Nanoscience the science of the small in physics engineering chemistry biology and medicine

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Nanoscience Hans-Eckhardt Schaefer Nanoscience The Science of the Small in Physics, Engineering, Chemistry, Biology and Medicine 123 Prof Dr Hans-Eckhardt Schaefer Universität Stuttgart Fak Mathematik und Physik Institut für Theoretische und Angewandte Physik Pfaffenwaldring 57 70569 Stuttgart Germany hans-eckhardt.schaefer@itap.uni-stuttgart.de ISBN 978-3-642-10558-6 e-ISBN 978-3-642-10559-3 DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-10559-3 Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York Library of Congress Control Number: 2010928839 © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer Violations are liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use Cover design: eStudio Calamar S.L Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com) For Bettina Preface Nanoscience is an interdisciplinary field of science which has its early beginnings in the 1980s At small dimensions of a few nanometers (billionths of a meter) new physical properties emerge, often due to quantum mechanical effects During the last decades, additionally novel microscopical techniques have been developed in order to observe, measure, and manipulate objects at the nanoscale It rapidly turned out that nanosized features not only play a role in physics and materials sciences but also are most relevant in chemistry, biology, and medicine, giving rise to new fenestrations between these disciplines and wide application prospects The early precursors to this book on Nanoscience date back to the 1990s when the author initiated a course on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology at Stuttgart University, Germany, based on his early studies of nanostructured solids which were performed due to most stimulating discussions in the early 1980s with Herbert Gleiter and the late Arno Holz, at that time at Saarbrücken University Together with the growing interdisciplinarity of the field, the author’s research and teaching activities in nanoscience were extended at Stuttgart University and at research laboratories in South America, Japan, China, and Russia During these research and teaching activities it became clear that a comprehensive yet concise text which comprises the current literature on nanoscience from physics to materials science, chemistry, biology, and medicine would be highly desirable Such a textbook or monograph should be a valuable source of information for students and teachers in academia and for scientists and engineers in industry who are involved in the many different fields of nanoscience In the present book, the state of the art of nanoscience is presented, emphasizing in addition to the width and interdisciplinarity of the field the rapid progress in experimental techniques and theoretical studies The text which focuses to the fundamental aspects of the field in 12 chapters is supported by more than 600 figures and a bibliography of nearly 2000 references which may be useful for more detailed studies and for looking at historical developments and which cover with their own references the wealth of the literature A number of textbooks and review articles are quoted as introductory literature to the various fields The book starts in Chap with some general comments, physical principles, and a number of nanoscale measuring methods with the subsequent Chap on microscopy techniques for investigating nanostructures Chapter is devoted to vii viii Preface the synthesis of nanosystems whereas Chap surveys dimensionality effects with Chap focusing to carbon nanostructures and Chap to bulk nanocrystalline materials In the Chaps and the topics of nanomechanics, nanophotonics, nanofluidics, and nanomagnetism are raised before in Chap nanotechnology for computers and data storage devices are overviewed The text is concluded with Chap 10 on nanochemistry and Chap 11 on nanobiology with finally an extended section on nanomedicine in Chap 12 These 12 chapters are closely linked and intertwined as demonstrated by many cross-references