Business society and family life in london

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title author publisher isbn10 | asin print isbn13 ebook isbn13 language subject publication date lcc ddc subject cover next page > cover next page > : : : : : : : : : : : < previous page page_iii next page > Page iii The Making of the English Middle Class Business, Society and Family Life in London, 16601730 Peter Earle < previous page page_iii next page > < previous page page_iv next page > Page iv For my father, J.B.F Earle First published in 1989 by Methuen and the University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles Copyright © Peter Earle 1989 Typeset by CentraCet, Cambridge Printed in Great Britain by Mackays of Chatham ISBN 0-520-06826-2 < previous page page_iv next page > < previous page page_v next page > Page v CONTENTS List of Illustrations vii Preface xi Part One Metropolitan Economy and Society The Middle Station The Metropolitan Economy i Manufacturing ii Commerce iii Catering and Entertainment iv Professions and Arts v Other Services 17 18 34 51 60 76 Part Two Business Life Apprenticeship i The Origins of London Apprentices ii Finding a Master iii The Learning Process iv The Life of the Apprentice 85 86 89 95 100 Business 106 107 i Starting a Business 112 ii Cash Flow 123 iii Debt Collection 130 iv Business Strategies 137 v Profit and Accumulation Investment 143 143 i Personal Estate 152 ii Real Estate Women and Business 158 158 i The Legal Status of Women < previous page page_v next page > < previous page page_vi next page > Page vi ii Women as Helpmeets iii The Independent Businesswoman 160 166 Part Three Family and Social Life Marriage i The Marriage Ceremony ii Age at Marriage iii Choice of Partners iv Courtship and Contract v Relations between the Sexes The Household i The Middle-Class House ii The Structure of the Household iii Relations with Servants iv Bringing up Children Civic Life i Neighbourhood and Parish ii Livery Companies 177 177 180 185 192 198 205 206 211 218 230 240 240 250 260 iii Tory and Whig 10 Expenditure and Consumption 269 269 i Disposal of Income 272 ii Diet 281 iii Dress 290 vi Domestic Comfort 11 Sickness and Death 302 302 i Disease and Mortality 311 ii Funerals and the Transmission of Wealth Conclusion 12 The London Middle Class 328 Notes 339 Appendix A: The Sample 394 Appendix B: Real Estate Holdings of Sample 405 Appendix C: Credit Patterns from Bankruptcy Records 409 Bibliography 415 Index 439 < previous page page_vi next page > < previous page page_vii next page > Page vii ILLUSTRATIONS Plates Detail from John Seller's 1733 map of Middlesex (Guildhall Library, City of London) 'Custom House Quay' by Samuel Scott (Fishmongers' Hall, London; Bridgeman Art Library) The Royal Exchange (Guildhall Library, City of London) Map of Cornhill (Guildhall Library, City of London) 'The Entrance to the Fleet River' by Samuel Scott (Guildhall Art