ACCA p2 kaplan pocket notes 2016

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ACCA Paper P2 (INT & UK) Corporate Reporting Pocket notes British library cataloguing-in-publication data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Published by: Kaplan Publishing UK Unit The Business Centre Molly Millars Lane Wokingham Berkshire RG41 2QZ ISBN 978-1-78415-247-5 © Kaplan Financial Limited, 2015 Printed and bound in Great Britain ii The text in this material and any others made available by any Kaplan Group company does not amount to advice on a particular matter and should not be taken as such No reliance should be placed on the content as the basis for any investment or other decision or in connection with any advice given to third parties Please consult your appropriate professional adviser as necessary Kaplan Publishing Limited and all other Kaplan group companies expressly disclaim all liability to any person in respect of any losses or other claims, whether direct, indirect, incidental, consequential or otherwise arising in relation to the use of such materials All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Kaplan Publishing kaplan publishing Contents Chapter 1: The conceptual framework Chapter 2: The professional and ethical duty of the accountant Chapter 3: Reporting financial performance 15 Chapter 4: Revenue 29 Chapter 5: Non-current assets, agriculture and inventories 35 Chapter 6: Leases 49 Chapter 7: Employee benefits and share based payment 55 Chapter 8: Provisions and events after the reporting period 67 Chapter 9: Financial instruments 75 Chapter 10: Tax in financial statements 87 Chapter 11: Adoption of IFRS 93 Chapter 12: Specialised entities and specialised transactions 99 Chapter 13: Non financial reporting 111 Chapter 14: Current issues 119 kaplan publishing iii Corporate reporting Chapter 15: Group accounting 123 Chapter 16: Group accounting 137 Chapter 17: Foreign currency 147 Chapter 18: Group reorganisations and restructuring 153 Chapter 19: Group statement of cash flows 159 Index iv I.1 kaplan publishing paper P2 (INT & UK) The exam This exam will test your knowledge of accounting concepts, principles and theories You will be expected to comment on scenarios and assess proposed accounting treatments You must be able to apply accounting theory to practical situations and will be expected to cover several accounting standards in one scenario, so you must study the breadth of the syllabus When providing advice on the suitability of accounting treatment you will also have to consider professional and ethical judgement A knowledge of current issues is also required The exam is three hours long with an additional 15 minutes reading time to enable candidates to read the questions and begin planning their answers You are not allowed to write in the answer booklet during the reading time but you are allowed to write notes on the question paper kaplan publishing Section A (50%) – one case study compulsory question (50 marks) • This will be a scenario based question dealing with the preparation of consolidated financial statements including group cash flow statements and financial reporting issues Section B (50%) – A choice of two questions from a total of three (25 marks each) • In this section, two questions will be scenario or case study based and one question will be essay based They will cover all aspects of the syllabus • You must ensure you revise the breadth of the syllabus, as questions are likely to cover more than one topic • Two professional marks will be available in each of the Section B questions of the exam They will be awarded for clarity and quality of discussion v Corporate reporting Keys to Success in Paper P2 Exercising judgement / technique • vi On the compulsory question, make sure you have a thorough knowledge of all aspects of group accounting Use your groups technique to work through the question methodically, focusing on the parts you can Don’t panic if there are adjustments that you not know what to with, better to leave them and get on with the rest of the question, rather than get bogged down Don’t spend too long on the consolidation as you still have to complete the rest of the question • Keep up to date with current issues Aside from the possibility of having one question that covers a single new standard or exposure draft, you may also come across an issue in a scenario type question that requires you to comment on a current proposal • Try and step back from question scenarios and think of all of the possible impacts It is unlikely the Examiner will give you a scenario where only one accounting standard should be applied It is more likely to be two or three so you must recognise this and produce a valid argument for your proposed accounting treatment kaplan publishing paper P2 (INT & UK) Exam focus UK syllabus students • Read around the subject, (Student Accountant, ACCA website, IASB website, accountancy journals) The majority of the UK syllabus paper will be the same as the international paper, which is based on IFRS There will also be some key differences between UK standards and the IFRS for SME examined in the UK paper, as well as some Companies Act requirements, but it is anticipated that the differences will account for no more than 20% in Paper P2 • Practice exam questions • Spend an equal amount of time on each question in the exam • Leave out the parts you cannot – there will be things in the exam you have never seen before, if you don’t know what to do, don’t waste time on them UK syllabus students should refer to the list of examinable documents for the UK variant of the examination available on the ACCA web site at To assist UK syllabus students, this publication includes UK GAAP content