between the chapters Although a particular chapter is dedicated, e.g., to synthesis (Chap 3), some synthesis aspects reappear in other chapters The same is true for nanomagnetism In addition to the particular chapter on this topic (Chap 8), nanomagnetic features appear in the introductory chapter, in the chapters on nanocrystalline materials (Chap 6), on nanotechnology for computers and data storage (Chap 9), on nanobiology (Chap 11), or nanomedicine (Chap 12) The Subject Index may additionally help the reader to find the appropriate information in his field of interest quickly The wide application prospects of nanoscience are discussed in the various chapters The importance of risk assessment strategies and toxicity studies in nanotechnology is emphasized in Sect 12.11 Stuttgart, Germany December 7, 2009 Hans-Eckhardt Schaefer Acknowledgments The author is indebted to highly competent colleagues for critically reading single chapters of the present book: W Sprengel, Graz Technical University, Austria; B Fultz, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; H Strunk, Stuttgart University, Germany; L Ley, Erlangen University, Germany; H Krenn, Graz University, Austria; R Würschum, Graz Technical University, Austria; H Schaefer, retired from Nycomed GmbH, Konstanz, Germany; and R Ghosh, Stuttgart University, Germany The financial support of the author’s research projects by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, by the European Union, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst, Baden-Württemberg Stiftung, and NATO is highly appreciated Parts of the book have been designed during research and teaching periods of the author abroad, kindly hosted by P Vargas, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso, Chile; by K Lu, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China; by Y Shirai, Kyoto University; by T Kakeshita and H Araki, Osaka University, Japan; and by A A Rempel, Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg, Russia Continuous support by C Ascheron, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, is gratefully acknowledged The efficient help by S Heldele, M Jakob, P C Li, Y Rong, and H Schatz and the financial support by H Strunk, Stuttgart University, Germany, were crucial for the technical preparation of the manuscript Thanks are due to S Blümlein, P Brommer, U Mergenthaler, J Roth, and H R Trebin, Stuttgart University, Germany, for most valuable technical and organizational help Furthermore, thanks are due to many publishing houses, scientific societies, governments, companies, and individuals for kindly granting the copyright permissions for a large number of figures: Advanced Study Center St Petersburg, Agentur-Focus, American Association for the Advancement of Sciences (AAAS), American Association of Cancer Research, American Association of Physics Teachers, American Cancer Society, American Chemical Society, American Dental Association, American Institute of Physics, American Physical Society, American ix 758 E Early detection of cancer, 662 Easy magnetic axis, 390 Easy magnetization direction, 390 Eddy current losses, 399 Efficient destruction of tumors, 684 Efforts for synthesizing chromosomes, 712 Elasticity to enzymology, 557–559 Electrical conductivity, 514 Electric-field controlled magnetism, 308–310 Electric field enhancement, 334 Electrodeposition, 123 Electromagnetic microneedle, 592 Electron beam lithography, 157 Electron density of states D(E), 16–17 Electron dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis, 670 Electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), 79–80, 333 Electron holography, 81–82, 376, 378–379 Electronic circuits, 201, 471 Electronic properties, 14–19, 214–219 Electronics, 215 Electronic structure of graphene, 248–250 Electron microscopy, 376–380, 409, 529 Electron microscopy, aberration correction, 76–80 Electron microscopy, chromatic aberration correction, 78, 238 Electron microscopy, circular dichroism, 376 Electron microscopy, cryoelectron microscopy, 61, 81–83, 494, 529, 565, 576 Electron microscopy, cryoelectron tomography, 76, 83, 530, 566, 579 