Gallery; Bridgeman Art Library) Cheapside with Church of St Mary Le Bow (Guildhall Library, City of London) 'Covent Garden Market' by Joseph van Aken (Government Art Collection) London coffee-house (British Museum; Bridgeman Art Library) Thomas Sydenham (National Portrait Gallery, London) 10 Samuel Pepys (National Portrait Gallery, London) 11 Thomas Guy (Guy's Hospital, London) 12 Thomas Britton (National Portrait Gallery, London) 13 Sir Gilbert Heathcote (Governor and Company of the Bank of England) 14 Jacob Tonson (National Portrait Gallery, London) 15 Thomas Tompion (Victoria and Albert Museum) 16 'A Family at Tea' (Victoria and Albert Museum) 17 Lacquered cabinet and stand, c 715 (Victoria and Albert Museum) < previous page page_vii next page > < previous page page_viii next page > Page viii Tables 2.1 Fortunes of London Manufacturers 2.2 Fortunes of London Merchants, Wholesalers and Shopkeepers page 32 36 4.1 Start-up Costs for London Businesses 107 4.2 The Assets of Young Businessmen 109 4.3 Start-up Costs and Fortune at Death 109 4.4 Liabilities as a Proportion of Assets 119 4.5 Occupations of Low and High Scorers in Table 4.4 119 4.6 Analysis of Assets 121 4.7 Influence of Age at Death on Fortune 141 5.1 Investment Proportions and Age at Death 145 5.2 Percentage of Assets Invested by Age Groups 145 5.3 Distribution of Investment Assets 146 5.4 Numbers Investing in Different Types of Asset 147 5.5 Percentage Investing in Different Assets by Wealth Groups 147 5.6 Distribution of Real Estate by Estimated Value 154 5.7 Distribution of Investment Assets (inc Real Estate) 154 5.8 Distribution of Real Estate by Wealth Groups 156 5.9 Types of Real Estate 156 6.1 London Women's Fire Insurance Policies 169 6.2 Occupations of Businesswomen 170 7.1 Age at First Marriage 182 7.2 Age Difference between Husband and Wife 182 8.1 Number of Rooms in Houses 211 8.2 Number of Rooms by Wealth Groups 211 8.3 Households in 1695 214 8.4 Distribution of Domestic Servants 219 8.5 Number of Orphans 231 9.1 Continuity of Residence 241 9.2 Social Progress in Allhallows Bread Street 246 9.3 Wealth and High Civic Office 249 9.4 Livery Company and Occupation 252 10.1 Gregory King's Breakdown of Expenditure 271 children, numbers of, 213-18, 230-2, 394 children, upbringing (see also parents), 9, 88-9, 100, 112, 160, 182-8, 199, 223, 230-9, 297, 305, 321-2 China, 17, 138 china, 170, 294-6, 298-9 chocolate, 10, 272 church, clergy, 5, 7, 13, 60, 62-5, 75, 178-80, 193, 244-8, 328, 354 (140), 355 (151, 152) civil servants, service, 35, 73, 265, 356 (178) clandestine marriage, 178-9, 186 cleanliness, 222-3, 225, 298-9, 303, 388 (56) clergy see church clocks and watches, 23, 32, 295-6, 387 (47) cloth industry, trade, 21, 33, 38-9, 41, 134-5, 286-7, 293-4, 412-14 clothing trades, 21-2, 29-30, 32-3, 166, 171, 411-14 clubs, 53, 55, 241-2, 264, 267 coaches, coachmaking, 23-4, 29, 32, 107, 114-17, 301, 313, 343 (27), 388 (62) coal, coal merchants, 8, 15, 36, 43, 77, 119, 223, 259, 292, 359 (91) cockfighting, 57, 103 coffee, coffee-houses, 47, 53-4, 56, 61, 70, 92-3, 120, 136-7, 162, 168, 193, 241, 263-4, 272, 295, 353 (124) Colman, George, 10-11 commerce see trade companies, livery see livery companies companies, joint-stock, 37, 40, 48, 120-2, 146-9, 154, 265, 268 common councillors, 246-50, 263, 266, 380, (14, 15) concerts (see also music), 58, 296 Constantinople, 17 consumption, standards of, 9-10, 13-15, 21-2, 130, 140, 269-301, 332 contraception, 182, 230 cookery (see also diet, food), 10, 52-3, 55-6, 222, 274-6, 279-80, 297 cooks, cookshops, 55-6, 95, 222-3, 227 Cooks, Company of, 55 coopers, 24, 32, 94 coopers, wine-, 36, 100, 292, 349 (84) copperas manufacture, 133 corn-factors, 36, 42 cotton, 21, 38, 41-2, 261, 293, 298 country houses, 155-7, 206, 213, 374 (4), 405-8 Court of Orphans see Orphans, Court of Courts of Conscience, 126 < previous page page_440 next page > < previous page page_441 next page > Page 441 Coventry, Sir William, 152 credit, 26, 28-9, 45, 53, 98, 100, 112, 115-23, 130-2, 135, 242, 409-14 crime, 59, 76, 93-4, 102-4, 220, 226, 228, 243 Cumberland, 110 Custom of London, 85, 93, 95, 160, 187, 196, 314-15, 391 (23) D dancing, 56, 58-9, 67 Danzig, 35, 135, 311, 348 (67) death see mortality debt, imprisonment for, 112, 124-6, 128, 242, 363 (26) debt, insolvency (see also bankruptcy), 36, 44, 47, 61, 89, 98, 112-30, 161, 320, 362, (21), 363 (25), 409-14 Defoe, Daniel, xi, 3, 9, 12, 34, 41, 44, 56-8, 76, 97, 111, 115-16, 125-7, 129-30, 132, 152, 156-7, 161, 164-5, 184-5, 190, 196, 201, 206, 219-20, 267, 331, 334 De Muralt, B L., 152, 281 De Saussure, C., 209, 222 diet (see also cookery, food), 10, 52-3, 55-6, 270-81 dissenters, 64-5, 67-8, 245, 247, 267, 311, 382 (41) Distillers' Company, 256-7 distilling, 24-5, 30-3, 98, 107, 109-10, 121-2, 138, 171, 251-2, 256-7, 292, 322, 344 (36), 411 divorce, 198, 200, 234, 236, 373 (48) dowries, 110, 112-13, 115, 141, 154, 183-4, 187, 190-1, 194-9 drama, 8, 10, 59, 75, 184 dramshops, 56, 353 (129) drapers (see also woollen-, linen-drapers), 21, 41, 45-6, 87, 94, 98, 106-9, 119, 122, 155, 292, 412 dress, 9-10, 20-2, 46-7, 54, 93, 102, 223, 270-1, 281-90, 384 (22), 385 (28) drinking, 10, 24, 51-6, 102-3, 107, 109, 178, 203, 228, 259, 304, 313-14 druggists, drugs, 36, 71-2, 87, 155, 304-5 drysalyters, 36, 349, (84) Dunton, John, 95, 183, 185, 193 Durham, 43 dyeing, dyers, 21, 30-2, 107, 121, 133, 411 E East India Company, 24, 37, 41, 74, 149, 151, 156, 295 Eastland Company, 37 Edo, 17 education, 6-7, 11, 13, 34, 37, 63, 65-72, 88-9, 95-100, 161-2, 164, 232, 236, 238-9, 320, 331-2 elections, 263-4, 382 (35) entertainment (see also cockfighting, drinking, etc.), 9-10, 46-7, 51-60, 78, 102-3, 164-5, 251, 255, 260, 273, 275-6, 328 Evelyn, John, 57, 64 Exeter, 33, 294, 412, 414 expenditure, 112-14, 132, 140, 183, 219-20, 269-301, 311-14, 332 F factors (see