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Paper P2 Corporate Reporting (International and United Kingdom) This ACCA Study Text for Paper P2 Corporate Reporting (International and United Kingdom) has been comprehensively reviewed by the ACCA examining team This review guarantees appropriate depth and breadth of content and comprehensive syllabus coverage For exams in September 2016, December 2016, March 2017 and June 2017 BPP House 142-144 Uxbridge Road London W12 8AA United Kingdom T 0845 075 1100 (UK) T +44 (0)20 8740 2211 (Overseas) E Learningmedia@bpp.com bpp.com/learningmedia • A user-friendly format for easy navigation • Exam focus points describing what the examining team will want you to • Regular Fast Forward summaries emphasising the key points in each chapter • Questions and quick quizzes to test your understanding • A practice question bank containing exam- standard questions with answers • A full index • All you need in one book Study Text Contact us In addition to ACCA examining team reviewed material you get: Corporate Reporting (International and UK) BPP Learning Media is dedicated to supporting aspiring business professionals with top-quality learning material as they study for demanding professional exams, often whilst working full time BPP Learning Media’s commitment to student success is shown by our record of quality, innovation and market leadership in paper-based and e-learning materials BPP Learning Media’s study materials are written by professionally qualified specialists who know from personal experience the importance of top-quality materials for exam success ACCA P2 ACCA approved content provider ACCA APPROVED CONTENT PROVIDER ACCA Approved Study Text Paper P2 Corporate Reporting (International and United Kingdom) Free access to our Exam Success site Look inside For exams in September 2016, December 2016, March 2017 and June 2017 February 2016 £32.00 ACP2ST16 (RICOH).indd 1-3 29/01/2016 13:22 ACCA APPROVED CONTENT PROVIDER As the first accredited publisher of ACCA materials, BPP Learning Media has set the benchmark for producing exceptional study materials for students and tutors alike Our Study Texts, Practice & Revision Kits and i-Passes (for exams on demand) are reviewed by the ACCA examining team and are written by our in-house authors with industry and teaching experience who understand what is required for exam success EXAM SUCCESS SITE To help maximise your chances of succeeding in your exams, we’ve put together a suite of exclusive ACCA resources Our Exam Success site provides you with access to a free digital version of this publication, as well as extra resources designed to focus your efforts on exams and study methods To access the Exam Success site, please email learningmedia@bpp.com with the subject line “Access to Exam Success site - eBook”, including your order reference number and the name of the book you’ve bought (ie ACCA F5 Study Text) for your access code Once you have received your code, please follow the instructions below: To access the BPP ACCA Exam Success site for this material please go to: www.bpp.com/ExamSuccessSite n Create a user account if you don’t already have one Make sure you reply to the confirmation email n Log in using your registered username and password Select the paper you wish to access n Enter the code you received when prompted You will only have to this once for each paper you are studying S T U D Y PAPER P2 CORPORATE REPORTING (INTERNATIONAL AND UNITED KINGDOM) BPP Learning Media is an ACCA Approved Content Provider This means we work closely with ACCA to ensure this Study Text contains the information you need to pass your exam  Highlight the most important elements in the syllabus and the key skills you need  Signpost how each chapter links to the syllabus and the study guide  Provide lots of exam focus points demonstrating what is expected of you in the exam  Emphasise key points in regular fast forward summaries  Test your knowledge in quick quizzes  Examine your understanding in our practice question bank  Reference all the important topics in our full index BPP's Practice & Revision Kit also supports this paper FOR EXAMS IN SEPTEMBER 2016, DECEMBER 2016, MARCH 2017 AND JUNE 2017 T E X T First edition 2007 Ninth edition February 2016 ISBN 9781 4727 4428 (Previous ISBN 9781 4727 2706 0) e-ISBN 9781 4727 4670 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Published by BPP Learning Media Ltd BPP House, Aldine Place 142-144 Uxbridge Road London W12 8AA www.bpp.com/learningmedia Printed in the United Kingdom by Ricoh UK Ltd Unit Wells Place Merstham RH1 3LG Your learning materials, published by BPP Learning Media Ltd, are printed on paper sourced