Electron microscopy, energy filtered, 81 Electron microsocpy, exit plane wave function, 77 Electron microscopy, high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF), 170, 333 Electron microscopy, Lorentz, 376, 377, 402 Electron microscopy, nanotomography and holography, 81 Electron microscopy, negative sphericalaberration imaging, 77 Electron microscopy, scanning with polarization analysis (spin SEM), 379, 411 Electron microscopy, spherical aberration coefficient, 76 Electron microscopy, Z-contrast, 78 Electron singlet state in double quantum dots, 182 Electron spin resonance (ESR), 181–182 Electron spin resonance, single spin, 315 Subject Index Electron states in dependence of size and dimensionality, 14–16 Electro-optical nanotraps for neutral atoms, 341 Electrospinning, 235 Electrospinning of nanofibers, 120–121, 708 Electrowetting, 651 ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays)-based studies, 695 Embedded-atom method (EAM) potential, 290 Emerging solid state computer memory technologies, 436–454 Emulsifiers, 605 Emulsions, 604 Emulsions, double, 354 Enamel, 596–597 Enamel matrix, ultrastructure, 597 Endocytosis, 533 Endohedral metallofullerenes, 254–255 Endoplasmic reticulum, 529–531, 574–575 Energy conversion, 580–581 Energy conversion by a piezoelectricsemiconductor process, 516 Energy dispersive x-ray emission, 609 Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), 719–720 Energy-filtered transmission electron micrograph (EF-TEM), 81 Energy product, 400–401 Enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, 647, 659, 664, 676, 685 Enhanced reactivity of low-coordinated Au atoms, 503 Enhanced transport rates, 315 Enhancement of both strength and ductility, 282–285 Enhancement of osteoblast function by carbon nanotubes on titanium implants, 705–706 Entangled-photon source, 325–329 Entropic elasticity, 557 Entry of the nanoparticles into the cell, 541 Environmental, health and safety (EHS) research, 724 Environmental nanotechnology, 522–524 Environmental protection, 477–524 Enzymatic processes on DNA, 550 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), 159, 420, 645, 688 Epidermis, 606 Equal-channel angular pressing, 285 Erlotinib, 663 Escape of nanoparticles from the vasculature, 616 Subject Index Escherichia coli bacteria, 88, 703 Escherichia coli bacteria, inactivation, 703 Esophageal carcinomas, 635 Esthetic restoration, 719 Eukaryotic cells, 529, 550, 558 Eukaryotic flagella, 83 European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), 302 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF Grenoble, France), 89 European x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), 89 EUV (extreme ultraviolet) irradiation, 432 EUV lithography, 157, 201, 302, 431–433 EUV mirror, Mo-Si, 433 EUV wafer scanner, 432 Exchange bias (EB) effect, 403 Exchange interaction, 397 Exciton, 174, 219, 326–327 Exciton binding energy, 176 Exciton Bohr radius, 176 Exciton exchange interaction, 178 Exit plane wave function, 77 Exocytosis, 533 Explosive trinitrotoluene, 583 Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), 127, 270 Extensions to hard disk magnetic recording, 456–457 Extinction behavior of nanoparticles and arrays, 335–336 Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, 431–433 F Familiarity hypothesis, 724 Faraday effect, 365 Far-field nanooptical observation of synaptic vesicle movement, video-rate, 73 Far-field optical microscopy beyond the diffraction limit, 67–73 Far-field optical regime, 62–63 Fast transport of liquids and gases through carbon nanotubes, 351–353 Fatigue, 267, 288–290 Fatigue life, 288 FDA – U.S Food and Drug Administration, 616 Femtosecond laser surgery, 712–713 Fermi wavelength of electrons, Ferritin, 405, 537, 588 Ferroelectric hysteresis, 414 Ferroelectric polymers, 447 Ferroelectric random-access memory (FeRAM), 446–447 759 Ferromagnetic correlation length, 397 Ferromagnetic exchange length, Ferromagnetic exchange stiffness, 397 Ferromagnetic interaction, 484 Ferromagnetic nanorings, 365, 407–410 Ferromagnetic nanowires, 388–393 Fe73.5 Si13.5 B9 Nb3 Cu1 alloy, 94 Fibrin scaffold, 592 Fibrous