also Blackwell Hall), 33, 35-6, 39-40, 42, 76, 98-9, 106, 113, 347, (62), 361 (2) fairs, 43-4, 135-6, 161 farmers, 4, 14, 21, 30-1, 42-3, 77, 86, 100, 135, 272, 276, 335, 405-8, 412-14 Fielding, Henry, 11 Fielding, Sir John, 220 finance (see also banks, credit, moneylenders, pawnbrokers), 14, 17, 34-5, 40, 48-51, 55, 87, 265, 337, 351, (108) Financial Revolution, 48, 144-52 Fire, Great, of 1666, 22, 47, 78, 146, 148, 207-8, 244, 251, 259-60, 293-4, 296 fish, 47-8, 50, 251, 258-9, 277-9 Fishmongers' Company, 7, 258-9 food (see also cookery, diet), 42-3, 47-8, 52-3, 55-6 , 102, 210, 272-81 food, processing of, 25-6, 32, 36, 47-8, 138, 171 food, trade in, 36, 42-5, 47-8, 50, 107, 109, 119, 171, 272, 412-14 fortune see wealth France, 7-9, 11, 19, 21, 24, 37, 52-3, 67, 80, 237, 276, 282, 290, 294 < previous page page_441 next page > < previous page page_442 next page > Page 442 friends, 91-2, 94, 100, 104, 185-6, 193, 238, 240, 263, 315-17 Fryer, Sir John, 96, 195 funerals, 79, 311-14, 390 (18, 19) furniture, furniture manufacture, 9-10, 15, 23, 27, 31-2, 45-6, 53, 101, 234-5, 285, 290-300, 343 (26), 386 (41, 43, 44) G Gambier, Henry, 134, 136-7, 302 gambling, 56-7, 89, 102-3, 165, 353 (131) games, 56-7, 93, 103-4, 165, 233, 235, 294, 296 gaming-houses, 57, 60 genteelness, gentility, 5-12, 31, 34, 44, 69, 73, 76, 79, 87-9, 96-7, 100-1, 105, 152, 161-6, 179-80, 200, 202-3, 218, 226-7, 237, 282-4, 292, 294, 299-301, 314, 328-9, 331-3, 336 gentlemen, gentry, 3, 5-12, 14, 21, 60, 67, 73, 81, 86-9, 115-17, 126, 145-6, 152, 165, 192, 195, 197, 209, 235, 2646, 270, 276, 278, 327-8, 331-2, 409, 413-14 gin (see also distilling), 24-5, 33, 56, 256, 304 glass, glass-sellers, 24, 30, 32, 36, 170, 292-3, 298, 300, 344 (37) goldsmiths, 23, 26, 32, 49, 94, 99, 107, 130, 139-40, 411 Goldsmiths' Company, government, central; government debt, 17, 48, 73, 117, 120-1, 141, 144, 146-52, 154, 260-2 government, local, 77-8, 95, 104, 117, 187, 207, 226, 242-4, 246-50, 263, 265-6, 379 (6) grocers, 36, 42-3, 47-8, 87, 107, 109, 119, 139-40, 148, 162-3, 259 Grocers' Company, 7, 252-3, 259-60 gunmaking, guns, 23, 32, 243, 296 H haberdashers, milliners, 15, 21, 36, 44-7, 87, 94, 107, 109, 119, 155-6, 168, 170, 182, 288, 309, 332-3, 411-14 Hamburg, 37-8, 135 hardware shops, 36, 47-8 hatmaking, 24, 29, 32, 109, 344 (28) heralds, heraldry, 5-7, 314 Holland, 8, 21, 37, 39, 135, 164-5 horsekeeping, 52, 301 hosiers, 107, 409 Houghton, John, 42, 68, 91 houses, lay-out of, 209-11, 223, 234-5, 291-2, 295, 374 (6), 375 (13, 16) houses, leases of, ownership of, 14, 48-9, 120, 146-8, 153-4, 169-74, 206-9, 240-1, 251, 374 (8, 9), 405-8 houses, types of, 78, 206-7 household structure, 205, 212-18, 394 housework, 97, 160-2, 222-3, 296-8 Huguenots, 24, 39, 136-7, 319 I immigration, 13, 86, 92, 101, 154, 181, 186, 219, 229, 359 (6), 394 income, wages, 14, 17-19, 55, 59-62, 64-5, 68-9, 72-3, 75-6, 88, 99-100, 106, 115, 130-2, 137-42, 159, 167, 