from traceable, sustainable sources All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of BPP Learning Media Ltd We are grateful to the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants for permission to reproduce past examination questions The suggested solutions in the practice answer bank have been prepared by BPP Learning Media Ltd, unless otherwise stated BPP Learning Media is grateful to the IASB for permission to reproduce extracts from the International Financial Reporting Standards including all International Accounting Standards, SIC and IFRIC Interpretations (the Standards) The Standards together with their accompanying documents are issued by: The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) 30 Cannon Street, London, EC4M 6XH, United Kingdom Email: info@ifrs.org Web: www.ifrs.org Disclaimer: The IASB, the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Foundation, the authors and the publishers not accept responsibility for any loss caused by acting or refraining from acting in reliance on the material in this publication, whether such loss is caused by negligence or otherwise to the maximum extent permitted by law © BPP Learning Media Ltd 2016 ii A note about copyright Dear Customer What does the little © mean and why does it matter? 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Copyright © IFRS Foundation All rights reserved Reproduction and use rights are strictly limited No part of this publication may be translated, reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form either in whole or in part or by any electronic, mechanical or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the IFRS Foundation Contact the IFRS Foundation for further details The IFRS Foundation logo, the IASB logo, the IFRS for SMEs logo, the “Hexagon Device”, “IFRS Foundation”, “eIFRS”, “IAS”, “IASB”, “IFRS for SMEs”, “IASs”, “IFRS”, “IFRSs”, “International Accounting Standards” and “International Financial Reporting Standards”, “IFRIC” “SIC” and “IFRS Taxonomy” are Trade Marks of the IFRS Foundation Further details of the Trade Marks including details of countries where the Trade Marks are registered or applied for are available from the Licensor on request Contents Page Introduction Helping you to pass Studying P2 Important note for UK students The exam paper v vii viii xxxiii Part A Regulatory and ethical framework Financial reporting framework Professional and ethical duty of the accountant 41 Part B Accounting standards 10 11 Non-current assets Employee benefits Provisions, contingencies and events after the reporting period Income taxes Financial instruments Leases Share-based payment Performance reporting Related parties 71 117 139 155 183 241 261 277 335 Part C Group financial statements 12 13 14 15 16 17 Revision of basic groups Complex groups and joint arrangements Changes in group structures Continuing and discontinued interests Foreign currency transactions and entities Group statements of cash flows 345 393 419 447 455 477 Part D Developments in reporting 18 19 20 21 Environmental and social reporting Current developments Reporting for specialised entities Reporting for small and medium-sized entities Practice question and answer bank Mathematical tables Index Review form 505 533 559 585 599 689 693 Contents iii iv Helping you to pass BPP Learning Media – ACCA Approved Content Provider As an ACCA Approved Content Provider, BPP Learning Media gives you the opportunity to use study materials reviewed by the ACCA examination team By incorporating the examination team’s comments and suggestions regarding the depth and breadth of syllabus coverage, the BPP Learning Media Study Text provides excellent, ACCA-approved support for your studies The PER alert Before you can qualify as an ACCA member, you not only have to pass all your exams but also fulfil a three year practical experience requirement (PER) To help you to recognise areas of the syllabus that you might be able to apply in the workplace to achieve different performance objectives, we have introduced the ‘PER alert’ feature You will find this feature throughout the Study Text to remind you that what you are learning to pass your ACCA exams is equally useful to the fulfilment of the PER requirement Your achievement of the PER should now be recorded in your on-line My Experience record Tackling studying Studying can be a daunting prospect, particularly when you have lots of other commitments The different features of the Study Text, the purposes of which are explained fully on the Chapter features page, will help you whilst studying and improve your chances of exam success Developing exam awareness Our Texts are completely focused on helping