Beyond the malachite hills

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Beyond the Malachite Hills Jonathan Lawley is consultant to the Business Council for Africa (BCA) where he continues to make use of his unique experience of Africa as a whole He was born in the North-West Frontier Province of pre-independence India where his father was in the Indian Service of Engineers After school in Kashmir, the UK, Southern Rhodesia and South Africa he went to Rhodes University in South Africa and Cambridge before joining the British Colonial Service in Northern Rhodesia He worked there for years including in independent Zambia Almost his entire career has involved Africa, particularly southern Africa including the Congo where he worked for years on a mining project He has had a life-long interest in and involvement with Zimbabwe More recently his work has taken him to West Africa and to Portuguese- and French-speaking countries including Madagascar In 1996 he was awarded a doctorate from the City University, London, for his Ph.D thesis ‘Transcending Culture: Developing Africa’s Technical Managers’ Beyond the Malachite Hills A Life of Colonial Service and Business in the New Africa Jonathan Lawley Published in 2010 by I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd Salem Road, London W2 4BU 175 Fifth Avenue, New York NY 10010 www.ibtauris.com Distributed in the United States and Canada Exclusively by Palgrave Macmillan 175 Fifth Avenue, New York NY 10010 Copyright © 2010 Jonathan Lawley The right of Jonathan Lawley to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patent Act 1988 All rights reserved Except for brief quotations in a review, this book, or any part thereof, may not be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher ISBN: 978 84885 049 A full CIP record for this book is available from the British Library A full CIP record is available from the Library of Congress Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: available Typeset in Perpetua by Macmillan Publishing Solutions Printed and bound in Great Britain by CPI Antony Rowe, Chippenham Table of Contents Foreword by Lord Carrington vii Acknowledgements ix Map of Southern Africa x Map of Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi and Southern DRC xi CHAPTER Raj Child to Rhodesian Boy CHAPTER Bush and Boma 15 CHAPTER Miners and Tassle Tossers 41 CHAPTER Magic Lake 47 CHAPTER A Valley and a Dam 61 CHAPTER The New State 71 CHAPTER Dividing the Fuel 83 CHAPTER Diversity Stillborn 89 CHAPTER Malachite Hills 103 CHAPTER 10 A Taste of War 129 CHAPTER 11 A Chance to Help 143 CHAPTER 12 The Choice 157 CHAPTER 13 A Multinational’s Foresight 187 CHAPTER 14 African Self-Discovery 193 vi Beyond the Malachite Hills CHAPTER 15 Amos’s Age 225 CHAPTER 16 BESO 237 CHAPTER 17 Stephen’s Greeting 249 CHAPTER 18 The Unhappy Country 259 CHAPTER 19 The New Africans 277 Index 295 Foreword his fascinating book is an account of a varied and adventurous life, more commonly experienced in the days of the British Empire Born in India and brought up there at the time of independence, Jonathan Lawley writes of that country with great affection Later he spent many years in Africa, and it is that long association with the Central African states and the Congo with which the main part of the book is concerned The love and understanding he has for Africa, and perhaps particularly for Africans, is a dominant feature in this book Afterwards, as a successful businessman, he spent much of his time working in that continent The enormous area which district officers covered in Africa, with little help, much responsibility and poor communications, was a feature in the life of the colonial civil servant, and Jonathan Lawley reminds us of this when, aged 27, he became a district commissioner a few months before independence in Zambia, shouldering all those responsibilities which public servants in the colonial office were required to at that time There is no doubt that during this period he became aware of the inexorable move by many countries in Africa to independence and the need not only to understand but also to be able to speak to Africans in their own language and appreciate their point of view He had, at that time, the opportunity to meet Presidents Kaunda and Nyerere and many others in high places, and it was no doubt his wide knowledge that made him such a suitable person to be appointed as an election supervisor at the Zimbabwe election in 1980 Unlike many others, he realised that Mr Mugabe and the Patriotic Front were inevitably going to win that election, and the belief that so many white Rhodesians and South Africans had held – that Bishop Muzorewa would be able to form a coalition with Mr Nkomo – was unrealistic He understood too the difficulties that a Patriotic Front victory might cause Mr Smith and his allies He rightly congratulates Mr Mugabe on his emollient speech on becoming prime minister and praises General Walls and Lord Soames for the most vital part they played in ensuring