200, 209, 219-20, 269-70, 329-30, 332, 353, (138), 354 (142), 405-8 India, 20, 37, 294-5 industry see manufacture and separate industries inheritance, disposition of wealth, 3, 6, 15, 50, 88, 94, 110, 133, 141-2, 154, 160, 167, 170, 174, 178, 187-8, 195-7, 235-6, 238, 314-22, 394 inns, innkeepers, 51-2, 77, 109, 119, 162, 210, 352 (119), 406 insolvency see debt insurance, fire, 15, 78-9, 168-70, 173 insurance, marine, 40 interest, rate of, 48-50, 117-18, 130-2, 141, 148, 152, 364 (41) investment, 3, 6, 14, 40, 48-51, 113-14, 120-2, 130, 143-57, 168-74, 208, 257, 394, 405-8, 410, 413-14 Ireland, 156 ironmongers, 27, 36, 45, 52, 87, 107, 119 Italy, 19, 21, 38, 48, 135, 192 J jewellers, jewellery, 15, 27, 32, 36, 46-7, 49, 87, 114-15, 119-20, 130-1, 172, 410 jointures, 154, 194-5, 315, 372 (39) K kin, relations with, 7-8, 35, 90-2, 94, 108, 110, 133, 135, 187, 192, 214-17, 238, 313, 315-18, 322 < previous page page_442 next page > < previous page page_443 next page > Page 443 King, Gregory, 22, 184, 212, 269-72, 280-1, 287-9 L Lancashire, 23, 92 lawyers, 5, 35, 60-2, 67, 99, 114, 122, 242, 353 (140), 354 (142), 395 leases see houses leather, leather trades, 23, 32, 95, 107, 119, 413 leather-sellers, 36, 41, 87 Levant Company, Levant merchants, 5, 37-8, 54, 88, 94, 99, 134-5, 148, 150, 294, 333 life expectancy, 79, 88, 95, 130, 141-2, 144-5, 186, 195-8, 203-1, 236, 305-11 lighting, 46, 55, 207, 221, 191-3, 300 Lincolnshire, 153, 156 linen, linen-drapers, 8, 21, 36, 41-2, 44, 50, 87, 102, 107, 110, 132, 223, 298-9, 386 (36), 409, 411-13 literacy, 10, 65, 89, 355, (159), 368 (9) livery companies, 7, 15, 58, 85, 95, 104, 134, 207, 250-60, 311-12, 335, 346 (48), 394-404, 409 lobbying, 133-4, 255-8, 261, 265, 294, 386 (43, 44) lodgers, 113-14, 167, 170, 173-4, 180, 205, 209-10, 214-17 London, Custom of see Custom of London London, population of, 17, 80-1, 104, 109, 184, 335, 341 (2), 358 (196) London, relations with provinces, xi, 6-7, 14, 17-19, 21-3, 25, 40-4, 48-9, 52, 77, 86, 88-92, 112, 116, 135-7, 152-7, 186, 219, 229, 264, 335-6, 342 (11), 343 (23), 344 (28, 37), 345 (38, 46), 365 (49), 366 (53), 405-8, 410, 412-14 London, topography, 18-20, 22-5, 40, 52, 56, 146, 148, 155-6, 205-6, 208-9, 240-1, 243, 301, 308, 349 (74), 405-8 looking-glasses, 25, 27, 32, 45, 47, 87, 165, 292-3 lotteries, 150-1 M Maitland, William, 56 Manchester, 42, 344 (28), 412, 414 Mandeville, Bernard de, 164, 283 manufacturers, (see also separate industries and trades), 4, 17-34, 40-1, 107, 114, 119-22, 205-6, 265, 270, 300, 333, 410-14 market garden(er)s, 47-8, 77, 117, 132, 256, 274 markets, 45, 47 marriage, 6-7, 110, 141, 160, 162, 174, 177-205, 221, 228-9, 236, 239-40, 242-3 marriage, age at, 110, 161-2, 180-5, 230, 370 (10, 11) marriage contracts (see also dowries, jointures), 61, 109, 194-8 Marx, Karl, 3-4 Massie, Joseph, 269-70 matchmakers, 193-4 Mather, Cotton, 232 Mayor's Court, 95, 103-4, 166, 279, 284, 359 (24) mechanicks see working class medicine, medical profession (see also apothecaries, physicians, surgeons), 69-72, 99, 255, 274, 302-6 Mediterranean, 37-9, 135, 275, 278 mercers, 8, 36, 43-7, 94, 98, 106-7, 109, 119, 139-40, 288, 292, 333, 410-13 Merchant Adventurers, 37, 110-11 merchants, 5, 7-8, 12-15, 17, 31, 33-40, 44-5, 51, 60, 67, 76, 87, 93, 97-9, 107, 109, 111, 114-15, 117-22, 134-6, 13840, 143-4, 147-55, 163, 182, 191, 206-7, 210, 253, 265, 269-70, 288, 292, 309, 311, 332-3, 334-5, 347 (61), 409, 411, 413-14 metal goods, metal manufacturers, 15-16, 22-4, 27, 32, 52, 94, 107, 109, 119, 297, 343 (23), 409 Miège, Guy, 6, 8, 293 milliners see haberdashers Misson, Henri, 55, 179, 237, 273-5 money-lenders, 48-51, 112, 119, 121-2, 130, 143, 155, 171 monopoly, 37, 133-4, 250, 256-7, 364 (46) Monteage, Stephen, 289, 299, 388 (63) mortality (see also life expectancy), 79, 95, 141-2, 230-1, 236, 302-3, 306-11 < previous page page_443 next page > < previous page page_444 next page > Page 444 music, musicians, 25, 56, 58-9, 73-4, 225, 296, 387 (49) N neighbours, relations with, 79, 93, 103, 120, 125-6, 144-5, 201-3, 218, 225, 238, 240-50, 268, 303, 311, 313, 322, 379 (4) newspapers, 10-11, 54-5, 75, 91, 165, 185, 264, 267 North, Dudley, 88-9, 140-1 Northamptonshire, Northumberland, 43 Norway, 96-7 Norwich, 341 (2), 349 (79), 386 (43), 414 Nottingham, 43 O oil, oilmen, 36, 41, 47-8, 78, 349 (84) opera, 57, 59 Orphans, Court of, 15-16, 172-3, 347 (61), 391 (24), 392 (25), 394-5 Ottoman Empire, 38, 134-5, 141 P paper-sellers, 36, 46 parent, duties of, relations with children, 6, 9, 35, 60, 88-92, 94-5, 100, 102, 104, 108, 141-2, 150, 160, 173, 182-8, 193-4, 199, 230-9, 306, 314-15, 319-23, 371 (12, 18, 19), 394 partnership, 37, 111, 139-40, 151, 168, 361 (9), 383 (4), 409-10 pawns, pawnbrokers, 36, 49-50, 55, 107, 118, 123-4, 140, 170-2, 283 Pepys, Samuel, 52, 57, 220-9, 245, 276, 280, 288, 296, 299, 301, 314 pewter, pewterers, 15-16, 23, 26-7, 32, 45, 53, 96, 99, 107, 196, 297-8, 386 (36), 387 (52) pharmacy, 304-5 physicians, 5, 12, 35, 69-71, 79, 122, 255, 303-5, 354 (140), 356 (170), 395 plate, silver, 15, 23, 49, 120, 298 politics, 13, 35, 62, 242, 260-8, 334 poor, poor law (see also working class), 12-13, 15, 47, 65, 179-80, 183, 205, 240, 244-5, 248, 254, 258-60, 266-7, 280-1, 318-19, 322, 330-1, 379 (7) Portugal, 37, 53 pottery, pottery manufacture, 25, 294-6, 298-300, 345 (40) printing, 25, 30, 32, 121, 151, 292, 345 (38) prize-fighting, 57-8 professions (see also separate professions), 4-5, 7-8, 17, 51, 60-75, 80, 86, 88, 114, 122, 210, 328-9, 353 (140), 395 profit see accumulation publishing, 10-11, 17, 25, 73-5, 357 (185) R Radcliffe, John, 70, 72 readymade clothes, 21-2, 172, 286-8, 343 (18) real estate, 151-7, 194-5, 315, 405-8 reformation of manners, societies for, 268, 379 (4) religion, 13, 62-5, 89-90, 115, 178-80, 189, 232, 234-8, 244-5, 247-8, 260, 267-8, 311, 319-20, 322-3, 