you pass your exam Our advice on Studying P2 outlines the content of the paper, the necessary skills you are expected to be able to demonstrate and any brought forward knowledge you are expected to have Exam focus points are included within the chapters to highlight when and how specific topics were examined, or how they might be examined in the future Using the Syllabus and Study Guide You can find the syllabus and study guide on pages ix – xxxii of this Study Text Testing what you can Testing yourself helps you develop the skills you need to pass the exam and also confirms that you can recall what you have learnt We include Questions – lots of them – both within chapters and in the Practice Question Bank, as well as Quick Quizzes at the end of each chapter to test your knowledge of the chapter content Introduction v Chapter features Each chapter contains a number of helpful features to guide you through each topic Topic list Topic list Syllabus reference What you will be studying in this chapter and the relevant section numbers, together with ACCA syllabus references Introduction Puts the chapter content in the context of the syllabus as a whole Study Guide Links the chapter content with ACCA guidance Exam Guide Highlights how examinable the chapter content is likely to be and the ways in which it could be examined Knowledge brought forward from earlier studies What you are assumed to know from previous studies/exams FAST FORWARD Summarises the content of main chapter headings, allowing you to preview and review each section easily Examples Demonstrate how to apply key knowledge and techniques Key terms Definitions of important concepts that can often earn you easy marks in exams Exam focus points When and how specific topics were examined, or how they may be examined in the future Formula to learn Formulae that are not given in the exam but which have to be learnt Gives you a useful indication of syllabus areas that closely relate to performance objectives in your Practical Experience Requirement (PER) vi Introduction Question Gives you essential practice of techniques covered in the chapter Case Study Real world examples of theories and techniques Chapter Roundup A full list of the Fast Forwards included in the chapter, providing an easy source of review Quick Quiz A quick test of your knowledge of the main topics in the chapter Exam Question Bank Found at the back of the Study Text with more comprehensive chapter questions Cross referenced for easy navigation Studying P2 Paper P2 Corporate Reporting is a tough paper, reflecting the demands that will be made upon the professional accountant in his or her working life At the Fundamentals level, you will have studied the essentials of financial statement preparation and analysis, including those of group accounts At the Professional level, these essentials will be assumed knowledge You will be required to apply them, assuming the role of a professional adviser and analyst to the management as well as the shareholders and other stakeholders What P2 is about The P2 syllabus comprises eight main areas: A B C D E F G H The professional and ethical duty of the accountant The financial reporting framework Reporting the financial performance of entities Financial statements of groups of entities Specialised entities Implications of changes in accounting regulation on financial reporting The appraisal of financial performance and position of entities Current developments There is, of course, some overlap between these areas For example, if you are discussing current developments (H), you might be talking about the proposed changes to accounting for business combinations (D) and considering the implications of changes in accounting regulation (F) and perhaps even the ethical duty of the accountant to report those changes fairly and accurately (A) Skills you have to demonstrate At the Fundamentals level, the questions would be more easily categorised into syllabus areas However, at this level you may need to demonstrate knowledge, skills and thinking from outside the syllabus area that the question seems to be about on the surface The examination team has stated: Students should be capable of relating professional issues to relevant concepts and practical situations The evaluation of alternative accounting practices and the identification and prioritisation of issues will be a key element of the paper Professional and ethical judgement will need to be exercised, together with the integration of technical knowledge when addressing corporate reporting issues in a business context So the paper is not predictable That said, clear guidance has been given The compulsory Section A question, worth 50 