that the result of the election was recognised He was in an ideal position to observe all these events and comments on them with knowledge and conviction T viii Beyond the Malachite Hills As to what has happened since, he writes with sadness and regret that Zimbabwe, a prosperous and happy country, has been reduced to its present state Reduced by its president, Mr Mugabe, who started well but who has in these last years led his country to disaster In Dr Lawley's final chapter, he reflects on the past 50 years or so He is understandably nostalgic about the handover of power in Zambia and the immediate aftermath It must have been a very depressing period for him, though the present situation in that country is most encouraging There will no doubt be continuing arguments about the timescale of British decolonisation, but timing is never very easy and there is no doubt that in some territories it would have been foolish to delay independence and endanger the good relations between our two countries The last two paragraphs sum up sensibly and accurately what our attitude towards Africa should be All this and much more, Jonathan Lawley has seen or of which he has been a part To those of us who have lived through these times, it is a useful reminder of those days To those new to the problems that Jonathan Lawley faced, it is an entertaining and instructive read The Rt Hon the Lord Carrington KG, GCMG, CH, MC Acknowledgements have been incredibly lucky with the friends and colleagues to whom I have been able to turn for understanding, encouragement and help with this book Principally it is my old boss and mentor at Rio Tinto, Sir Donald Tebbit, whom I thank many times over for his help and advice and for always being available as a sounding board and bastion of good sense and a motivator par excellence Thanks are due too to the publishers and particularly to Dr Lester Crook who had the idea of a concluding chapter on the new Africans Crucial early encouragement came from Tony Kirk-Greene and Chris Paterson, who understood what I was trying to say and led me to believe that I might be producing something worthwhile Others who gave me encouragement and advice over publication or after seeing drafts were Sam Wilson, David Le Breton, John Hudson, Shirley Cammack, Chris Cunliffe, Jane Nicholson, Susan Connolly, Professor Elizabeth Colson, Sally Dean, Chris Stone, Terry Barringer, David Bell and Judith Todd Professor Kenneth Ingham, John Smith, Wilf Mbanga, Michael Holman, Sir John Margetson and Lord Luce as well as Sir Donald wrote helpful critiques and Ken Severs produced the photo of the malachite hills I am deeply grateful to them all I am particularly grateful too to Lord Carrington for his marvellous foreword I have always admired him for his courageous intervention in Rhodesia/Zimbabwe through the Lancaster House Agreement, which brought a longed-for peace to that country in 1980 I thank my children for their encouragement and support Lastly and most importantly, I thank Sarah, who typed the whole book, parts of it several times over, Karen for her help with the technical intricacies of my computer and with putting the manuscripts together and Hamish for putting up with it all I 290 Beyond the Malachite Hills the outside world Yet some are still finding it difficult to cast off the idea that they need to erect barriers of red tape and bureaucracy to keep out people they imagine would exploit them or somehow them harm They should welcome virtually all contacts Experience has shown how quickly they gain from outside contact of all sorts, both continentally and globally This certainly includes the great, growing Asian superpowers India and China who are destined to strike up mutually beneficial partnerships with Africa as all parties come to appreciate more about what they stand to gain from each other In the BCA (Business Council for Africa) where I now work, I meet numerous high-flying and high-achieving African businessmen and professionals What gives me most pleasure and confidence for the future is the emergence of growing numbers of young African entrepreneurs, both male and female, with cross-continental ambitions and perspectives This coming together across the continent is what the Council is about and more than anything else attracts me to the work Some readers may wonder why South Africa does not feature more positively in this chapter given its power and influence and despite the hugely important roles played by two African giants Nelson Mandela and Desmond Tutu If only, now that Africa is free, and leaders like Nyerere, Kenyatta and Samora Machel are gone, more people of such calibre would appear in South Africa, particularly when they are urgently needed at home and in Zimbabwe Perhaps it is unfair to hope for too much given the legacy of apartheid, subjugation, humiliation and inadequate education But surely the world should be able to expect South African leadership in situations which are doing real harm to Africa as a whole Surely the incredibly