Cross cultural management series

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TRANSNATIONAL BUSINESS CULTURES Cross Cultural Management Series Series Editor: Kwok Leung, Professor of Management at City University, Hong Kong, China This series provides high quality research monographs and edited volumes that examine key issues in cross-cultural management such as workplace diversity, varieties of capitalism, comparative national performance, international joint ventures, and transnational negotiations The series encompasses multidisciplinary perspectives and is aimed at an academic readership The purpose of the series is to provide a global academic forum for the study of cross-cultural management Other titles in the series: Cross-Cultural Management: Foundations and Future Dean Tjosvold and Kwok Leung ISBN 07546 1881 Management and Organization in Germany Thomas Armbruster ISBN 7546 3880 Transnational Business Cultures Life and Work in a Multinational Corporation FIONA MOORE Kingston University, UK ASHGATE Printed and bound in Great Britain by MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin, Cornwall Contents List of Figures and Tables A cknowledgements vi vii 1 Introduction Transnational Culture's Consequences: Theorising the Global and the Local 21 Community, Interrupted: The German Businesspeople of Londo 40 A Financial Utopia: The "Global City" of London 75 Branch Mentality: Change and Self-Presentation in a German MNC 96 "Mobile Phone Wars": Language and Communication in the MNC 131 Global Culture Revisited: The Transnational Capitalist Society 159 Conclusion: Defining Transnational Business Cultures 182 Bibliography Index 197 212 List of Figures and Tables Table 1.1 Table 1.2 Figure 2.1 Table 5.1 Table 5.2 Figure 6.1 Figure 7.1 Figure 7.2 Formal interview subjects at "ZwoBank" Interviewees in the City of London/Frankfurt The transnational capitalist class Summary of cohorts and cohort positions Differences in cohorts' descriptions of the restructuring A lex (Peattie and Taylor, 29 July 1999) The transnational capitalist society Prototype TCS map of influences on a corporatio 13 15 36 105 114 145 165 179 Acknowledgements Grateful acknowledgement is due first of all to Professor Steven Vertovec and everyone in the Transnational Communities Programme at Oxford University Thanks is also due, in no particular order, to Professor Mari Sako, Dr Alisdair Rogers, Dr Maria Jaschok, Shirley Ardener, Dr Marcus Banks, Dr Roger Goodman, Dr Jonathan Beaverstock, Dr Malcolm Chapman, Professor Jonathan Zeitlin, Professor Ray Loveridge, Professor Hilary Harris and Dr William Kelly for invaluable academic advice, assistance and comments I would also like to thank Dr Steven Collins, Professor Willi Patterson and Herr Doktor Professor Norbert Walter for assisting with issues of access and of finding a suitable fieldsite The staff of the Deutsche Bank Archive also deserve thanks for taking the time to locate specialised material and provide research resources for me Amy Scott and Sylvester von Hermann assisted with the provision of comparative material; April DeLaurier and Robert Atwood provided accommodation and advice in London and the family of Mrs Gisele W were of similar help in Frankfurt; the late Peter Humble was an invaluable presence in a number of areas I would also like to thank Alan Stevens for physical and emotional support, patience and for reading and commenting on the text Lastly, I wish to thank the employees of "ZwoBank," as well as the rnany other people who took the time to speak with me over the course of my research, without whorn this project would never have taken place This project was funded by an SSHRC Doctoral Fellowship, an ORS Award, and grants from both the Peter Lienhardt Memorial Foundation and the Nuffield Foundation The A lex cartoon on