marks, will always be on group accounts It will also deal with issues in financial reporting and will be case study based In Section B, questions could be on any area of the syllabus, but we have been told that two questions will be scenario based and one question will be an essay You have a choice of two from three Increasingly, questions are discursive rather than numerical, so it is vital that you get practice at answering this type of question Introduction vii Important note for UK students If you are sitting the UK P2 paper you will be studying under International standards and up to 20 marks will be for comparisons between International and UK GAAP The ACCA UK Syllabus and Study Guide gives the following advice: International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are the main accounting standards examined in the preparation of financial information The key differences between UK GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards are looked at on a subject by subject basis The comparison between IFRS and UK GAAP will be based on the new UK GAAP as set out in FRSs 100-102, so the standard by standard comparisons that appeared in previous editions of this study guide are now combined in outcome C11 (d): Discuss the key differences between the IFRS for SMEs and UK GAAP This Study Text covers all the topics you need to know under International Financial Reporting Standards An online supplement will be available at www.bpp.com/learning-media, covering the additional UK issues Exam technique for P2 Do not be needlessly intimidated There is no shortcut to passing this exam It looks very difficult indeed, and many students wonder if they will ever pass But many How they this? Easy marks All the questions are demanding, but there are many easy marks to be gained Suppose, for example, you had a consolidated statement of cash flows with a disposal, some foreign exchange complications and an impairment calculation There will be easy marks available simply for the basic cash flow aspects, setting out the proforma, setting up your workings, presenting your work neatly If you recognise, as you should, that the disposal needs to be taken into account, of course you will get marks for that, even if you make a mistake in the arithmetic If you get the foreign exchange right, so much the better, but you could pass the question comfortably omitting this altogether If you’re short of time, this is what you should Be ruthless in ignoring the complications Look at the question Within reason, if there are complications – often only worth a few marks – that you know you will not have time or knowledge to do, cross them out It will make you feel better Than tackle the bits you can This is how people pass a seemingly impossible paper Answer all questions and all parts of questions The examination team frequently comments that students don't this, so they miss easy opportunities to gain marks Be ruthless in allocating your time At BPP, we have seen how very intelligent students one almost perfect question, one averagely good and one sketchy For a fifty mark question, the first twenty marks are the easiest to get Then you have to push it up to what you think is thirty to get yourself a clear pass For a twenty-five mark question, the first eight to ten marks are the easiest to get, and then you must try to push it up to fifteen Do your best question either first or second, and the compulsory question either first or second The compulsory question, being on groups, will always have some easy marks available for consolidation techniques viii Introduction Cumulative present value table This table shows the present value of £1 per annum, receivable or payable at the end of each year for n years Periods Discount rates (r) (n) 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10% 0.990 1.970 2.941 3.902 4.853 0.980 1.942 2.884 3.808 4.713 0.971 1.913 2.829 3.717 4.580 0.962 1.886 2.775 3.630 4.452 0.952 1.859 2.723 3.546 4.329 0.943 1.833 2.673 3.465 4.212 0.935 1.808 2.624 3.387 4.100 0.926 1.783 2.577 3.312 3.993 0.917 1.759 2.531 3.240 3.890 0.909 1.736 2.487 3.170 3.791 10 5.795 6.728 7.652 8.566 9.471 5.601 6.472 7.325 8.162 8.983 5.417 6.230 7.020 7.786 8.530 5.242 6.002 6.733 7.435 8.111 5.076 5.786 6.463 7.108 7.722 4.917 5.582 6.210 6.802 7.360 4.767 5.389 5.971 6.515 7.024 4.623 5.206 5.747 6.247 6.710 4.486 5.033 5.535 5.995 6.418 4.355 4.868 5.335 5.759 6.145 11 12 13 14 15 10.37 11.26 12.13 13.00 13.87 9.787 10.58 11.35 12.11 12.85 9.253 9.954 10.63 11.30 11.94 8.760 9.385 9.986 10.56 11.12 8.306 8.863 9.394 9.899 10.38 7.887 8.384 8.853 9.295 9.712 7.499 7.943 8.358 8.745 9.108 7.139 7.536 7.904 8.244 8.559 6.805 7.161 7.487 7.786 