within the chapter on specialised entities kaplan publishing vii Corporate reporting paper P2 (INT & UK) Quality and accuracy are of the utmost importance to us so if you spot an error in any of our products, please send an email to with full details, or follow the link to the feedback form in MyKaplan Our Quality Co-ordinator will work with our technical team to verify the error and take action to ensure it is corrected in future editions viii kaplan publishing chapter The conceptual framework In this chapter • Overview • Conceptual framework for financial reporting 2010 • IAS Presentation of financial statements • Accounting concepts to apply in preparation of financial statements • IAS Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors • IFRS 13 Fair value measurement The conceptual framework Overview Exam focus • This chapter gives useful information relating to the 2010 Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting, which includes definitions of the elements of financial statements • The chapter also provides information on a number of reporting standards which are relevant to the preparation of financial statements Conceptual framework for financial reporting 2010 The IASB’s Conceptual Framework for the financial reporting identifies the principles on which accounting standards are to be developed It aims to assist in the preparation of financial statements, development of new standards and to reduce alternative accounting treatments Key Point • The financial statements are normally prepared on the assumption that an entity is a going concern and will continue in operation for the foreseeable future kaplan publishing Group reorganisations and restructuring Changes of ownership within a group Accounting entries Changes of ownership within a group should not affect the consolidated accounts as no assets leave or are added to the group T: DR Investment in T CR Retained earnings Subsidiary moved up Before Before H After S: Dr Retained earnings CR Investment in T Subsidiary moved down S T S T T This is usually dealt with by S paying a dividend in specie of the investment in T to H Note that in some jurisdictions it is illegal for a parent to issue shares to a subsidiary so this reorganisation cannot be carried out by a share for share exchange 156 H H S S After H T This transaction can occur in one of two ways: (1) S issues share to H in exchange for the shares in T (2) S pays cash to H for T H may end up with a gain on disposal which must be eliminated in the group accounts kaplan publishing Chapter 18 Reverse acquisitions Subsidiary moved along Before After H S T Definition H S U T U T would pay cash (or assets) to S Consideration cannot be in shares as T may become a subsidiary or associate of S and retain an interest in U This type of reorganisation may be done if the group wishes to sell S, but retain U Accounting entries: In T’s books Dr Investment in U Cr Cash In S’s books Dr Cash Cr Investment in U kaplan publishing A reverse acquisition occurs when an entity obtains ownership of the shares of another entity, which in turn issues sufficient shares so that the acquired entity has control of the combined entity Reverse acquisitions are a method of allowing unlisted companies to obtain a stock exchange quotation by taking over a smaller listed company A private entity may arrange to be acquired by a listed entity The public entity issues shares to the private entity so that the private entity’s shareholders end up controlling the listed entity Legally, the public entity is the parent, but the substance of the transaction is that the private entity has acquired the listed entity 157 Group reorganisations and restructuring Exam focus Group reorganisations are not examined regularly Within Complete Text Chapter 25, attempt TYU Arc Recent examination questions include: • December 2011 – Decany 158 kaplan publishing 19 chapter Group statement of cash flows In this chapter • Overview • Format of the statement of cash flows • Dividends from associates • Dividends paid to non-controlling interests • Acquisitions and disposals • Foreign currency 159 Group statement of cash flows Overview Key Point • A statement of cash flows enables users of the financial statements to assess the liquidity, solvency and financial adaptability of a business • New topics to deal with in group cash flows are dividends from associates, dividends to NCI and the impact of acquisition or disposal of a subsidiary during the year Definition 160 • Cash consists of cash in hand and deposits repayable upon demand less overdrafts This includes cash held in a foreign currency • Cash equivalents are short term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value Cash flows are inflows and outflows of cash and cash equivalents • Exam focus • If required to prepare a statement of cashflows, it will be a consolidated statement of cash flow Format of the statement of cash flows IAS Statement of cash flow the statement requires that the statement is split into three sections – operating, investing and financing kaplan publishing Chapter 19 DEF Group statement of cash flows for the year ended 31 December 20X6 $000 $000 X Depreciation charge X Amortisation of goodwill X Dividends received from associateX Profit on sale of non-current assets(X) Purchase of property, plant and equipment Proceeds from sale of property X (X) Increase in receivables (X) Acquisition of subsidiary, net of cash acquired X Cash generated from operations kaplan publishing Interest received (X) X Increase in inventories Increase in payables (X) Cash flows from investing activities Adjustments for: Investment income Finance costs Operating profit before working capital changes Income tax paid (X) Net cash inflow from