page 145 is reproduced here with the kind permission of Alex Cartoon Inc All translations from German to English, both of written texts and of interviews, are my own except where otherwise specified All errors and/or missed nuances are therefore my responsibility For A lan Chapter Introduction Introduction Although culture and transnational business is currently a subject of great interest in all disciplines of the social sciences, researchers in business studies have tended to treat businesspeople as a single unit, without the complex explorations of culture necessary to understand human behaviour under globalisation Anthropologists, by contrast, have focused for the most part on non-elite groups, ignoring the possibility that the employees of multinational corporations might have equally complex social engagements Through an examination of German transnational businesspeople in London and Frankfurt, I argue that "culture" is in fact a complex, shifting concept which is used and reinterpreted according to the strategies of individual managers and groups, and that this fact is leading to the development of a new "transnational capitalist society" incorporating both local and global cultures in a complex, ever-changing system of interconnected relationships In this introductory chapter, I will discuss the study's background as well as briefly describing the issues which affected my research This will include a critical overview of the way in which "culture" has been treated in the literature on business, particularly that regarding MNCs, and of how my work relates to these earlier studies I will consider the literature on the role of national and organizational culture, and the recent studies on the development of "third cultures," incorporating national and organizational elements, in the branches of MNCs I will then summarise the approach of this book, derived from Erving Goffman's theories on strategic self-presentation I will then outline the methodology used in conducting the study and describe the structure of the book: an overview of earlier research done in this area and the formulation of a hypothesis based on this work, followed by an ethnographic case study, and concluding by reconsidering the earlier research in light of my new findings I conclude with a brief restatement of my hypothesis: that the nature of global finance means that one cannot simply isolate "global" from "national" culture, but must think in terms of "culture" as a concept which is under constant negotiation in a loose social structure focused on transnational business activity Two Ships Passing: Anthropology and Business Studies In order to combine the most useful aspects of anthropology and business studies 202 Transnational Business Cultures Drainville, Andre C (1998) "The Fetishism of Global Civil Society: Global Governance, Transnational Urbanism and Sustainable Capitalism in the World Economy," in Michael Peter Smith and Luis Eduardo Guarnizo (Eds.), Transnationalism from Below, Comparative Urban and Community Research vol 6, London: Transaction Publishers, 35-63 Dumont, Louis (1994) German Ideology: From France to Germany and Back, Chicago: University of Chicago Press Dyer, Colin (n.d.) 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Nicholas Brealy Publishing Index al-Qaeda 34 A lex 144-145 Americanisation 72 Appadurai, Arjun 23, 27, 164, 183, 194 Applegate, Christina 43, 46, 125 "Anglophiles" 104, 105, 107, 108, 109, 112, 113, 114, 115, 118, 119, 124, 127, 134, 135, 136-137, 141, 145, 156 anthropology 1-3, 5-6, 7-10, 14, 17, 183, 191-192, 193, 194 Barings Bank 79, 80, 168 Beaverstock, J V 28, 31, 35, 75, 77, 80, 101, 109, 119, 195 Berlin Wall 137 "Big Bang" of 1986 79, 81, 82, 88, 89 104, 150, 167 Bloch, Maurice 7-8, 59, 127, 139, 163 Borneman, John 17, 29, 41, 42-43, 45, 107, 125-126 