8.061 6.495 6.814 7.103 7.367 7.606 16 17 18 19 20 14.718 15.562 16.398 17.226 18.046 13.578 14.292 14.992 15.678 16.351 12.561 13.166 13.754 14.324 14.877 11.652 12.166 12.659 13.134 13.590 10.838 11.274 11.690 12.085 12.462 10.106 10.477 10.828 11.158 11.470 9.447 9.763 10.059 10.336 10.594 8.851 9.122 9.372 9.604 9.818 8.313 8.544 8.756 8.950 9.129 7.824 8.022 8.201 8.365 8.514 Periods 690 Discount rates (r) (n) 11% 12% 13% 14% 15% 16% 17% 18% 19% 20% 0.901 1.713 2.444 3.102 3.696 0.893 1.690 2.402 3.037 3.605 0.885 1.668 2.361 2.974 3.517 0.877 1.647 2.322 2.914 3.433 0.870 1.626 2.283 2.855 3.352 0.862 1.605 2.246 2.798 3.274 0.855 1.585 2.210 2.743 3.199 0.847 1.566 2.174 2.690 3.127 0.840 1.547 2.140 2.639 3.058 0.833 1.528 2.106 2.589 2.991 10 4.231 4.712 5.146 5.537 5.889 4.111 4.564 4.968 5.328 5.650 3.998 4.423 4.799 5.132 5.426 3.889 4.288 4.639 4.946 5.216 3.784 4.160 4.487 4.772 5.019 3.685 4.039 4.344 4.607 4.833 3.589 3.922 4.207 4.451 4.659 3.498 3.812 4.078 4.303 4.494 3.410 3.706 3.954 4.163 4.339 3.326 3.605 3.837 4.031 4.192 11 12 13 14 15 6.207 6.492 6.750 6.982 7.191 5.938 6.194 6.424 6.628 6.811 5.687 5.918 6.122 6.302 6.462 5.453 5.660 5.842 6.002 6.142 5.234 5.421 5.583 5.724 5.847 5.029 5.197 5.342 5.468 5.575 4.836 4.988 5.118 5.229 5.324 4.656 4.793 4.910 5.008 5.092 4.486 4.611 4.715 4.802 4.876 4.327 4.439 4.533 4.611 4.675 16 17 18 19 20 7.379 7.549 7.702 7.839 7.963 6.974 7.120 7.250 7.366 7.469 6.604 6.729 6.840 6.938 7.025 6.265 6.373 6.467 6.550 6.623 5.954 6.047 6.128 6.198 6.259 5.668 5.749 5.818 5.877 5.929 5.405 5.475 5.534 5.584 5.628 5.162 5.222 5.273 5.316 5.353 4.938 4.990 5.033 5.070 5.101 4.730 4.775 4.812 4.843 4.870 Mathematical tables Index 691 692 Note: Key Terms and their page references are given in bold Absolutism, 45 Accounting policies, 286, 324 Accounting profit, 156 Acquiree, 347 Acquirer, 347 Actuarial assumptions, 125, 127 Actuarial method, 248 Actuarial method (before tax), 248 Additional performance measures, 544 Age and gender, 49 Agricultural activity, 571 Agricultural produce, 571, 575 Amortised cost, 202 Amortised cost of a financial asset or financial liability, 202 Analysis of exchange differences, 467 Antidilution, 297 Asset ceiling, 124 Asset turnover, 312 Assets, 72, 73 Assets held for sale, 449 Associate, 174, 347, 348, 354, 376 Associates and joint ventures, 491 Authority, 51 Barriers to harmonisation, 555 Basic EPS, 298 Basis of provision of deferred tax, 168 Bearer biological assets, 78, 573 Behaviours, 53 Beliefs, 53 Benefits of cash flow information, 479 Benefits of harmonisation, 554 Big GAAP/little GAAP, 587 Biological asset, 571 Biological assets, 571, 573 Biological transformation, 571 Borrowing costs, 80, 81 Bribery, 43, 54 BS 7750 Environmental Management System, 509 Bureaucracy, 51 Business combination, 111, 347 Business combinations, 346 Carrying amount, 74, 83, 95, 571 Cash, 480 Cash and cash equivalents, 480 Cash equivalents, 480 Cash flow hedge, 221 Cash flows, 478, 480 Cash generating unit, 85 CERES Principles, 507 Change in accounting estimate, 286 Change in functional currency, 473 Changes in accounting policy, 324, 325 Changes in direct ownership, 441 Chemical Industries Association Responsible care programme, 508 Clarification of acceptable methods of depreciation and amortisation, 76, 105 Close members of the family of an individual, 337 Closing rate, 458 Code of Ethics and Conduct, 60 Cognitivism, 45 Collectivism, 49 Comparability, 11 Competence, 60 Component of an entity, 450 Compound financial instruments, 189 Conceptual framework, Conceptual nature of employee benefit costs, 118 Confederation of British Industry Agenda for voluntary action, 508 Confidentiality, 60 Conflict of interest, 63 Consequentialist ethics, 47 Consolidated financial statements, 355 Consolidated income statement, 378 Consolidated statement of financial position, 379 Consolidating sub-subsidiaries, 396 Constraints on useful information, 11 Constructive obligation, 126, 142, 150 Context-related factors, 51 Contingent asset, 146, 149 Contingent consideration, 348 Contingent liability, 146, 149 Contingent rent, 246 Contingent rights and obligations, 187 Contingent share agreement, 297 Contingently issuable ordinary shares, 297 Control, 337, 347, 353 Conversion, 456 Corporate culture, 58 Corporate governance, Index 693 Cost, 74, 95 Costs to sell, 450 Credit loss, 209 Credit-impaired financial asset, 208 Cross-sectional analysis, 309 Cultural context, 53 Cultural context of ethics, 49 Cultural leadership, 56 Culture, 57 Current tax, 156 Date of effective control, 396 Davies, Hunter, 53 Debt ratios, 315 Debt versus equity, 542 Deductible temporary differences, 159, 165, 173 Deferral