Principles and perspectives in cosmochemistry lecture notes of the kodai school on synthesis of elements in stars held at kodaikanal observatory india april 29 may 13 2008

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Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings For further volumes: http://www.springer.com/series/7395\ Principles and Perspectives in Cosmochemistry Lecture Notes of the Kodai School on ‘Synthesis of Elements in Stars’ held at Kodaikanal Observatory, India, April 29-May 13, 2008 Aruna Goswami Editor Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, India B Eswar Reddy Editor Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, India 123 Editors Aruna Goswami Indian Institute of Astrophysics 2nd Block, Koramangala Bangalore 560034 India aruna@iiap.res.in B Eswar Reddy Indian Institute of Astrophysics 2nd Block, Koramangala Bangalore 560034 India ereddy@iiap.res.in ISSN 1570-6591 e-ISSN 1570-6605 ISBN 978-3-642-10351-3 e-ISBN 978-3-642-10352-0 DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-10352-0 Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York Library of Congress Control Number: 2010921800 c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer Violations are liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use Cover design: eStudio Calamar S.L Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com) Preface The origin of elements is among the fundamental aspects of our universe; cosmochemistry tries to answer when, how and where the chemical elements arose after hydrogen was created during primordial nucleosynthesis following the Big Bang However, quantitative answers to these fundamental questions began to emerge only in the late fifties, with the pioneering works of Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle, and Cameron Since then there had been significant progress in the understanding of synthesis of elements in stars Cosmochemistry, however, remains a fertile area of research, as there remain many outstanding problems A comprehensive approach to cosmochemistry requires a combination of a number of topics like primordial nucleosynthesis, stellar nucleosynthesis, explosive nucleosynthesis and solar abundance The Kodai school on ‘Synthesis of elements in stars’ was organized to provide a glimpse of this exciting area of research to astrophysicists of tomorrow, motivated young students from India and abroad The lectures are thus aimed at researchers who would like to venture deeper into this exciting arena The school drew strength from considerable in-house expertise at IIA in a number of areas critical for the school A highlight of the school, however, was the faculty participation by a number of leading astrophysicists from different parts of the world Following a traditional and inspiring invocation from Upanishad and a brief inaugural function, the school was opened for technical sessions David Lambert set the tone of the scientific sessions with the lead talk on ‘Synthesis of elements in stars: an overview’ The basic properties of nuclei were explained by Arun Mangalam in a series of lectures The lectures by C Sivaram put the primary issue in cosmochemistry in perspective through a discussion on cosmological nucleosynthesis of light elements Aruna Goswami discussed some current issues in the present understanding of the Galactic chemical evolution Gajendra Pandey explained how stellar spectra can be analyzed using ‘Curve of growth technique’ Kameswara Rao of IIA talked about the high resolution Echelle spectrograph at VBO, Kavalur and discussed some results obtained from analysis of data acquired using this instrument These VI Preface lectures provided the background for the series of lectures by other speakers that followed Apart from the regular class room lectures, students had ample time for hands-on sessions coordinated by Goswami, Reddy and Pandey The book has been organized into three parts to address the major issues in cosmochemistry Part I of the book deals with stellar structure, nucleosynthesis and evolution of low and intermediate-mass stars The lectures by Simon Jeffery outline stellar evolution with discussion on the basic equations, elementary solutions and numerical methods Amanda Karakas’s lectures discuss nucleosynthesis of low and intermediate-mass stars covering nucleosynthesis prior to the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) phase, evolution during the AGB, nucleosynthesis during the AGB phase, evolution after the AGB and massive AGB stars The slow neutron-capture process and yields from AGB stars are also discussed in detail by Karakas The lectures by S Giridhar provide some necessary background on stellar classification Part II deals with explosive nucleosynthesis that plays a critical role in cosmochemistry The lectures by Kamales Kar provide essential background material on weak-interaction rates for stellar evolution, supernovae and r-process nucleosynthesis He also discusses in detail the solar neutrino problem Massive stars, their evolution and nuclear reaction rates from the point of view of astronomers and nuclear physicists are discussed by Alak Ray His lectures also describe the various stages of hydrostatic nuclear fuel burning with illustrative examples of how the reactions are computed He also discussed core-collapse (thermonuclear vs core-collapse) and supernovae in brief The lectures by Marcel Arnould address the phenomena of evolution of massive stars and the concomitant non-explosive and explosive nucleosynthesis He highlights a number of important problems that are yet unresolved but crucial for our understanding of Galactic chemical evolution The p-process nucleosynthesis attributed to the production of proton-rich elements, a topic of great importance but yet less explored is also discussed in his lectures The third and the final part of the book addresses use of solar system abundances to probe cosmochemistry quantitatively The lectures by Bruce Fegley address cosmochemistry of the major elements; while the lectures by Katharina Lodders discuss elemental abundances in Solar, meteoritic and outside the solar