Blut and Boden 40, 42-44, 46 147-148 BSE, see Mad Cow Disease "business German" as dialect 135 cartoons 144-145 Castells, Manuel 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 29, 34, 35, 75, 165, 168, 169, 175, 183, 187 City of London 75-95 distinct status 76-77 "Englishness" of 78, 80 history 77, 78-79, 81 multiculturalism 77, 78, 79, 80-81, 82 newspapers 89, 146 and tourism 77, 80, 82, 86, 91 complex connectivity 5, 6, 26, 164, 165, 175, 176-177 computers 22, 63, 79, 123, 140, 143-144, 150-153, 155 cosmopolitanism 34, 35, 43, 46, 50, 51, 53, 59, 60, 61, 65, 73, 78, 80-81, 82, 91, 92, 98, 105, 106, 107, 108, 111, 113, 115, 118-119, 121, 122, 127, 132-134, 141, 142, 152, 157, 160, 167, 168, 169, 176, 184 "country-of-origin" effect 4, 31-32, 175, 85 culture anthropological definitions 3, 5-6 business studies definitions 4-5 national 2, 4, 21, 31-32, 33, 34, 36, 38, 40, 70, 76, 82, 88, 91, 94, 95, 97, 101, 102, 105, 108, 109, 111, 113, 115, 116, 117, 126, 127, 129, 131, 134, 138, 140, 141, 142, 155, 160, 171174, 179, 183, 185, 188-189 organisational 3-4, 17, 29, 31, 100, 129, 160, 178, 179, 180, 182, 183, 185, 188 transnational 3, 29, 31, 32-38, 40, 47, 52, 66, 83, 92, 110, 115, 124, 132, 134, 155, 157 Czamiawska, B 3, 8, 148, 153 Deutsche Bank 14, 36, 48, 50, 69, 83, 85, 151 Deutsche Schule London 14, 49, 54-62 developing countries 2, 24, 25, 193 diasporas 29-30 Dilbert 144 Doz, Yves L 30, 118, 129, 164, 166, 169, 183 e-commerce 83, 85-86, 151 Ebster-Grosz, Dagmar and Pugh, Derek 97 economics as symbol of German identity 44-45 Economist, The 2, 45, 77, 83, 100, 133, 146, 151 English language "business English" 138 as ethnic marker 135 in German media 133, 137 and German schoolchildren 58 Index as global language 58, 132-138, 139, 141, 154, 155 in jargon 139, 141 ethnography 10-17, 191-192, 194-195 ethnographies of business 2, 190 Euro (currency) 45, 78, 83, 84-85, 86 87, 143,144 Europe 17, 43-44, 57, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 90, 92, 93, 105, 107, 113, 125, 126, 144,147, 167, 168, 188-189 British relationship to 7, 84-85, 86, 167 German relationship to 7, 41, 42, 43-44, 45, 46, 57, 67, 84-85, 86, 90, 92, 93, 105, 107, 113, 125, 126, 144 European Union 43, 84 expatriates 31, 37, 43, 44, 55, 60, 62, 64, 153, 161, 165, 182, 188-189 German 36, 39, 40, 41, 42, 47-49, 50-54, 55, 59, 63, 64, 66, 69, 71-73, 91, 93-94, 134, 135, 136, 143, 144, 153, 156, 157, 161,168-169, 170, 184, 190 networks of 48 spouses of 55 ZwoBank cohort 99, 101-102, 105106, 109, 112, 114, 115, 118, 120, 124, 125, 127, 133-135, 136, 140, 142, 146, 153, 154, 162,170 Faulty Towers 147, 149 financescape 23-24, 27, 32, 33, 37, 38, 40, 64, 88, 90, 92, 95, 96, 115, 129, 138, 139, 142, 154, 156, 157, 159, 164, 171, 176, 177, 180, 183, 187, 190, 194 Financial Times, The, 85, 88 "flexible" working 21, 28, 19, 102, Frankfurt as global business centre 77, 84, 87, 99, 119, 120, 132-133, 151, 187 contrasted with London 82, 119, 121 European connections of 87 "Germanness" of 82, 133-134, 141, 170 multiculturalism 82, 191 213 German banking system 82-83 banks in London 48, 50-51, 56, 65, 83-88, 90, 92, 176, 191 "blood" 40, 42-44, 46, 66-67, 113, 134, 147 community 47-49, 49-54, 56-57, 64, 68, diaspora 41-42 "economic miracle" ( W irtschaftswunder) 44-45 expatriate clubs 48, 64 Europe and, see Europe, German relationship to festivals and holidays 55 food 49, 56, 72, 147, 187 history 41, 47-49, 84 "international youth" 59-60 language 40, 44, 46, 50, 57, 60, 62, 63, 73, 132-138, 138-139, 140, 141, 142, 145, 151, 152, 154, 172 multiculturalism 43, 46 school system 154, 157, 158 German-British Forum 54, 67-70 German Embassy 54, 57, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66-67, 70, 71, 160, 161, 169, German Historical Institute London 14 German Lutheran Church 49, 51-52 German Social