method, 168 Deferred tax assets, 159 Deferred tax liabilities, 159 Deferred taxation and business combinations, 171 Deficit or surplus, 124 Defined benefit liability, 127 Defined benefit plans, 122, 124 Defined contribution plans, 122, 123 Definition of an asset, 72 Demographic assumptions, 127 Deontology, 46 Depreciation, 307 Derivative, 186 Derivative instruments, 184 Determining functional currency, 461 Diluted EPS, 299 Dilution, 297 Direct holdings in sub-subsidiaries, 406 Direct method, 482, 485, 486 Disclosure initiative, 16, 539 Disclosure initiative: Amendments to IAS 1, 283, 539 Disclosure of financial instruments, 226 Discontinued operation, 450 Discount rate, 128 Disposal group, 448 Disposal of foreign entity, 473 Disposals, 429 Dividend in specie, 442 Divisionalisation, 444 Due care, 60 Eco-audit, 508 Eco-labelling, 509 694 Index Economic life, 245 ED Acquisition of an interest in a joint operation, 415 ED Classification and measurement of sharebased payment transactions – proposed amendments to IFRS 2, 271 ED Classification of liabilities – proposed amendments to IAS 1, 286, 535, 537 ED Disclosure initiative: Proposed amendments to IAS 7, 485, 539 ED Equity method: share of other net asset changes, 386 ED Improvements to IFRS, 538 ED Investment entities: applying the consolidation exception, 358 ED Leases, 253 ED Measuring quoted investments in subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates at fair value, 375, 537 ED Recognition of deferred tax assets for unrealised losses, 178 ED Sale or contribution of assets between an investor and its associate or joint venture, 386 Education and employment, 50 Effect of GAAP on gearing, 316 Effective date of disposal, 430 Effective interest method, 202 Effective interest rate, 202 Efficient market hypothesis, 310 Egoism, 48 Embedded derivative, 217 Employee benefits, 120 Environmental audit, 508 Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), 508 Environmental Quality Management (EQM), 508 Environmental report, 511 Environmental SWOT analysis, 508 Equity accounting, 541 Equity instrument, 185, 264 Equity instrument granted, 264 Equity interests, 348 Equity method, 354, 376, 377 Ethical absolutism, 45 Ethical framework, 60 Ethical relativism, 44 Ethical theory, 44 Ethics, 53 European Commission (EC), 552 Exchange difference, 458, 459 Exchange rate, 458 Exemption from preparing group accounts, 356 Expected credit losses, 208, 209 Expected losses, 208 Exposure Draft: Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting, 12 Extortion, 43, 54 Fair value, 74, 95, 186, 264, 348, 367, 450, 571 Fair value adjustments, 367 Fair value hedge, 221 Fair value model, 96 Femininity, 50 Finance lease, 243 Finance lease transactions, 491 Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), 7, 73 Financial analysis, 309 Financial asset, 185 Financial assumptions, 127 Financial contracts and executory contracts, 192 Financial instrument, 185 Financial liability, 185 Financial Reporting Standards, Financing activities, 480, 481 Foreign associated undertakings, 473 Foreign currency, 307, 458 Foreign operation, 460 Forgivable loans, 79 Friends of the Earth Environmental charter for local government, 508 FRS 100, 553 FRS 101, 553 FRS 102, 554 FRS 105 The Financial Reporting Standard applicable to the Micro-entities Regime, 554 Functional currency, 458 Fundamental principles, 59 Generally Accepted Accounting Practice (GAAP), Gifts, 44, 54 Going concern, 577 Goodwill, 110, 111, 366 Goodwill and fair value adjustments, 468 Government grants, 79 Grant date, 264 Grants related to assets, 79 Grants related to income, 79 Grease money, 43, 54 Gross investment in the lease, 245 Group, 347 Group of biological assets, 571 Guaranteed residual value, 245 Harvest, 571 Hedge effectiveness, 219 Hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation, 221 Hedged item, 218 Hedging, 218 Hedging instrument, 218 Held for sale, 449 IAS Presentation of financial statements, 191, 278 IAS Statements of cash flows, 479 IAS Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors, 158, 286, 375 IAS 12 Income taxes, 156, 191 IAS 16 Property, plant and equipment, 74 IAS 17 Leases, 243 IAS 19 Employee benefits, 119 IAS 21 The effects of changes in foreign exchange rates, 458 IAS 23 Borrowing costs, 80 IAS 24 Related party disclosures, 336 IAS 28 Investments in associates and joint ventures, 376 IAS 32 Financial instruments: presentation, 188 IAS 34 Interim financial reporting, 303 IAS 36 Impairment of assets, 82 IAS 37 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets, 141 IAS 39 Financial instruments IAS 40 Investment property, 95 IAS 41 Agriculture, 264, 570 IASB Conceptual Framework, IASB liaison