brave Archbishop Pius Ncube of Bulawayo, who seems to me to be the real voice of the Zimbabwean people, deserves more support One is left wondering when South Africa will take up the leadership role for which it is surely destined It is certainly needed in the region and in other parts of Africa Mbeki has let himself, his country and Africa down very badly over Zimbabwe One is left wondering what South Africa really stands for and whether she really cares Both government and commerce should surely be engaging with the rest of Africa in all fields, but instead of jumping in, South Africa seems to be either indifferent or paralysed by uncertainty and self-doubt What about the attitude towards Africa in the UK and the West, and how this is affecting progress on the continent? There is a store of goodwill and the desire to help which is admirable There is, however, minimal real understanding, particularly amongst politicians Gone are the days when a The New Africans 291 substantial number of them had had real African experience and the understanding that went with it The only ones I have come across are Sir Malcolm Rifkind who spent a few years at the University of Rhodesia about 40 years ago, Lord Luce who was in the colonial service and Lord David Steel who was in Kenya as a child This situation does not prevent several politicians acting as if a commitment to Africa somehow equated to an understanding of the continent’s needs There is a great deal of confusion with much generalisation mixed with wishful thinking and unjustified pessimism and gloom Overall, I fear we are still in thrall to attitudes which assume past exploitation and colonial suppression for which we are supposed to continue to feel guilty Together with generous doses of sentiment, this has led us to assume that with our efforts to atone for the past we are occupying the high ground of moral rectitude Such attitudes are reflected by leaders of our main political parties and they don’t Africa any good at all They produce a sort of reverse colonial mentality and the assumption of a right to help and to special treatment which becomes a major block to progress We must surely stop moralising and move away from the idea that Africa depends on our generosity and that we need to put our hands ever deeper into our pockets and follow policies which umpteen times over many years have been shown to fail It is or should be elementary psychology If you give someone the idea that his future is in your hands rather than his own, he is unlikely to be motivated to help himself The certainty that you are doing good may even cause you to ignore an African leader pleading for the West to understand that what Africa really needs is involvement, investment and trade; or a high commissioner who points out yet again that Africans are neither helpless nor hopeless Surely it is time to learn the lessons of the past 50 years which are there for all to see, put aside the guilt and sentiment and start being positive and realistic At present we are making it more difficult for Africa to take charge of its own destiny and catch up with the modern world by trying to make it easier with handouts, concessions and watered-down principles They smack of patronisation and condescension and send all the wrong messages There are of course African politicians (frequently not truly representative) who will milk this attitude till the cows come home The only realistic option is for Africa to join the hard school of normality as quickly as possible through normal interaction If Africa is to get the loans it needs to build up its infrastructure for instance, the West is doing it a disservice by giving everyone the impression that loans to Africa need not be repaid I went to a conference recently on China’s growing role in Africa The implication seemed to be that Africa needed to be saved from Chinese exploitation Surely Africa is 292 Beyond the Malachite Hills capable of making up its own mind on such issues Surely, hard experience is the only way So what can we actually to help? Surely anything we can provide by way of education, training and experience, which helps train leaders and decision makers and prepares them to decide their own priorities, has to be top of the list if there is to be a real impact This includes experience of other cultures which enhances perspectives on one’s own culture and thus boosts self-confidence It does not in my opinion necessarily include building schools or colleges which need to be staffed and maintained Their importance and priority must surely be decided by Africans themselves when set against all the other claims on limited finances What I have seen suggests that help in the way of work experience and training can be given by commercial companies large and small, or by governments central or local Africa still has a lot of catching up to The experience and training must involve real work If it does not, the individuals will not be accepted by their hosts’ employees, learning will not take