Advice Office (Deutsche ) 52, 66-67 Sozialberätungsstelle "Germanophiles" 103-104, 105, 107108, 109, 113-114, 115, 124, 125, 127, 134, 135, 137, 141, 142, 147, 154, 160, 170, 195 Germans British media representations of 2, 58, 67, 84, 146-148, 149 East 17, 42, 107, 137 in Eastern Europe 41, 42 in London 1000-1579 47 1750-1914 48 1914-1945 48-49 1945-1999 48-49 present day 49-54 Jewish anti-Semitism and 48 in Argentina 43, 125, 176 in Britain 48, 52 in Germany 42, 43, 125 214 Transnational Business Cultures and Heimat 42, 43, 125 as refugees 48, 51-52, 53 as students 40, 52, 53, 54-62, 63, 82, 91, 92, 101, 105 as tourists 52, 53, 77, 80, 82, 91 Turkish 42 West 17, 41 and xenophobia 2, 41, 48, 145-149 global cities 16, 28, 35, 75, 77-80, 89, 166 globalisation 2, 5-6, 18, 20, 21-27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 38, 50, 61, 72, 75, 89, 113, 114, 115, 117, 131, 132, 143, 148, 149, 155, 156, 157, 162, 163, 165, 174-177, 182, 183, 185, 186, 187, 189, definition 21 historical depth 22, 24-25 theories of see hyperglobalism, scepticism and transformationalism Goethe Institut 54, 62-66, 67, 71, 162, 169, Goffman, Erving 1, 6-10, 18, 19, 143, 145, 148, 156, 163, 164 Greverus, Ina Maria 43, 125 Habermas, Jurgen 40 Hannerz, Ulf 8, 9, 26, 37, 52, 106, 174 Hanseatic League 47 Heimat 42-43, 46, 105, 125-126, 141 definition of 42, 46, 125-126 and business expatriates 105, 125126 and Germans living abroad 42, 43, 106-107, 125-126 and Germanophiles 107, 125-126 German Jewish conceptions of, see Germans, Jewish, and Heimat "zu Hause" 125 relation to Blut and Boden 42-43 Held, David et al 22, 24, 25-26, 27, 30, 38, 175 Hirst, Paul Q and Thompson, Grahame 24, 25, 72 Hofstede, Geert 3, 4, 19, 31-32, 122, 171, 190, 194, 195 "host-country effect" see "national business systems" Humour 143-150 cartoons see cartoons, Dilbert, Alex ethnic 145-150 and stress 143 technology-related 143-44 hyperglobalism 23-24, 25, 174-175, identity 7-10, 17-18, 40, 41, 45 information technology 150-153, 155, 166, 172, 179 Internet, the 5, 22, 34, 35, 37, 85, 86, 94, 150, 152, 153, 164 IT specialists 123, 150-151, 152, 153, 160 Japanese 4, 59-60, 64 companies expatriates 59-60 "international youth" 59-60, 64 jargon 138-143, 144, 149, 153, 156 Jews diaspora 29 German, see Germans, Jewish London 52 language lessons 60, 61, 63, 65, 71, 78, 91, 132, 134, 135, 155 life cycle of transnational businesspeople 95, 161 linguistic "crossing" 136, 142, 149 "Local Hires" 102-103, 105, 106, 113, 114, 115, 118, 119, 120, 124, 126, 127, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 146, 160, 171, 195 London City of, see City of London Mad Cow Disease 131, 147-148 Mannesmann 85, 151-152, 179, 191 meetings 138-143, 144 metanational corporations 30, 164 methodology 10-17 Mittelstand 45, 86, 100, 170 MNC, see multinational corporations mobile phones 34, 150, 151, 152, Morgan, Garth 3, 4, 32, 189 Morgan, Glenn 164, 166, 186 multinational corporations, 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 19, 21, 28-30, 31-32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, 96, 110, 122, 123, 124, 126, 129, 157, 159, 161, 163, 166, 170, 171, 172, 180, 181, 185, 188, 195, Index German 46, 50, 51, 65, 70, 86 Muslim youth Nader, Laura "national business systems" approach 4, 31-32, 106, 118, 178, 185-186, 188, 191 national business styles 70, 140, 149 Nazism in anti-German xenophobia 44, 5859, 67 in British humour 146-149 in the media 58-59, 146-149 effect on German business 31, 45, 52 German banks and 52, 84 German identity and, 41, 42-43, 44, 51, 53, 62 "New City" people 79, 81-82, 89 networks 3, 4, 23, 26, 27, 19, 30, 35, 37, 38, 40, 48, 49, 54, 55, 56, 57, 59, 51, 62, 68, 69, 71, 72, 75, 77, 83, 109, 123, 159, 160, 164, 165, 166, 174, 175, 177, 178, 183, 184, 193 Ohmae, Kenichi 4-5, 23 "Old City" people 79, 