335 remittance (see also bills of exchange), 38-9, 134-7 rent, 19, 30, 115, 167, 207-9, 251, 374, (11), 405-8 rentiers, 3, 6, 119-22, 130, 143, 150-1, 155, 166, 171-2, 206 reputation (see also neighbours), 79, 92-3, 98, 120, 124, 127, 136, 187, 193, 225-6, 242-3, 250, 268 riots, 242-3, 261-2 river, carriage on, 42, 76-7 river, industries of, 24, 26, 29-31, 40, 344 (31) Royal African Company, 37, 39, 151 Royal Exchange, 40, 351, (99) Royal Society, 53 Ryder, Dudley, 189-91, 199, 274, 304, 313 S salesmen, shopkeeping tailors, 21-2, 29, 36, 107 salters, 36, 47-8, 87, 119, 154 schools, 65-9, 89, 186-7, 217, 238-9, 258, 260, 318-19 schoolteachers, 60, 65-9, 75, 238, 328, 354 (140) Scotland, 43, 186 scriveners, 48-9, 51, 73, 91, 97, 99, 173, 194, 319, 413 servants, 59, 63, 76, 96-7, 100-1, 103, < previous page page_444 next page > < previous page page_445 next page > Page 445 113-14, 161-2, 180, 183, 199, 202, 207, 209, 213-29, 237-8, 243, 267, 279-80, 297, 317, 321-2, 357 (187) Sheffield, 343, (23), 346 (46) shipbuilding, 24, 26, 29, 40, 344 (31) shipowning, 17, 24, 40, 43, 146-9, 154, 348 (72) shipping, ships, ships' officers, 17, 24, 40, 67, 76, 96-7, 120, 133, 149, 344 (32), 348 (72), 357 (187), 358 (189) shoemaking, 22, 29, 65 shopkeepers, shops, 5, 8-9, 13, 17-18, 26-7, 29, 34, 36, 39-41, 43-8, 65, 73, 98-100, 106-9, 111-12, 114-22, 139-40, 143, 148, 159, 161-3, 168, 170-2, 202, 205-6, 209, 219, 253, 265-6, 269-70, 282, 288, 292, 331, 333, 350 (95, 96), 351 (99), 410-14 silk fabrics, manufacture, trade etc., 15-16, 19-21, 24, 28, 32, 38, 41, 47, 135, 162, 165, 261, 264, 283, 285-7, 342 (9, 10, 13), 385 (29), 410 silkmen, 36, 41, 87, 90, 107, 109, 155, 168 slave trade, 39, 137, 348 (70) Sloane, Hans, 70, 305 Smith, Adam, 208-9, 217 soapmaking, 25, 30-2, 96, 107, 121, 150-1, 292, 345 (38) social mobility, 8-9, 26-9, 31-2, 140-1, 152, 156-7, 190-1, 238, 244-50, 327, 329, 331-2 social structure, 3-9, 44, 59-60, 69, 73, 76, 100-2, 105, 226-7, 245-50, 264-7, 327-33, 335 South Sea Company, 149, 151, 257, 367 (13) Spain, 37-8, 53, 192, 276 stationers, 36, 91, 107 Steele, Sir Richard, 8, 10, 12, 336 stock see capital stock exchange, 48 Stout, William, 112, 131 street-lighting, 78 sugar, sugar-refining, 25, 30-2, 39, 42, 47, 107, 121, 281, 336, 345 (38), 383 (7) Sun Fire Office, 168-70 surgeons, 69-71, 95, 99, 119, 150, 255, 354 (140) Sweden, 38-9 Swift, Jonathan, 52, 209, 274 Sydenham, Thomas, 70, 304 T tailors (see also salesmen), 21-2, 26, 32, 65, 107, 114-16, 288-9, 342 (17) tavern-keepers, taverns, 8, 52-3, 56, 60, 87, 92-3, 98, 103, 107, 109, 117-19, 120-2, 129, 155, 162, 168, 171, 193, 210, 217, 241, 251-2, 257-8, 263, 270, 333, 352 (122) 409, 411 taxation, 14, 73, 89, 113, 115, 167, 211-3, 245, 265, 375 (11) tea, 10, 47, 134, 136-7, 161, 164, 272, 281, 295, 299, 336, 383 (7), 387 (45) technical change, technology, 18-20, 22-3, 25-31, 33, 300, 336-7, 346 (48) Tenison, Archbishop Thomas, 64, 