place and the particular programme will not be sustainable Of course all experience of this sort cannot take place outside the individual’s home country, but it could take place in another African country from which cultural strengths could be gained Multinational companies have done a lot to develop highpotential people in this way and with encouragement would no doubt more Another way to help Africa, which is well proven but could be massively expanded, is the hands-on BESO approach which would make use of the multiplicity of skills in all disciplines and at all levels which exist amongst retired people in the UK and other developed countries This is a very different matter from the young enthusiast who goes to Africa to things for the locals which they are quite capable of doing themselves I remember numerous wonderful assignments from my BESO days which concentrated on helping small local business people who could not possibly afford a professional consultant The one-to-one help is exactly what the individual businessman and his organisation needed and valued, and the help given over a month or two could be transformational I remember so many good news stories including the baker in Lusaka who needed help to teach him how to operate his new machinery After the assignment the volunteer left him with a motto in Gaelic on the shop front In Mozambique a volunteer whose assignment was supposed to be confined to accounting help, repaired all the broken-down machinery at a cashew nut processing factory and trained someone in how to maintain it I am not sure whether the immense value of such help was ever The New Africans 293 really understood by DFID I felt at the time that there was pressure on them from paid consultants to keep out the volunteers Despite being the most effective and the most cost-effective help that Britain could give the developing world, BESO only received one million pounds per annum from the government in contrast to VSO’s £25 million In any event a revived BESO could transform prospects for thousands of new African entrepreneurs and keep a lot of retired Britons happy and fulfilled at the same time It is most encouraging to see evidence that even if they not learn from each other, individual countries are now learning from their own mistakes rather than blaming all and sundry This applies particularly in Zambia which seemed at various stages in its short history to be destined for disaster I still think we the colonisers were irresponsible not to prepare the country for several more years with a lot more education and on-the-job training before granting independence This would have spared the country many years of poverty and decline It would also have provided a good example in sound non-racial administration to the Rhodesians Nevertheless I must acknowledge that though it was certainly not the intention, being cast adrift is one way of learning the essentials of navigation It is a tribute to the country and underlines the fact of basic African strengths and capabilities that it is now forging ahead There has been a total restructuring of the mining industry and investment has poured in The same goes for tourism with the country taking advantage of Zimbabwe’s own goal Where the ability to learn from mistakes is combined with such things as genuine encouragement of foreign investment, fantastic national parks and the friendliest people in Africa, success is guaranteed The present government does not give the priority we colonial administrators gave to keeping in touch with local people through village-to-village touring for instance But this is its choice Meanwhile it is strengthening democracy and the free-enterprise system It is also gradually reassessing policy and practice on the delicate issue of rural land tenure It has taken the Zambians a few years since my day to reach their conclusions, but it is they who are making the decisions Of course I am delighted that in getting to this point they have reached new positive perspectives on their British colonial legacy which reflect very well on us There are of course no limits at all to African capabilities and increasingly its people are discovering this They are becoming more aware of their many significant strengths, including those arising from their culture, which help them to achieve These include communication and community strengths, the ability to learn quickly and to change and the ability to cope with 294 Beyond the Malachite Hills uncertainty To complement all this are the strongly ingrained traditions of courtesy amongst young and old and an almost uncanny ability to judge character In combination these strengths guarantee African success in the future The rest of the world must wake up quickly to what the new Africans can for themselves, for Africa and for the world and the remarkable progress they have made in a mere 50 years since the independence era It is obviously in the world’s interest that Africa should overcome poverty and instability and start fulfilling its