nanobiomaterials as bone tissue engineering scaffolds, 707–708 Field effect displays (FEDs), 238 Field-effect transistors, 187, 429 Field-emission electron gun, 81 Figure of merit, 36, 514 Filling factor, 196–198, 200 Filling and functionalizing carbon nanotubes, 230 Filtration membrane, 161, 301–302 Finite-difference time domain (FDTD) in plasmonics, 333 Finite-size atomic clusters, 386–388 Fishnet topology of metamaterials, 185 Flame retardants, 299 FLASH x-ray facility, 89 Flash memory, 434–436 Flash memory devices, organic, 436 Flow stress, 285 Fluids, confinement, 346–351 Fluorescein, 547–548 Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), 551, 568 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), 635–636 Fluorofullerene C60 F48 , 259, 261 Flux vortices in superconductors, 81 Fly height of the writing/reading head, 454, 461 Foams, 4, 604 Fock state, 322, 326 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 303, 635 Food nanostructures, 604–605 Food packaging materials, 605 Foods, 299, 353, 604 Foreign proteins, 640 Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 481, 590 Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE), 195, 197–199 Fracture toughness, 278, 706 Fracture work, 587 Fragrance in nanocapsules, 608 Free-electron laser, 89 Freescale Comp., 441, 446 760 Fresnel zone plates, 85, 381 Frictional force microscopy, 59 Fuel cells, 301, 306 Fullerenes, 137–139, 209–262 Functionalization for intracellular delivery, 668 Fusion of nanophotonics and nanofluidics, 315 Future prospects of integrated circuits, 426 G Galena (PbS) crystallites, 605 Gas leakage, 299 Gas phase chemical reaction, 99 Gas transport in CNTs, 353 Gate-controlled GaAs nanowires, 112 Gecko’s toe, 323 Gels, 604–605 Gene delivery, 547, 663 Gene delivery to human breast adenocarcinoma, 663 Gene delivery, non-viral, 670 Gene expression, 664 Gene expression pathway, 529–531 Gene expression profiling, 552 Genes, 643 Gene silencing, 667 Gene therapy, 662–667 Gene therapy and drug delivery for cancer treatment, 662–667 Gene therapy study, 664–665 Genetic profiling, single cell, 654 Genome, 640, 653 Genome pharmaceutics, 615 Genomes project, 425 Genome of a tumor, 663 Genomics, 537, 652 GFP (green fluorescent protein), 548 Giant magnetoresistance (GMR), 19–26, 457 Giant proteins, 259 Glass transition temperature, 439 Glauber state, 326 Glaucoma drug conjugated to ceria nanoparticles, 700 Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), 121 Glioblastoma (malignant cerebral tumor), 622, 676 Gliosarcoma, 675, 677 Glossiness of dental nanocomposites, 719 GMR (giant magnetoresistance) read head, 458 Gold nanoparticles, 502–505, 546, 552, 687 Golgi apparatus, 81–83, 529–531, 533 Gradient material dentin, 597 Gradual refractive index, 598 Subject Index Grain boundaries, 267–268 Grain boundary diffusivity, 269–270 Grain boundary dislocations, 286–287 Grain boundary migration, activation energy, 269 Grain boundary mobility, 269–270 Grain boundary sliding, 285–287 Grain growth, 300, 304 Grain rotation, 278, 285–286 Graphane, 252 Graphene bilayer, 251–252 Graphene devices, 252 Graphene nanoribbon, 144, 249, 429–430, 474 The graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor (GNRFET), 430 Graphene sheet, 144, 212, 222, 246–247, 299 Gravity, 174, 320, 348 Green fluorescent protein (GFP), 548, 555, 622–623, 656, 666, 669–670, 714 Griscelli syndrome, 569 Growth process of nanowires, 115–117 Guest-host container molecules, 479 H HA/collagen/polylactic acid (PLA) composite, 706 Hematoxylin and eosin staining – H & E, 622, 683, 685–686, 690 Hagen-Poiseuille flow, 352 Hair dyeing, 605, 608–609 Half pitch, 155, 434 Hall-Petch behavior, inverse, 271, 275, 310 Hall-Petch relation, 136, 272–273, 275 Hard disk drive, 425, 452, 455, 457 Hard disk magnetic recording, 456–457 Hard disks, 425 Hard disks, optical, 462–470 Hardness, 597 Heart, 631 Heart diseases, 686–688 Heat of fusion, 11 Heisenberg model, 369, 405 HeLa cells (human epithelial cells), 567, 662, 672, 727 α-helical proteins, 565, 576, 587, 610 Helical motifs, 489 Helical vortices, 392 α-Helices, 560 Hepatocellular carcinoma, 634 HER2 marker