This has great significance for the creation of solidarity among people and contribute to boosting production and business This is a topic I find very interesting and meaningful to students, especially students of economic blocks Through learning about the process of globalization helps me expand world vision that previously less conditional learn The core of the process of economic globalization is the way of looking, thinking of all humanity in a world of peace and development REFERENCES  “Tồn cầu hóa tác động” , GS.TS Lý Thiết Ánh  Ofosu V (2010), “The Effect of Globalization on Ghana, Equality” 17 Đỗ Bích Ngọc _ Class _ D03  Princova, K (2010), “Globalization, vulnerability, poverty and human limits”  Thomas Friedman (2006), “Thế giới phẳng”, dịch tiếng Việt NXB trẻ phát hành  David S Landes, “ Sự giàu nghèo của dân tộc”, dịch tiếng Việt Viện Nghiên Cứu Quản Lý Kinh Tế Trung Ương, Trung tâm Thông tin-Dữ liệu NXB Thống Kê HN phát hành WEB SOURCES  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalization  https://www.investopedia.com/articles/economics/10/globalization-developed- countries.asp  https://www.kstatecollegian.com/2013/05/07/4-positive-impacts-of-globalization-on- world-economy/  https://sociologyiu09.wordpress.com/2009/12/30/globalization-and-its-effect-on- vietnamese-culture-2/  https://vietnam-globalization.blogspot.com/ 18 ... countries in the ASEAN region is favorable conditions for fair competition From our regional integration towards global integration Then there will be many conditions economic development, cultural... DIRECTIONS AND SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME 14 CONCLUSION 15 REFERENCES 16 WEB SOURCES 16 Đỗ Bích Ngọc _ Class _ D03 ESSAYS ON ECONOMICS DEVELOPMENT GLOBALIZATION IN DEVELOPING... have a small responsibility to the world, I have a bigger responsibility to myself CONCLUSION Topic "globalization" a highly developed step of internationalization Beyond national boundaries with
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