potential, and that all possible doors to trade, tourism, investment and involvement should be opened All this needs to be matched by altogether higher expectations of Africa It really does it no good to continually be treated as a special case At the same time I don’t think it is a contradiction to expect the new Africans and the African diaspora to assert themselves, come up with more ideas about their role in the world and put an end to the idea that it is the West’s preserve to set the agenda for their continent If some continue to act as if they have a right to every sort of help the world can give, then this is only a reflection of what we have led them to expect and should be recognised as such We in the West must stop treating Africa as if it is a sort of international cripple which warrants different rules and standards from the rest of the world Niall Ferguson in his book Empire even floats the possibility of a new sort of consensual colonialism funded and run by the Americans He does, however, recognise American failures in recent times as having been largely due to their seemingly sole preoccupation with imposing democracy Therefore, as part of this new approach he calls for emphasis on the historic British preoccupation with understanding the culture, aspirations and needs of local people On the whole I agree with Ferguson’s analysis of the historic differences between the British and the American approaches However, he does not seem to appreciate fully either how much and how quickly Africa has progressed or the alarming speed with which Britain has forgotten what running an empire was really all about Now instead of giving a lead which arises from our experience, we slavishly go along with the distorted and utterly misguided American analysis arising from the view that what is good for them must be good for everyone else My conclusion suggested in these pages is that whatever the achievements of the British colonial record, the days of empire are well and truly passed Furthermore and most importantly, Africans are perfectly capable of drawing their own conclusions and rising to the challenges that confront them in the real world Our interaction with them must reinforce this reality and not undermine it Index AA Mines, 214–215, 216 Adams, John, 45 Adams, Pop, 53 Affretair, 108 African National Congress (ANC), 41 African Queen, The, 104 Agalega Atoll, 141 Ahmed, David, Ahmed, Roger, Aid junkie, 241 Albertville, 60 Aldabra atoll, 141 Alder, John, 31 Aldous, Phil, 41 Algeria, 133 Andaman Islands, Andersen, Chris, 11, 144, 145–146, 190, 209, 266 Anglesey Aluminium, 201 Anglo American, 103, 105, 110, 198, 214–215, 221, 281 Angola, 97, 121, 122, 124, 199, 216, 218, 241, 242, 281 Annaba, 133 Archer, Margaret, 17 ARDA, 232, 247, 261 Arouf, Benoit, 139 Assumption Atoll, 141 Atoll Research Bulletin, 141 Avonmouth, 206 Bailey, Don, 192, 209 Ball, Terry, 189 Bancroft, 43 Banda, Hastings, 66 Bangwelu, 45 Bannu, Barotseland, 15 Barr, Gavin, 79, 103 Basutoland, 12 Bean, Len, 45 Beckett, Gill, 249 Beckett, Mike, 249 Beechy, Robin, 154, 155–156 Beira, 85 Beitbridge, 259 Bellers, Tim, 238 Benguela Railway, 121, 124 Bindura Nickel, 270 Binga, 38, 62, 64, 74–76, 81, 145, 149–150, 152, 155, 156, 157–182, 170, 226, 246, 266 Black Economic Empowerment (BEE), 256, 285 Black River Gorges, 140 Blair, Tony, 90 Blantyre, 129 Borrowdale Brook, 263, 266 Botswana, 95, 97, 117, 124, 208, 209, 211, 215, 222–223, 284 Bourne, Haji, 67 Bourne, Paul, 32 Bourne, Ruth, 32 Bown, Hugh, 48 Boyd, Lord, 145 Boynton, John, 149, 184 Braibant, Raymond, 123 Brink, Dave, 158, 164, 180 British Coal, 206 296 Beyond the Malachite Hills British Executive Service Overseas (BESO), 237–248 Bromley, 135 Brooks, Joe, 37, 38, 251 Brooks, Seena, 251 Broughton, Jamie, 86 Brown, Gordon, 90 Buea, 242 Bulawayo, 5, 6, 7, 9, 86, 117–118, 152, 154, 157, 164, 166, 175, 177, 182, 197, 215, 216, 227, 247, 290 Bumi Hills, 74 Burles, Peter, 38, 41, 189 Bury St Edmunds, 157 Business Council for Africa (BCA), 257, 290 Button, Errol, 93 Byrd Amendment, 130 Byrd, Beverly, 99 Byrd, Harry, 99, 130 Byrd, Shirley, 98–99 Calver, Brian, 209 Cambridge University, 16–17, 99 Cameroon, 242, 288 Cammack, Shirley, 130 Campbell, David, 256 Cape Town, 16, 17, 89, 104, 221, 233, 255 Cape Town University, 255 Capper Pass, 201 Capricorn Africa Society, 113 Carey, Tim, 55 Carrington, Peter, 144, 153, 184, 265, 266 Carruthers, Malcolm, 149–150 Casablanca, 133 Castle, Barbara, 87 Caterpillar, 205 Cecil, David, 60 Cecil, Veronica, 60 Centaur, HMS, 46 Chadamwiri, Charles, 214 Chadwick, Charles, 154–155 Chalker, Baroness Lynda, 245 Chalker, Lynda, 218, 287 Chandamali, 15 Charles, Prince, 183 Charter Consolidated, 103, 105, 108, 280 Chete Gorge, 62 Chete Island, 73 Chete Peninsular, 62 Chidyausiku, Demetria, 199, 209 Chikanta Chief, 18 Chimfuntu, Kazembe, 50 Chipepo, 62, 65, 73, 76, 79 Chittenden, Micky, 253 Chitungwiza, 262, 269 Chiwengo, Boniface, 111 Chizarira National Park, 165, 179 Chobe Game Park, 117 Choma, 116 Chona, Mainza, 25 