operating activities X Cash flows from operating activities Profit before tax Interest paid X X (X) X (X) Net cash used in investing activities (X) 161 Group statement of cash flows Cash flows from financing activities Dividends from associates Issue of ordinary share capital To find the dividend reconcile the opening and closing balance of the investment in the associate X Repayment of loan (X) Dividends paid to NCI (X) Associate b/fwd Share of profit of associate Cash dividend received (bal fig) Dividends paid to parent shareholders(X) _ Net cash used in financing activities (X) _ Net increase in cash and cash equivalents X Cash and cash equivalents brought forward Cash and cash equivalents carried forward 162 Associate c/fwd $000 X X (X) ––––– X ––––– X _ X _ kaplan publishing Chapter 19 Dividends paid to noncontrolling interests Acquisitions and disposals Reconcile the opening to closing balance and the cash dividend paid is the balancing figure NCI b/fwd Add: NCI on sub acquisition Add: NCI share of profit Less: NCI on sub disposal Cash dividend paid (bal fig) NCI c/fwd kaplan publishing $000 X X X (X) (X) ––––– X ––––– The figure shown is the net figure of two items • The cash spent on the purchase or received on the sale of the subsidiary • The cash balances (or overdraft) acquired or disposed of with a subsidiary (found in the net assets of the subsidiary at acquisition or disposal) These two figures can be picked up very quickly from the question paper The impact of susidiary acquisitions and disposals will need to be factored into your workings throughout 163 Group statement of cash flows Foreign currency Gains or losses on retranslation of foreign subsidiary assets and liabilities into the presentation currency at the reporting date are not cash flows They should be regarded as a reconciling item when trying to establish cash movements for individual items such as non-current assets, inventories, receivables, payables etc 164 Exam focus Within Complete Text Chapter 24, attempt TYU Boardres Recent examination questions include: • December 2008 – Warrburt Group • December 2010 – Jocatt • December 2013 – Angel kaplan publishing Index I.1 Index A ACCA Code of Ethics 11 Adjusting events 72 Asset Associates 131 C Cash-generating units (CGU) 43 Changes of ownership within a group 156 Conceptual Framework the financial reporting Contingent asset 68 Contingent liability 68 Corporate social responsibility 114 D Deferred tax 88 defined benefit plans 57 Depreciation 37 Derivatives 83 Disposal group 17 Disposal of overseas subsidiaries 152 I.2 Disposal of Subsidiaries 141 D Shaped/mixed groups 139 E Entity reconstruction schemes 108 Environmental reporting 113 Equity Ethical codes of conduct 11 Ethics 10 Events after the reporting period 72 F Fair value 7, 131 Fair value adjustments 131 Financial asset impairments 81 Financial instruments 75 Foreign subsidaries 149 Functional currency 148 G Government grants 45 Group cash flow statements 159 kaplan publishing Index Group re-organisations and restructuring 153 Group statement of financial position 125 H Harmonisation of IFRS 96 Hedge accounting 83 I IAS IAS IAS IAS Presentation of financial statements Inventories 46 Statement of cash flow 160 Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors IAS 10 Events after the reporting period date 71 IAS 16 Property, plant and equipment 36 IAS 20 Accounting for government grants and disclosure of government assistance 45 IAS 21 The effects of changes in foreign exchange rates 148 IAS 23 Borrowing costs 36 IAS 24 Related party disclosures 24 IAS 33 Earnings per share 18 kaplan publishing IAS 36 Impairment of assets 41 IAS 37 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets 68 IAS 38 Intangible Assets 39 IAS 40 Investment property 38 IAS 41 Agriculture 46 IFRS First time adoption of IFRS 94 IFRS Share based payments 62 IFRS Business Combinations 131 IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations 16 IFRS Operating segments 21 IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements 124 IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements 133 IFRS 12 Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities 135 IFRS 13 fair value measurement IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers 29 Indicators of impairment 43 International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC) 115 I.3 Index J Joint Arrangements 133 L Leases 49 Liability Presentation of financial instruments 77 Professional ethics 10 Provision 68 PS – Management Commentary 117 R Management commentary 117 Recognition related parties 25 Revaluation of PPE 37 Reverse acquisitions 157 N S Negative goodwill 131 Non-adjusting events 72 Not-for-profit entity 100 Sale and leaseback 52 Share-based payments 62 Significant influence 132 Small and medium sized entities 101 Social reporting 114 Stakeholders 112 Statement of cash flows 160 Sustainability reporting 113 M O Operating segment 22 P Pensions 56 Presentation currency 148 I.4 kaplan publishing Index U UK GAAP 102 V Vertical groups 138 kaplan publishing I.5 Index I.6 kaplan publishing ... for your proposed accounting treatment kaplan publishing paper P2 (INT & UK) Exam focus UK syllabus students • Read around the subject, (Student Accountant, ACCA website, IASB website, accountancy... examination available on the ACCA web site at To assist UK syllabus students, this publication includes UK GAAP content within the chapter on specialised entities kaplan publishing vii... reporting paper P2 (INT & UK) Quality and accuracy are of the utmost importance to us so if you spot an error in any of our products, please send an email to mykaplanreporting @kaplan. com with
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