81-82, 89 online banks 84, 85, 86, 151-152 Ordnung 40, 43, 45-46 postmodernism 51, 88-89, 95 "public" schools 56, 58-59, 61, 80 pronoun use 155 restricted code 7, 139, 140, Richmond, German presence in 49-50, 54, 56 Rover-BMW merger 85, 87, 116, 191 self-presentation Goffman's theory of 6-10 and the "transnational capitalist society" 166-167, 183 September 11, 2001 7, 34, 160 scepticism 22, 24-25, 174, 175 Siemens 50, 170 Sklair, Leslie 18, 33-38, 40, 50, 52, 70, 71, 75, 77, 124, 159-163, 164, 166, 167, 169, 175, 183, 184, 190 Stansted-Frankfurt air service 50, 144 Stewart, Rosemary et al 90, 106 215 symbolism and social identification 7-8 use in self-presentation 8-9 TCC, see transnational capitalist class TCS, see transnational capitalist society Thatcher, Margaret 7, 67-68, 73 "third culture" approach 4-5, 27, 31, 32, 160, 164, 183, 185-186 third-country nationals 31 TNC, see transnational corporation Tomlinson, John 5, 22, 24, 26, 27, 72, 164, 165, 169, 175, 176, 183 transformationalism 22, 25-27, 174-175 transnationalism 21, 22, 69, 88, 93, 94, 95, 156, 159, 166, 168, 175, 177, 187, 188, 194 transnational capitalist class, the 32-38, 159-163 and anticapitalism 34, 162-163 critiques of 36-38 159-163 definition of 33-34, 160 different groups of 33-34, 161 environmental movement and 33, 34, 162-163 support for 34-35 variation within 37, 160-161 transnational capitalist society, the 10, 164-174, 182, 183-185 antecedents of 164, 183 definition of 164-167, 182, 183 diversity and 161, 162, 163, 171 global-local relationship 174-177, 186-188 limitations of 190-192 methodological implications 194 support for 167-171 utility in business 178-180, 195-196 theoretical implications 171-174, 185-190, 192-194 transnational communities 57, 131, 164, 168, 169, 186 transnational corporation 28 transnational economic migrants (nonelite) 25, 37, 161, 164, 167, 193 Vertovec, Steven 5, 9, 22, 25, 27, 29, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 60, 82, 118, 191 Videoconferencing 155 Vodafone 85, 151-152, 179, 191 V orsprung durch Technik 44 216 Transnational Business Cultures "wartime" comedy/drama 146-147 Watson, Alan 41, 44, 67, 73, 82 websites 41, 68, 123, 151, 152, W eltoffenheit, see cosmopolitanism Whitley, Richard 17, 19, 31 Willis, Paul 153, 156 W irtschaftswunder, see German "economic miracle" ZwoBank 65, 66, 67, 69, 81, 86, 96-130, 131-158, 160, 169-171, 172, 173, 176, 178, 183, 185, 188, 191, 195 cohorts of, see Anglophiles, Germanophiles, Expatriates and Local Hires Head Office 99-100, 115, 117-122, 132-134 German focus of 100, 105, 107, 112-115, 117-118, 120-121, 133-134 global focus of 111, 112-117, 118-119, 122, 132-133 language 132-134, 135, 136, 138, 141, 142, 143, 148, 151, 154, 170 physical layout 99 social structure of 99-100 London Branch global focus of 105, 112-117, 121, 122, 124-125, 128, 134-137 history 97 language 65, 132, 134-137, 138-143, 148, 151-152, 155, 156, 157, 170, 193 local focus of 108, 109, 112, 114, 118-119, 120, 121, 122,124, 127 multiculturalism 105 physical layout 98 social structure 97-99 restructuring 96, 101, 110-117, 118, 119, 120, 126, 127, 128, 129, 132, 140, 142, 159, 160, 170, 172, 178, 190 ... readership The purpose of the series is to provide a global academic forum for the study of cross- cultural management Other titles in the series: Cross- Cultural Management: Foundations and Future...TRANSNATIONAL BUSINESS CULTURES Cross Cultural Management Series Series Editor: Kwok Leung, Professor of Management at City University, Hong Kong, China This series provides high quality research... issues in cross- cultural management such as workplace diversity, varieties of capitalism, comparative national performance, international joint ventures, and transnational negotiations The series
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