Churchill, Winston, 151 City University, 200, 207 Cleveland Potash, 214–215 Cole, Nat King, 11 Colson, Elizabeth, 98 Commercial Farmers Union (CFU), 233, 234, 266 Commonwealth Development Corporation (CDC), 241 Commonwealth observers, 170, 171 Congo, 9, 17, 45, 47, 54, 55, 57, 58, 60, 79, 101, 103, 104, 105, 106, 110, 116, 118, 120, 124, 125, 127, 128, 131, 221, 222, 276, 280, 281 Congo River, 60 Connolly, Sue, 126 Copperbelt, 38 297 Index Cote d’Ivoire, 242 Cumber, John, 144, 145, 150 Cunliffe, Chris, 140, 187, 195–196 Cunliffe, Cynthia, 187 Currey, Ronald, Daily Graphic, Dalais, Toy, 139 Dal Lake, Dar es Salaam, 46, 89 D’Arifat, Constant, 139 D’Arifat, Maurice, 138 De Beers, 128, 208, 215, 221 Debswana, 284 De Klerk, Piet, 233, 247 Desmaele, Louis, 123 Dewar, Bob, 243 DFID, 220, 245 Donaldson, John, 200, 203, 221 Douala, 243, 288 Dowden, Richard, 256 Dumez Afrique, 110, 114, 123 Dumont, Andre, 90, 91 Dumont, Rene, 280 Durant, John, 20, 21–23, 96 Dwyer, Fergus, 15 Eagle, HMS, 46 Eastern Cape, 10 East London, 11 Elephant Hills, 231 Elizabetha, 60 Elizabethville, 103 See also Lubumbashi English China Clays, 205 Fagan, Brian, 20, 98 Falls, Mwene, 62, 64, 66 Farnham Castle, 202 Farquharson, Ed, 241 Farwell, Philip, 23, 29 Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 16, 17, 32, 46, 54, 132, 185, 278 Ferguson, Niall, 294 Field, Winston, 13 Findlay, Ian, 62, 74 Fluor Utah, 110, 114, 123 Formby, George, Fort Hare University, 10 Fort Rosebery, 47, 60 Fort Victoria, Fowler, Dorothy, 78 Fullerton, Peter, 96 Fungurume, 103, 104, 105, 108, 109–110, 111–112, 114–115, 120–125, 128 Gaborone, 257 Gajda, Ann, 240 Gardiner, George, 86, 89 Gecamines, 103, 105–108, 122–123, 280–281 Geevor Mine, 205 Gibbs, Humphrey, 94, 151 Gilmour, Ian, 144 Gore-Brown, Stuart, 44 Grahamstown, 5, 255 Grand Reef, 154 Great Zimbabwe, 3, 185, 195 Grimes, Sue, 201 Guimbe, MV, 62, 66, 68, 73, 75, 77–78, 79, 81, 103 Gumbie, Alec, 210, 256, 284 Gumbie, Florence, 216 Gurdon, Adam, 150 Gwaai River Hotel, 117 Gwembe, 34, 61–64, 67, 68, 69, 72, 73, 77, 79, 81–82, 85, 116, 145, 240, 252 Gwembe Special Fund, 61, 69 Hagan, John, 125 Hain, Peter, 234, 265 Hamilton, Bruce, 54 Hannah, John, 33 298 Beyond the Malachite Hills Harare, 188, 190, 193, 197, 209, 214, 227, 231, 259, 262, 263, 268, 269, 275 See also Salisbury Harker, Hugh, Harper, Ian, 48 Harries, Dave, 110 Harrods, 234 Hart, John, 48 Herald, The, 183 Hillcrest High School, 15 Himba (tribe), 286 Holland, Ian, 18, 20 Hone, Evelyn, 53, 94 Hopkins, Denbeigh, 161, 174, 176 Horn, John, 126 Hotel Embaixador, 241 Hudson, Greta, 240 Hudson, John, 59, 240 Huggins, Godfrey, 11, 185 Hughes, Mike, 158, 162 Hunter, Mack, 106, 108 IBM, 100–101 India, 1–2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 33, 53, 81, 107, 116, 140, 141, 270, 290 Industrial Society, 119, 120, 139 Inyanga Mountains, 119 Ireland Blyth Limited (IBL), 138–139 Jameson Hotel, 7, 147 Jane, 17, 31, 46, 54 Jehovah’s Witness, 51, 58 Jere, Francis, 49, 53 Jocelyn, Joan, 96 Johanna, 18, 26 Johannesburg, 219, 221, 256 Jourdain, Jim, 140 Kafue National Park, 34, 240 Kafue River, 61 Kalomo, 18–20, 23–26, 31, 32, 33, 34, 37, 39, 73, 75, 95, 97, 98, 111, 116, 157, 175, 233, 240, 249, 250, 251, 252 Kalomo Falls, 34 Kalomo River, 19 Kambwali Chief, 52 Kamativi Tin Mine, 171 Kanana, Joshua, 23–24 Kapwanga, Kombadeyedu, 216 Kapwepwe, Simon, 87 Kariangwe, 171 Kariba Dam, 61, 65 Kariba Gorge, 64 Kasanka Game Reserve, 240 Kashikishi, 49 Kashita, Andrew, 90 Kashmir, 1–2, Kaunda, Kenneth, 32, 41, 66, 84, 87–88, 91, 92, 116, 255, 278, 279 Kawambwa, 50 Kazangula, 95 Kennedy, John, 16 Kenyatta, Jomo, 66 Kilwa Island, 55 Kilwa Masoko, 286 Kilwa Mulenga, 55 Kitwe, 41–45, 47, 61 Kolwezi, 115 Kondozi farm, 247, 261 Kuomboka, 95 Kwe Kwe, 217 Lake District, 16 Lake Kariba, 34, 35, 37, 38, 64, 65, 67, 75, 78, 145, 157, 163, 165, 171, 226, 229 Lake MacIlwaine, 269 Lake Malawi, 113, 131 Lake Mweru, 48–60 Lake Tanganyika, 53, 60 Lake Upemba, 126 Lake Victoria, 287 Lancaster House, 144, 146, 234–235 Lansing Bagnall, 99, 100 299 Index Lander, Roy, 214 Laudon, Wally, 161 Lawley, Juliet, 92, 93 Lawley, Sarah, 92, 93, 109, 110, 112, 113, 117, 131, 134, 140, 144, 189, 233, 237, 241, 242, 257, 272, 273 Lawley, Ting, 133 Lawley, Tom, 195 Lee Jones, Trevor, 110, 123 Lennox-Boyd, Alan, 143 Lenshina, Alice, 58 Leper Colony, 72 Leydon, Peter, 128 Likasi, 115 Limpopo Province, 272 Limpopo River, 196 Litumbe, Njoh, 242 Litunga, 95 Livingstone, 15, 117 Livingstone, David, 41 Lobito Bay, 121 London House, 202 Longhurst, Henry, 85, 274 Lonrho, 214–215 Loutit, Blythe, 237, 286 Loutit, Rudi, 237 Luanda, 242 Luanshya, 41 Luapula, MV, 49 Luapula Province, 47 Luapula River, 54 Lubumbashi, 103, 104, 107–110, 127 See also Elizabethville Lufira River, 127 Lugard, Lord, 25 Lukonzolwa, 57 Lumpa Church, 58–59 Lundazi, 93 Lunga River, 91 Lupani, 167 Lupi, Paul, 122–123 Lusaka, 41, 47 Lusitu, 87, 154 Lusulu, 172 Luvua River, 58 Maccabe Forest, 140 MacDonald, Andy, 25 Macdonald, Sandy, 62, 75 Machel, Samora, 152, 275 Machiri, Leveson, 