protein, 541 HER2 receptor-specific antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin R ), 667 Herceptin, 619–621 Subject Index High-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) image, 80 High-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron micrograph (HAADF-STEM), 170, 333 High electrical current densities of a single strand of Au atoms, 194 High field-gradient electromagnets, 691 High-k dielectrics, 470–471 High-resolution transmission electron micrograph (HRTEM), 471, 610 HIV/AIDS therapy, 662 HIV inhibitor saquinavir delivered into cells by nanoparticles, 701–704 Hollow cages, 253–258 Hollow clusters, inorganic, 495–498 Hollow gold nanospheres, 336, 339 Hollow nanoparticles, 134 Hollow Pt nanospheres with nanochannels, 506 Holographic data storage, 468–470 Homebox gene called Barx1, 722 Human cancer-cell lines, 659–660, 683 Human cataract lens cell membrane, 696–701 Human exposure to static magnetic fields, 671 Human immunodeficiency virus–1 (HIV1), 159, 653 Huntington’s disease, 636 Hydrodesulfurization (HDS), 507–509 Hydrodynamics at the nanoscale, limits, 351 Hydrogen storage, Hydrogen storage and fuel cells, 516–519 Hydrophobic coating, 523 Hydrophobic hierarchical micro- and nanostructures, 602 Hydrophobicity, 601–603 Hydroxyapatite (HA), 594–596, 706–707 Hydroxyapatite (HA)/collagen/polylactic acid (PLA) composite, 706 Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for treating bone defects, 706 Hygiene enhancement by nanoparticles, 703 Hypertension, 649 Hyperthermia treatment, 678–682 Hyperthermia treatment by heating of magnetic nanoparticles by means of an alternating magnetic field, 679–682 Hysteresis loop, 392–396, 398 I IBM, 23, 123, 441, 454 IC50 values, 670, 727 Icosahedron, 100 761 Identification of tumors, 620 Identification (RFID) tags, 446 Imaging, 365–366, 618 Imaging of graphene, 246–248 Imaging, single biomolecule, 89–91 Immunoassays, 554, 650 Immunoglobulins, 640 Implanted chips, 656–658 Inactivation of specific genomic regions, 713 Incoherent interfaces, 173 Indentation simulation, 278 Infarction, 649, 686–688 Infarcts, 636, 668 Infection, 535, 617, 620, 627–628, 640, 651, 663, 690, 703 Influenza virus, 590, 703 Initial permeability, 397 Inks, 483 In-plane magnetic anisotropy, 395 Insulin-loaded PLAF vesicles, 688 Integral quantum Hall effect (IQHE), 196–198 Integrated circuits, 134, 234, 244, 426 Integration densities, 447 Integration of optical manipulation and nanofluidics, 342–343 Integrins, 531, 667 Intel, 3, 242, 244, 425–426, 471 Interconnects, 234, 240, 427, 471 Interdisciplinarity, Interfaces, 3, 271 Interfaces, incoherent, 173 Interfaces, organic-inorganic, 294 Interfaces, temperature-dependent structural change, 270 Interfacing of nanowires with cells, 554 Interference color phenomena, 598 Interference pattern, 259–260 Interferon receptor, 162 Interlayer dielectric (ILD), 471–473 Intermolecular interactions, 500, 565 International Technology Roadmap for semiconductors (ITRS), 472 Intramolecular interactions, 565 Introduction, 1–43 Inverse Hall-Petch behavior, 271, 275, 310 Invisibility cloaks, 185, 360 Ion channels, 571 Ion channels, pentameric ligand-gated, 579 Iridescence, 597 Iron oxide (Fe3 O4 ) nanocrystals, 620, 621 Island growth on substrates, 111 In vivo longevity of nanocarriers, 667 762 J Japanese XFEL, 89 Jobs, Junctions of carbon nanotubes, 229 K K+ membrane channel, 571 K+ membrane channel, opening and closing mechanism, 573 Kerr effect, 365 Kidney disease, 569, 575 Kinesins, 563, 567–569, 584 Kirchhoff-Fresnel diffraction model, 260 Kirkendall effect, 174 Kupffer cells, 556 L Labeling biosystems by nanoparticles, 540–542 Lab-on-a-Chip, 343, 651–652, 655 Landau levels, 196–197, 199, 250 Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, 410 Landau magnetic domain structure, 381 Langmuir-Blodgett, 123 Large carbon molecules, 253–258 Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 425 Large-scale curving of a membrane, 533 Laser ablation, 99, 124, 139, 471 Laser axotomy, 715 Laser cooling, 322 Laser deposition, 124, 414, 641 Laser dissection of a single neuronal dendrite, 715 Lasers, nanostructured, 