66 textiles, textile manufacture (see also silk, cloth, cotton), 19-22, 28, 32-3, 79, 107, 109, 121-2, 143, 163, 284-90, 2934, 409-14 theatres, 59, 75, 102, 264 timber-merchants, 36 tobacco, tobacconists, tobacco-refining, 25, 32, 36, 39, 42, 44, 47, 54-5, 87, 109, 119, 303-4, 413 toys, toymen, 46, 119, 170, 232, 235, 296 trade, inland (see also wholesalers), 4, 17-18, 24, 27, 33-4, 40-4, 51, 136-7 trade, overseas (see also merchants), 4, 8, 17-18, 23-4, 27, 31, 33-40, 47, 87, 97-8, 133-5, 137-9, 348 (67, 68, 70) Tryon, Thomas, 183, 191 Tucker, Josiah, 8-9, 332 U undertakers, 15, 79, 311-14 upholsterers (see also furniture), 16, 27, 31-2, 36, 107 usury laws, 131-2 V Vanderlint, Jacob, 123, 271-2, 274, 280-1, 289-90 victuallers (see also alehouses, coffee-houses, cook-shops, etc), 51-6, 1-06, 119, 166, 171, 206, 352 (118), 411-14 vintners see tavern-keepers, wine Vintners' Company, 50, 257-8 < previous page page_445 next page > < previous page page_446 Page 446 W wages see income Ward, Ned, 52-3, 54, 59 water supply, 77-8, 210, 223, 298 wealth, disposition of see inheritance wealth, fortune, 13-15, 29, 31-6, 45, 51, 60, 72, 74-6, 108-9, 141-2, 149-50, 153-5, 249, 270, 292, 309-10, 347 (61), 352 (177), 357 (182), 394 weapons (see also guns), 243, 296 weavers, weaving (see also silk), 16, 20-1, 26, 32, 207, 261, 410-11 West Indies, 38, 39 wetnursing, 217, 236-7, 377 (43) wharfingers, 364 (46) wholesalers, 14, 17, 27, 29, 31, 33-6, 40-5, 51, 60, 98, 107, 109, 112, 115, 118, 120-2, 134-6, 143, 163, 206, 253, 3334, 349 (84), 352 (116) 409-14 widows, 50-1, 91-2, 151, 158, 160-4, 166-74, 186, 193, 236, 254, 314-15, 321, 370 (27), 378 (52), 413 wills, 15, 61, 153, 187-8, 235-6, 238, 303, 314-23, 369 (16), 394-405 wine, wine trade, 38, 50, 53, 122, 257, 280, 349 (84), 352 (123), 409-10 wine-coopers, see coopers, winewiredrawing, 20, 96 women in business, 25, 50-1, 160-74, 315, 410 women, legal position, 158-60, 198-200 women, work, 65, 162-3, 166, 174-5, 218-29, 288-9 woodworking (see also furniture), 23, 26, 32 woollen-drapers (see also drapers), 33, 36, 41, 43, 45-6, 94, 107, 109, 125, 411-14 working class, mechanicks (see also poor), 3-4, 14, 18-19, 22, 44, 49-50, 55, 57, 59, 65, 80-1, 205, 327, 329-31 writers, 73-5 Y York, 33 < previous page page_446 ... defined and created the society and economy which ushered in the modern world In this period, London was the only real city in England, and London totally dominated English urban culture and indeed... examines the business life of Londoners, starting with apprenticeship and going on to consider the problems and potential rewards of a business career in the metropolis Part Three looks at the family, ... Business Life Apprenticeship i The Origins of London Apprentices ii Finding a Master iii The Learning Process iv The Life of the Apprentice 85 86 89 95 100 Business 106 107 i Starting a Business
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