216 Macilwaine, Major, 119, 273 Mackichan, Ian, 30 Madagascar, 243 Madal, 241 Madiongo, 35, 73 Mahadeo Mountain, 1–2 Majuru, Joyce, 261 Makambo, 45 Makoni, Simba, 271 Makoni Tribal Trust Land (TTL), 135 Makwinja, Leonard, 215, 222, 257 Malawi, 93, 94, 113, 114, 116, 128, 239, 240, 245, 287 See also Nyasaland Mandela, Nelson, 235, 290 Mapanza Secondary School, 253 Marandellas, 135 Margaret, 45, 47, 50, 61 Mashava Mine, 216 Mashonaland, 153 Matabeleland, 154, 155, 174, 182, 196, 197 Matabeleland North, 152, 154, 155 Mauritius, 134, 137–141 Mauritius Gymkhana Club, 140 Mauritius MV, 141 Mazabuka, 116 Mbanga, Pommie, 289 Mboya, Tom, 16 Mbwainga, Stephen, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26, 29, 31, 33, 35, 36, 39, 42, 43, 47, 48, 51, 61, 73, 75, 76, 82, 85, 87, 93, 249–257 300 Beyond the Malachite Hills McClen, Don, 189 McGregor, Hamish, 257 McWilliam, Michael, 256 Mehta, Mardan, Meikles Hotel, 191, 200 Melilla, 134 Melluish, Ramsey, 210 Merrifield, Mike, 78 Michie, Jim, 64, 69, 72 Milibizi, 164 Mimi and Toutou, 104, 111 Mining Journal, 218, 220 Mitchell, Crighton, 63 Mitchell, Judy, 116 Mitchell, Malcolm, 116 Mitchell, Tuppy, 63, 66, 72 Mobutu, Sese Seko, 103, 116 Moffat, John, 41 Monomatapa Hotel, 129, 195 Moore family, 126 Morgan, Steve, 75 Morocco, 133 Mount Cameroon, 288 Mount Mlanji, 114 Mozambique, 4, 6, 47, 85, 118, 129, 131, 132, 152, 183, 233, 239, 241, 263, 270, 274, 287, 292 Mpathi, Monty, 222, 257 Mporokoso, Bill, 53 Mpumbu MV, 57 Msamba Club, 85 MSc, 201, 207 Mufulira, 45 Mugabe, Robert, 144, 148, 153, 163, 182, 183, 188, 191–192, 195, 197, 198, 213, 232, 234, 235, 246, 250, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 269, 270, 271, 275, 276, 285, 289 Mukuni Chief, 18, 26, 27 Mukwekwezeke, Alexander, 225–226 Mulola River, 34, 73 Mumba, Edward Chishimba, 53 Munalula, 20, 29 Mununga Chief, 52, 54 Munyumbwe, 69, 71 Murangari, David, 209, 270 Muringi, Robson, 194, 270 Musokotwane Chief, 18, 26 Mutale, Goodwin, 86, 87 Mutare, 262, 263 See also Umtali Mutuma, Bernard, 193, 194, 203, 281–282 Mutuma, Olivia, 194, 195 Muzorewa, Bishop Abel, 143 Mweede, Amos, 227–230 Mwemba Chief, 73, 253 Mweru Wantipa, 53 Mwinilunga, 91 Nabusenga dam, 165 Nador, 133–134 Namibia, 124, 190, 198, 199, 216, 223, 237, 281, 284, 286 Namwala, 253 Nathia Gali, National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), 122 Nchanga Consolidated Copper Mines (NCCM), 107 Nchanga Mine, 106 Nchelenge, 48–60 Ncube, Pius, 290 Ndola, 41 Nixon, Jean, 71 Nixon, Nick, 72 Nkandabwe, 77 Nkomo, Joshua, 267 Nkumbula, Harry, 41 Norman, Denis, 232 North, Mike, 146, 150 Northern Rhodesia, 6, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 25–26, 27–28, 41–42, 44–45, 301 Index 52, 54, 57, 59–60, 64, 66, 81, 94, 116, 132, 145, 146, 154, 158, 159, 161, 189, 240, 264, 277, 278, 280 See also Zambia Northern Rhodesian Police (NRP), 41, 44, 59 North Korea, 195 Nyambaulo, Silas, 19 Nyasaland, 6, 12, 13, 54, 113, 145, 147, 264, 278 See also Malawi Nyerere, Julius, 66, 89, 152, 237–238, 275 Nyika Plateau, 54, 93, 112 O’Brien, Petal, 122, 198, 222 Odzi Club, 136, 153, 192, 261 Odzi River, 130 O’Hara, Tim, 49 Oliver, Bill, 62 Olonga, Henry, 289 Overseas Resettlement Bureau, 99, 100 Owen, David, 134, 140–141 Oxford University, Palabora mine, 218 Partridge, Mark, 136 Patriotic Front (PF), 179–184 Peacock, Clive, 139 Pearson, Denning, 100 Peers, Peter ‘Mutonga,’ 30 Peers, Simon, 244 Pelly, Mary Anne, 274 Pelly, Richard, 31 Pelly, Sarah, 81, 84, 85, 87 Pemtonya, Lazerus, 39 Pendennis Castle, 89 Peplow, 130 Peshawar, Phantom Flotilla, The, 104 PhD, 220, 246 Philips, Tony, 75 Phillimore, David, 115 Phillips, Lorna, 119 Phillips, Tony, 119 Phimister, Greg, 211 Pinsent, Ewen, 53 Pinsent, Jean, 53 Pitstone Cement, 206 Pizey, John, Plowden, 150 Pocock, Andrew, 270 Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), 122 Priestley, Mike, 32 Pukuma, 35 Puta Chief, 52–53 Pweto, 57 Quelimane, 241 Quick, Reverend, 16 Quiting, 12 Rabat, 133 RAF Brize Norton, 146 Ravenscraig, 205, 209 Rawlins, Colin, 67, 72, 128 Rees, Gerry, 110 Renco Mine, 216 Rhodes, Cecil, 248, 273 Rhodesia, 2–13, 15–19, 21, 25, 26, 27–28, 41, 42, 45, 47, 52, 54, 57, 62, 64, 66, 70, 74, 76, 82, 83, 94, 96, 97, 112, 117, 118, 119, 121, 124, 129–141, 143–156, 159, 162, 163, 164, 167, 170, 174–178, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185 See also Zimbabwe Rhodesian Light Infantry (RLI), 183 Rhodes Centenary Exhibition, 6, 155 Rhodes Inyanga National Park, 85 Rhodes University, 9–10, 13 Rhone Poulenc Chemicals, 206 Ribblesdale Cement, 206 302 Beyond the Malachite Hills Rio Tinto, 189–190, 192, 200, 204, 214, 216, 223, 237, 238, 273–274, 275–276, 281, 282 See also RTZ Riozim, 203 Rodwell, Bruce, 37, 157 Rolls-Royce, 99–100 Rossing Uranium Mine, 190, 198–199, 237 Royal Livingstone Hotel, 249 Royal African Society (RAS), 246, 256–257 Rugby Cement, 206 RTZ, 189, 190, 193, 197, 201, 203, 206, 216, 217, 218, 220, 237 See also Rio Tinto Ruwa, 135 Sakubita, 67–68 Salisbury, 6, 9, 17, 32, 85, 118, 147, 149, 151, 