191, 329 Laser surgery in C elegans, 714 Lattice coherency, 173 Lattice parameter, 12–13 Layered oxide heterostructures, 127–128 Layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly, 294 Lenses, “perfect”, 185 Lens-less coherent x-ray diffraction imaging, 89 Lens opacification, 696 Leukemia cells, 656, 658 Li+ batteries, 245 LiFePO4 cathodes for Li+ ion batteries, 520–521 Ligament and tendon reconstruction, 708 Light conversion, 486–487 Light emitting diodes (LEDs), 24, 189–191, 243, 344 Light-induced heating of nanoshells, 684–686 Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), 89 Lipid nanoparticles, 675 Liposomes, 605–607 Subject Index Liposomes and micelles as nanocarriers, 667–670 Lithium ion batteries, 519–522, 588 Lithography, 154–164, 431–433 Lithography demotools, 431 Lithography, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), 431–433 Lithography, liquid immersion, 156 Lithography, two-photon, 164 Lithography, UV, 154–155 Liver, 631–632, 648 Liver metastases, 620 Local spin density approximation (LSDA), 403 Logic circuits, 429 Logic gates, 187 L’Oreal, 607 Lorentz microscopy, 376–377, 402 Lotus effect, 348, 527, 602 Lotus leaf effect, 601–604 Low-k materials, 471–473 Low molecular weight ligands, 659 Low molecular weight proteome (LMWP), 641 Lungs, 631, 663 Lung therapy – targeted delivery of magnetic nanoparticles and drug delivery, 689–691 Luttinger liquid behavior of electrons, 17, 218–219 Lymph node, 623–625, 632–633 Lymph-node mapping, 543 Lymph node metastases, 623, 625 Lymphography, 632–633 Lymphoma, 635 M Macrophages, 625 Magic numbers, 99–100 Magnetically sensitive scanning probe techniques, 365 Magnetically tunable photonic crystals, 416–417 Magnetic anisotropies, 308–309, 390 Magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE), 390, 395 Magnetic assembly of colloidal superstructures, 31–32 Magnetic circular dichroism studies by transmission electron microscopy, 380 Magnetic coercivities, 392 Magnetic dipole interaction, 391–392 Magnetic domain structure, 380 Magnetic domain-wall racetrack memory (RM), 450–453 Magnetic domain walls in nanowires, 391–392 Magnetic drug delivery systems, 671 Subject Index Magnetic energy product, 400–401 Magnetic exchange bias (EB) effect, 403 Magnetic exchange energy, 410 Magnetic exchange force microscopy (MEx FM), 366–370 Magnetic exchange interaction, 367–369, 392, 406 Magnetic FePt nanoparticles, 552 Magnetic ferrite nanoparticles, 105 Magnetic films, 393–396 Magnetic flux quanta, 198–199, 371 Magnetic force microscopy (MFM), 74–75, 366–370 Magnetic hard disks, 454–461 Magnetic hysteresis (Fig 8.37c) of purely molecular origin, 412 Magnetic hysteresis loops, 383 Magnetic imaging, 365–383 Magnetic imaging with atomic resolution, 374 Magnetic imaging, magnetic exchange force microscopy (MExFM), 366–370 Magnetic lab-on-a-drop, 656 Magnetic nanoparticles, 105, 592, 659 Magnetic nanoparticles, FePt, 552 Magnetic nanoparticles, ferrites, 105 Magnetic nanostructures, time-resolved imaging, 381 Magnetic properties, modification by electric fields, 307 Magnetic properties of single atoms, 384 Magnetic properties, size dependence, 386 Magnetic random access memory (MRAM), 23, 408 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 36–37, 616 Magnetic scanning probe techniques, 74–76 Magnetic tunnel junctions, 22, 441, 443, 445 Magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ), MgO based, 461 Magnetite, 416 Magnetization behavior of Fe nanowires in carbon nanotubes, 392–393 Magnetization, onion state, 377, 408 Magnetization switching by means of SP-STM, 374 Magnetocrystalline anisotropy, 392, 398 Magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy, 384, 410 Magnetoelectric coupling, 414 Magneto-optical Kerr effect, 395 Magneto-optical recording, 466–467 Magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM), 441–446 763 Magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM), switching, 438 Magnetosomes, 417 Magnetosomes for highly-sensitive biomarker detection, 419–420 Magnetostriction, 399 Magnetotactic bacteria, 417 Magnon excitation, 374 Magnons, 370 Malaria disease, 535 Manuka