members, 550 IFAC's Code of Ethics, 59 IFRS First time adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards, 545 IFRS Share based payment, 262 IFRS Business combinations, 99, 111, 366 IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations, 83, 448 IFRS Financial Instruments disclosures, 226 IFRS Operating segments, 289 IFRS Financial Instruments, 185, 237 IFRS 10 Consolidated financial staments, 337 IFRS 11 Joint arrangements, 410 IFRS 12 Disclosure of interests in other entities, 387 IFRS 13 Fair value measurement, 228 Index 695 IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with customers, 15, 18, 19 IFRS for SMEs, 590 Impaired asset, 83 Impairment, 83 Implications of high or low gearing, 316 Implicit interest rate, 257 Impracticable, 284, 287 Improvements to IFRS 2011 to 2013 Cycle, 538 Inception of the lease, 245 Independent, 60 Indirect method, 482 Indirect versus direct, 482 Individual influences, 49 Individualism, 49 Influences on ethics, 49 Initial direct costs, 245 Insider dealing, 310, 311 Intangible asset, 100 Intangible fixed asset, 110 Integrated reporting, 526 Integration with national standard setters, 550 Interest, dividends, losses and gains, 190 Interest rate implicit in the lease, 244 Interim financial report, 303 Interim period, 303 Internal reconstructions, 577 Internally generated goodwill, 101 International Accounting Standards Board, International Chamber of Commerce Business Charter for sustainable developments, 508 International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs), International Monetary Fund, 48 Inter-temporal analysis, 309 Intrinsic value, 264 Investing activities, 480, 481 Investment, 348 Investment entities: applying the consolidation exception, 358 Investment property, 95 Issue-related factors, 51 Joint arrangement, 347, 410 Joint control, 337, 347, 376, 410 Joint operation, 410 Joint venture, 174, 347, 348, 410 Jones, Thomas, 51 Kant, 46 Key management personnel, 337 696 Index Lease, 242, 243 Lease term, 245 Leasing, 242 Lessee's incremental borrowing rate of interest, 245 Lessor accounting, 250 Leverage, 316 Liability, 141, 149 Liability method, 168 Lifetime expected credit losses, 209 Liquidity, 313 Locus of control, 50 Management Commentary, 330 Manufacturer/dealer lessors, 251 Market based vesting conditions, 265 Masculinity, 50 Material, 10, 284 Materiality, 305 Measurement date, 264 Measurement of revenue, 19 Minimum lease payments, 244 Minimum premium value, 443 Minority interests, 398 Mintzberg, 517 Monetary items, 458 Moral framing, 51 Moral imagination, 50 Moral intensity, 51 Multi-employer plans, 122, 123 Multinational companies, 310 Narrow and broad approach, 541 National and cultural beliefs, 49 National context, 53 Nature of profit, 325 Net defined benefit liability, 124 Net investment in a foreign operation, 460 Net investment in the lease, 245 New top holding company, 441 Non-cognitivism, 44 Non-controlling interest, 348, 381, 490 Non-current asset, 73 Non-market based vesting conditions, 265 Onerous contract, 144, 151 Operating activities, 480 Operating lease, 243, 249 Operating segment, 290 Options, warrants and their equivalents, 297 Ordinary shares, 297 Organisational culture, 52 Organisational field, 52 Originating timing differences, 161 Other long term benefits, 135 Other long-term employee benefits, 120 Owner-occupied property, 95 Parent, 347 Past due, 209 PBIT, profit before interest and tax, 312 Pension schemes, 122 Permanent differences, 161 Personal integrity, 50 Plan assets, 124, 127 Pluralism, 48 Post-employment benefits, 120, 122 Potential ordinary share, 297 Power distance, 49 Present value of a defined benefit, 124 Presentation currency, 458 Presentation of financial instruments, 188 Principles-based approach, 553 Prior period errors, 286 Professional behaviour, 60 Profit margin, 312 Profit or loss versus other comprehensive income, 540 Profit smoothing, 141 Profitability, 312 Property, plant and equipment, 74 Prospective application, 286 Provision, 141 Psychological factors, 50 Purchased goodwill, 110 Purchased or originated credit-impaired financial asset, 209 Qualifying asset, 81 recognition and measurement, 193 Reconstruction scheme, 578 Recoverable amount, 84, 450 Related party, 337 Related party transaction, 337 Relativism, 44 Research and development costs, 101 Residual value, 74 Restructuring, 145 Restructuring provisions, 151 Retrospective application, 286 Retrospective restatement, 286 Revaluations, 77 Revalued assets, 163 Revenue, 19 Reversal of an impairment loss, 90 Reverse acquisitions, 375 Right-of-use asset, 254 Rules-based approach, 553 Sale and leaseback transactions, 252 Seasonal fluctuations, 326 Segment reporting, 