152, 153, 162, 166, 183 See also Harare Samfya, 45 Sandy, 159 Santos, Silvia Costa Kurtz dos, 238 Saudi Arabia, 146 Saunders, 22, 23 Schneider, Rudi, 123, 237 Scudder, Thayer, 81 Sekute Chief, 18, 26 Selibe Phikwe Mine, 222, 257 Selima, 112, 113 Selous Scouts, 263 Senegal, 242, 288 Sengwa River, 173 Sesheke district, 95 Shamboko, 23–24 Shanahan, Father, 256 Shankland, Peter, 104 Sheikh Bagh School, 1, Shepherd, David, 84, 97 Shilling, Bob, 137 Shipopo, Benjamin, 62, 66 Short, Clare, 234, 265 Siabuwa Chief, 163, 178 Siachitema Chief, 18 Siavonga, 62 Sibanda, Mishek, 270 Sillitoe, John, 49 Sillitoe, Percy, 49 Simwatachela Chief, 18, 26, 27, 34, 35, 37 Sinazeze, 253 Sinazongwe, 62, 252 Sipatunyana Chief, 18, 24 Siwawa, Charles, 215, 222, 257 Sixpence, 92 Skeleton Coast National Park, 237 Smart, 43 Smith, David, 69 Smith, Ian, 9, 18, 76, 143, 190 Smith, Ross, 86 Smith, Tony, 126 Smithsonian Institute, 141 SMTF, 103–128 Soames, Christopher, 150, 151–152 Soames, Mary, 151 Southcombe, Mike, 76, 77 South Africa, 3, 4–6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 20, 86, 116, 117, 134, 151, 153, 187–188, 190, 195, 199, 212–214, 216–217, 218, 221, 222–223, 231, 235, 236, 238, 240, 244, 245, 247, 248, 255, 256, 257, 261–262, 263, 270, 274, 278, 284, 285, 287, 288, 290 South Crofty Mine, 209 Southern Africa Business Forum (SABF), 257 Southern Rhodesia, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12–13, 16, 17, 18, 19–20, 21, 23, 34, 38, 64, 65, 83, 94, 117, 134, 143, 145, 146, 183, 184, 189–190, 215, 236, 267, 273, 303 Index 277, 278 See also Rhodesia; Zimbabwe South West Africa People’s Organisation (SWAPO), 190, 199, 207, 281 Soviet Union, 221 SS Uganda, 46 Standard Oil, 123 St Andrews College, 5–9, 12 Stanley Hotel, Stanleyville, 60 St Edmunds Hall, Stirling, David, 113 St Johns College, 16 Stone, Chris, 255–256 Stone, Jeff, 20, 26 Stonehouse, John, 25 St Tropez, 45 Sugg, John, 147 Swakopmund, 237 Syulukwa, James, 250, 255 Tanzania, 286–287 Taomasina, 243 Tara Mines, 204–205 Tatchell, Peter, 234, 266 Taylor, Keith, 161 Tebbit, Barbara, 274 Tebbit, Donald, 189, 201, 209, 210, 228, 274 Thatcher, Margaret, 143 Thomas, F M., 32 Thompson, Mike, 215 Thompson, Reg, 69 Todd, Garfield, 9, 12–13, 134–135 Todd, Judith, 94, 198, 267 Townsend, Peter, 206 Troutbeck Inn, 85 Trueman, Ken, 208, 221 Tsvangari, Morgan, 271 Tuareg, 133 Tutu, Desmond, 290 Tyndale-Biscoe, Eric, UANC, 178 Umtali, 85, 118 See also Mutare Umzingwane River, 274 Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI), 74–77, 79, 81, 132, 184 Union Carbide, 205, 206, 209, 217, 219 United National Independence Party (UNIP), 25, 41, 43–46, 49, 51–52, 59–60, 66, 71, 86, 279 Upemba National Park, 112, 125 Valentine, Heather, 131–132, 152–153, 271–272 Valentine, Mary, 130 Valentine, Phil (jnr), 271–272 Valentine, Phil (snr), 130 Valentine, Richard, 8, 21, 118–119, 131–132, 135–136, 152–153 Valley Tonga, 62, 64 Van der Byl, PK, 188 Van der Riet, Rupert, 166 Van der Post, Laurens, 93 Van der Riet, Verity, 166 Van Jaarsveld, Angus, 74, 157, 163, 172–173, 174, 225, 226, 227, 230 Van Jaarsveld, Hazel, 74, 157, 163, 172–173, 174, 225, 226 Venda tribe, 196 Victoria Falls, 64 Victoria Falls Hotel, 117 Victoria Hotel, 155 Vincent, David, 240 Vorster, John, 99 VSO, 293 Wagner, Mick, 86 Walford, Wally, 86 Walker, Barry, 11 Walker, Ronnie, 189, 203, 281 Walkers Drift, 34 Walls, General, 152, 182 Wankie, 174, 175 304 Beyond the Malachite Hills Wankie Colliery, 13 War veterans, 234, 246 Water Court of Southern Rhodesia, Welensky, Roy, 17 West Africa Business Association (WABA), 257 Westnedge, Ted, 238 Wheal Jane Mine, 201, 209 White Fathers, 50 Whitehead, Edgar, 13 Whitestone School, 4, Whittemore, Martin, 31 Whittemore, Pippa, 31 Wilson, Harold, 131 Wiltshire Avon, 89 Wina, Sikota, 25 World Bank, 220 WWF, 128 Yates, Mike, 158 Zaire See Congo Zamasco, 217 Zambia, 11, 25, 59, 64, 73, 74, 75, 77, 79, 83–85, 90, 92–93, 98, 105, 106–107, 111, 113, 116, 122, 128, 150, 208, 233, 240, 251, 254, 255, 279–280, 281, 285–286, 287, 305 See also Northern Rhodesia Zambia Consolidated Copper Mines (ZCCM), 107 Zambian Copperbelt, 106 Zimba, 116 Zimbabwe, 116, 130, 144, 152, 188, 189, 190, 192–200, 209, 210–212, 225, 229, 230, 235–236, 240, 251, 259–276, 281–282, 284, 285, 289, 290 See also Rhodesia; Southern Rhodesia Zipra, 156, 163 Zomba, 113 Zomba Mountain, 113 Zukas, Simon, 87 ... could not have taken the northern territories with him 18 Beyond the Malachite Hills In Southern Rhodesia though, there was Ian Smith who promised the white electorate that there would be no giving... of the mealie field and the surrounding bush and hills My father had blasted a swimming pool out of the kopje at the back and had planted lots of trees including an apple orchard He was Beyond the. .. in the exam held at the start of the second academic year, I could go straight to second-year French On board the Dutch MV Tjichilenka on the voyage to Mauritius, the only other European in the
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