beetle, 600–601 Mapping vector fields, 65–66 Massless Dirac fermions, 143, 248–250 Mass saving, 299 Mass sensing, 35–36 Mass spectrometry (MS), 641 Materials, 596 Materials with bioinspired adhesion, 324 Mathematical techniques, novel, 425 Matrix-assisted laser deposition/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS, 641 Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOP) mass spectrometry, 696 Maxillofacial application of nanobioceramics, 720–721 Maximum energy product, magnetic, 400 MCM-41 mesoporous silica, 149 Measuring techniques, nanoscale, 35–43 Meat, 4, 604 Mechanical alloying, 137 Mechanical properties, 184, 186, 588 Mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, 220–222 Melanoma, 635 Melting of nanoparticles, 11–12 Melt viscosity, 483 Membrane boundaries, 590 Membrane channels, 527, 571–580 Membranes, 103 Memories for data storage, 425–474 Mesenchymal cells, 722 Mesenchymal stem cells, 121, 708 Messenger RNAs, 531 Metal chelation, 552 Metallofullerene Gd@C82 crystals in SWNTs, 230 Metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), 126 Metamaterials, 183–194, 345 Metastases, 533, 623, 632 Metastatic lymph nodes, 620 Metrology, 197 764 Micelles, 353–354 Microchips, 651 Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), 315 Micromagnetic modeling, 409, 444 Microscopy, 49, 68 Microtubule doublets, 83 Microtubules, 529, 563, 601 Military supercomputers, 425 Milk, 4, 604 Mimicking of photo synthesis, 582 Mineralization, 705, 708 Mini-genomes, 592 Misfit dislocations, 126 Mitochondria, 81–83, 529, 542, 569, 601, 668, 693 Mitochondrion ablation, 712–713 Mitochondrion activity, 725 Mobilities, 215, 243, 248, 431 Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), 112, 124 Molecular biology, 537 Molecular cancer diagnosis, 645 Molecular detection techniques, 618–650 Molecular dynamics (MD), 172, 221, 267–268, 536, 570 Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, 267–268, 270–271, 279, 284, 297, 346, 591 Molecular magnets, 483 Molecular motors, 3, 527, 563–571, 580, 583–584 Molecular nanowires, 192, 487 Molecular recognition, 484–486 Molecular recognition in sandwich assays, 551 Molecular sieving, 145 Molecules in motion, 230 Monitoring of human biological systems, 615 Monocyte/macrophage cells (Mo/Mac), 701–702 Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, 392, 403 Montmorillonite (MTM) nanocomposites, 294, 589 Moore’s law, 3, 153, 425, 471 Morpho butterfly, 598 MoS2 nanocatalysts, 507–509 Mo–Si mirror for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, 433 Mössbauer spectroscopy, 405 Motor domain of a molecular motor, 563 Motorola, 441 Motor regulation, 568 Mott insulator, 214 Subject Index MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) contrast enhancement with magnetic nanoparticles, 674–675 MR/PET imaging, 637 MTJ read head, 460 Multiferroic nanostructures, 365, 412–416 Multifunctionality of nanoparticles, 666, 672 Multilayered polymer composites, 132 Multilayered systems, 123–132 Multilayer-graded index profile, 515 Multilayer mirrors, 302, 431 Multilayer recording, 467–468 Multilayers, 195 Multilayers, metallic, 132 Multilayers, NiFe/CoFe/Cu/CoFe, 94 Multilayer structure, 598 Multiple multipole (MMP) techniques for local-field calculations in plasmonics, 333 Multiple operations of fluidic microchips, 653, 656 Multiplexed detection by nanoarrays, 652 Muscle, 565 Muscle contraction, 565 M13 virus, 121 Myometrium, 620, 624 Myosin myopathies, 569 Myosin protein molecules, 604 Myosins, 532, 564–566, 604–605 N Nacre, 296, 587 Nacre of red abalone, 297 Nanoadhesion, 323–325 Nanoarrays, 650–658 Nanobell, 230 Nanobiomaterials for artificial tissues, 704–712 Nanobubbles, 315, 358–360, 632 Nanobubbles on surfaces, 358 Nanochannel technology, 658 Nanochemistry, 477–524 Nanocomposites, 290–300, 594, 718 Nanocomposites of carbon nanotubes, 297 Nanocomposites in dental restoration, 718–719 Nanocomposites, metallic, 290–291 Nanocomposites oxide/dye/polymer, 293–294 Nanocomposites, polymeric, 293–294 Nanocomposites for remineralization of tooth lesions, 721–722 Nanocrystalline ceramics, 102, 300–303 Nanocrystalline