system Cosmochemistry is still an evolving branch of astrophysics, with many challenges The book is expected to serve as a contemporary reference material for research in cosmochemistry We would like to take this opportunity to thank all the contributors for making this book a reality Bangalore, April 2009 Aruna Goswami B Eswar Reddy Acknowledgement This school would not have been possible without the dedicated support of many We extend our sincere thanks to professor Siraj Hasan, Director, Indian Institute of Astrophysics and professor Vinod Krishan for their all round support for the school We are particularly grateful to the school faculty from India and abroad for readily accepting to participate, prepare lecture notes and spend time with the students The organization of the school is a collective effort of the coordinators, the convener, the members of the local organizing committee and many others We are thankful to the administrative department of IIA and the staff members of Kodaikanal Solar observatory for their help and support in various activities of the school Contents Part I Stellar Structure, Nucleosynthesis and Evolution of Low and Intermediate-mass Stars Stellar Structure and Evolution: An Introduction C Simon Jeffery Nucleosynthesis of Low and Intermediate-mass Stars Amanda I Karakas 107 Spectral Classification: Old and Contemporary Sunetra Giridhar 165 Part II Massive Stars, Core Collapse, Explosive Nucleosynthesis Weak Interaction Rates for Stellar Evolution, Supernovae and r-Process Nucleosynthesis Kamales Kar 183 Massive stars as thermonuclear reactors and their explosions following core collapse Alak Ray 209 The Evolution of Massive Stars and the Concomitant Non-explosive and Explosive Nucleosynthesis Marcel Arnould 277 Part III Cosmochemistry and Solar System Abundances Cosmochemistry Bruce Fegley, Jr., Laura Schaefer 347 Solar System Abundances of the Elements Katharina Lodders 379 Cosmochemistry: A Perspective Aruna Goswami 419 List of Contributors C Simon Jeffery Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh ET61 9DG, Northern Ireland csj@arm.ac.uk Amanda I Karakas Research School of Astronomy & Astrophysics akarakas@mso.anu.edu.au Sunetra Giridhar Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560034, India giridhar@iiap.res.in Kamales Kar Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India kamales.kar@saha.ac.in Alak Ray Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005, India akr@tifr.res.in Marcel Arnould Institut d‘Astronomie et d‘Astrophysique, Universite‘ Libre de Bruxelles, CP-226, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium marnould@astro.ulb.ac.be Bruce Fegley Planetary chemistry Laboratory, Department of earth and planetary sciences, Washington University, St Louis, MO63130-4899, USA bfegley@wustl.edu Laura Schaefer Planetary chemistry Laboratory, Department of earth and planetary sciences, Washington University, St Louis, MO63130-4899, USA laura s@levee.wustl.edu Katharina Lodders Planetary chemistry laboratory, Department of earth and planetary sciences and McDonnell centre for the space sciences, Washington University, Campus box, 1169, One Brookings Drive, Saint Louis, MO63130, USA lodders@wustl.edu School Faculty Marcel Arnould Institut d‘Astronomie et d‘Astrophysique, Universite‘ Libre de Bruxelles, CP-226, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium marnould@astro.ulb.ac.be Bruce Fegley Planetary chemistry Laboratory Department of earth and planetary sciences, Washington University St Louis, MO63130-4899, USA bfegley@wustl.edu Sunetra Giridhar Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560034, India giridhar@iiap.res.in Aruna Goswami Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560034, India aruna@iiap.res.in C Simon Jeffery Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh ET61 9DG, Northern Ireland csj@arm.ac.uk Kamales Kar Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India kamales.kar@saha.ac.in Amanda I Karakas Research School of Astronomy & Astrophysics akarakas@mso.anu.edu.au David L Lambert McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at austin, Austin dll@astro.as.utexas.edu Katharina Lodders Planetary chemistry laboratory Department of earth and planetary sciences and McDonnell centre for the space sciences Washington University, Campus box, 1169, One Brookings Drive, Saint Louis, MO63130, USA lodders@wustl.edu ... Elements in Stars held at Kodaikanal Observatory, India, April 29- May 13, 2008 Aruna Goswami Editor Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, India B Eswar Reddy Editor Indian Institute of Astrophysics,... Fig The main reactions involved in the O burning in the core of massive stars (here a Population I 25 M star) The reverse reactions of the underlined ones may be activated at some point during the. .. is based on a series of six lectures given at the 2008 Kodai School on Synthesis of the Elements in Stars1 and on a more extended course given in the University of St Andrews and Trinity College,
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Xem thêm: Principles and perspectives in cosmochemistry lecture notes of the kodai school on synthesis of elements in stars held at kodaikanal observatory india april 29 may 13 2008 , Principles and perspectives in cosmochemistry lecture notes of the kodai school on synthesis of elements in stars held at kodaikanal observatory india april 29 may 13 2008 , 3 The Mass–Luminosity and Mass-Radius Relations, 8 HBB and the C, N, and O isotopes, 9 HBB and the Ne, Mg, and Al isotopes, 3 Models for calculation of -decay rates for r-process nuclei, 1 Why do the stars burn slowly: a look at Gamow peaks, 4 Neon, oxygen, and silicon burning, 2 The s-, r- and p-nuclides in the Solar System, 6 Actinides in the Solar System, in the Local Interstellar Medium, and in stars, 1 Canonical and `multi-event r-process (MER)' high-temperature models, 3 Combined Solar Abundances from CI Chondritesand Photospheric Data, 4 Mass Fractions X, Y, and Z in Present-Day Solar Material, 5 Solar System Abundances 4.56 Gyr Ago

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