289 Settlement, 131 Share option, 264 Share-based payment arrangement, 264 Share-based payment transaction, 264 Shareholders' investment ratios, 317 Short-term employee benefits, 120 Significant influence, 337, 347, 354, 376 Situational influences, 50 Social and political considerations, 309 Social attitudes, 53 Spot exchange rate, 458 Stock exchanges, 310 Structural adjustment programmes, 48 Structured entity, 387 Subsidiary, 347, 348, 353 Subsidiary moved along, 442 Subsidiary moved down, 443 Substance over form, 10 Sub-subsidiaries, 395 Sum of the digits method, 248 Supplier audits, 509 Systems of reward, 51 Taken for granted assumptions, 53 Tax, 307 Tax base, 159, 171 Tax expense (tax income), 156 Tax planning opportunities, 167 Taxable profit (tax loss), 156 Taxable temporary differences, 159, 173 Teleological ethics, 47 Teleological or consequentialist ethics: utilitarianism, 47 Temporary differences, 159 Termination benefits, 120 Transactions between a venturer and a joint venture, 415 Translation, 457 Treasury shares, 190 Trend analysis, 309 Index 697 Uncertainty avoidance, 50 Unearned finance income, 245 Unguaranteed residual value, 245, 256 Unprofessional behaviour, 63 Useful life, 245 Utilitarianism, 47 Value in use, 84, 450 Value of purchased goodwill, 110 698 Index Vest, 265 Vesting conditions, 265 Vesting period, 265 Voluntary liquidation, 581 Whistle-blowing, 59 Window dressing, 310, 327 Work roles, 52 Worldwide effect of IFRS, 551 Notes Notes Notes Notes Review Form – Paper P2 Corporate Reporting (International and UK) (02/16) Please help us to ensure that the ACCA learning materials we produce remain as accurate and user-friendly as possible We cannot promise to answer every submission we receive, but we promise that it will be read and taken into account when we update this Study Text Name: Address: During the past six months you 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Question Bank Found at the back of the Study Text with more comprehensive chapter questions Cross referenced for easy navigation Studying P2 Paper P2 Corporate Reporting is a tough paper, reflecting... stakeholders What P2 is about The P2 syllabus comprises eight main areas: A B C D E F G H The professional and ethical duty of the accountant The financial reporting framework Reporting the financial. .. paper you are studying S T U D Y PAPER P2 CORPORATE REPORTING (INTERNATIONAL AND UNITED KINGDOM) BPP Learning Media is an ACCA Approved Content Provider This means we work closely with ACCA to ensure
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Xem thêm: acca p2 advance financial reporting study text 2016 2017, acca p2 advance financial reporting study text 2016 2017, 10 Exposure Draft: Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting, 19 Example: applying the IFRS five-step model, 1 Professional Skills – Basis of the award of marks, 1 IAS 16 Property, plant and equipment, 5 Example: Recoverable amount and carrying amount, 16 Example: Impairment loss and goodwill: full goodwill, 4 Intangible asset: expected future economic benefits, 13 Disposals/retirements of intangible assets, 4 Example: Defined benefit obligations and current service cost, 5 Example: Transfer of economic benefits, 3 Example: Tax losses carried back, 3 Deferral/liability methods: changes in tax rates, 7 Example: Deferred tax adjustments 2, 9 Interest, dividends, losses and gains, 5 Example: Financial asset at amortised cost, 9 Example: Financial liability at amortised cost, 2 IFRS 9’s new model for hedge accounting, 4 Lessors' disclosures for finance leases, 6 Example: Equity-settled share-based payment transaction, 3 Example: Deferred tax implications of share-based payment, 3 Disclosure initiative: Amendments to IAS 1, 5 ED Classification of liabilities – proposed amendments to IAS 1., 9 Investment entities: applying the consolidation exception, 4 IFRS 3 (revised) and IFRS 13: Fair values, 7 ED Measuring quoted investments in subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates at fair value, 9 Non-controlling interest/associate held by a subsidiary, 12 ED Equity method: share of other net asset changes, 4 Example: Subsidiary acquired first: non-controlling interest at fair value, 4 Comprehensive example: Acquisition of a subsidiary in stages, 5 Calculation of gain in parent's separate financial statements, 4 Example: Different functional currency from the reporting entity, 10 Example: including goodwill and non-controlling interests, 13 ED Disclosure initiative: Proposed amendments to IAS 7, 7 ED Classification and measurement of share-based payment transactions – proposed amendments to IFRS 2

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