materials, 267–310 Nanocrystallite–glass ceramics, 301–303 Nanocrystallites, metals, 102, 172–174 Nanocrystals, 99–107, 169–205 Subject Index Nanocrystals, semiconductors, 104, 174–178, 727 Nanodentistry, 717–723 Nanodevices in medical diagnostics, 656 Nanodroplets, 315, 353–358 Nanoelectromechanical switches, 316–319 Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), 315–319 Nanofibers, electrospinning, 120 Nanofibers, poly (ε-caprolactone), 710 Nanofluidics, 315–361, 650–658 Nanofluidic systems, 654 Nanofluidics and optical manipulation, integration, 342–343 Nanofluidics, mixing, 652 Nanofocused hard x-ray beam, 89 Nanogenerator for energy conversion, 516 Nano-hedgehogs, 495 Nanohydroxyapatite, 708, 720 Nanoimprint lithography (NIL), 158–159 Nanoindentation, 276–279 Nanoindenter–TEM facility, 277 Nanolayers, 123–132, 169–205 Nanoleakage of adhesive interfaces in dentistry, 719 Nanoliters, 651 Nanomagnetism, 365–420 Nanomagnets in bacteria, 365, 417–420 Nanomagnets of SmCo and NdFeB alloys, 106 Nanomechanics, 315–361 Nanomechanics of DNA, proteins, 557–563 Nanomechanics and nanophotonics, combination, 315 Nanomedicine, 615–728 Nanometal–insulator composites, 147 Nanoneurosurgery, 617, 713 Nanoparticle-based assays, 695 Nanoparticle–DNA interaction, 546–552 Nanoparticle layer, 108 Nanoparticle–protein interaction, 552–557 Nanoparticles, 658 Nanoparticles and arrays, extinction behavior, 335–336 Nanoparticles for bioanalysis, 537–557 Nanoparticles for chemotherapy, 675–676 Nanoparticles, Fe and Co, 105 Nanoparticles, intracellular distribution, 668 Nanoparticles, metaloxides, 727 Nanoparticles, polymeric, 691 Nanoparticles shape control, 132–134 Nanoparticles, surface functionalization, 540 Nanoparticle superlattice sheets, 107–109 765 Nanopatterning of stable microbubbles, 358–359 Nanophotonics, 315–361 Nanophotonics and nanofluidcs, fusion, 315 Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide, 147 Nanoporous hydroxyapatite (HA), 706 Nanoporous materials, 145–154 Nanoporous materials by self-assembly, 149 Nanoporous membranes, 147 Nanoporous metals, 150–152 Nanoporous semiconductors, 150 Nanoribbon, 246 Nanorobots, 714 Nanorod-mediated DNA transfection, 670 Nanoscale double emulsions, 354 Nanoscale measuring techniques, 35–43 Nanoscience research centers, Nanoscopy, 49–95 Nanoshells, light-induced heating, 684–686 Nanoshells for thermal drug delivery, 672 Nano silver-titanium dioxide for enhanced hygiene, 703 Nanosized catalysts, 518 Nanosized FePt and FeCo alloys, 106 “Nanosized voltmeter”, 40–42 Nanosomes, 605 Nanostructured bioceramics for bone restoration, 706 Nanostructured bioceramics for maxillofacial applications, 720–721 Nanostructured hard magnets, 399–401 Nanostructured metals, 727 Nanostructures by ball milling, 136–137 Nanostructures with complex shapes, 134–135 Nanostructures, silicon, 512 Nanostructures in supercritical fluids, 163 Nanosurgery, 616, 712–717 Nanotechnology for computers, 425–474 Nanotechnology platforms, 656 Nano test tubes, 498–499 Nanotubes, 587 Nanotubes by the bacterium Shewanella, 122 Nanotubes from materials other than pure carbon, 235–236 Nanotubes, polymeric, 240 Nanotweezers, 224–229 Nanowire-based biosensor, 657 Nanowire growth, oriented attachment, 120 Nanowires, 169–205, 645, 649, 656–657 Nanowires in carbon nanotubes, 114 Nanowires, ligand control synthesis, 118 Nanowires, GaAs, gate-controlled, 112 Nanowires, metallic, 183–184 766 Nanowires and nanofibers, 111–123 Nanowires of pine-tree type, 116–117 Nanowires, semiconductors, 186–192 Nanowires, silver, 588 Nanowires, ultrathin, 117–120 Nantero Inc., 450 Navier–Stokes equations, 351 Near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS), 85 Near-field optical microscopy, 61–67 Near-field scanning interferometric apertureless microscopy, 64–65 Near-infrared (NIR) light, 639 Necrosis, 672, 676 Negative refraction, 186 Negative refractive index materials, 183 Nerve signaling, 582 Neuroblastoma, 68–69 Neurofilaments, 68–69 Neuron adhesion and growth, promotion, 708–710 Neuroscience, 615 Neutron scattering, 405 New life form, 712 NIH (National Institute of Health, U.S.A.), 615 Nitrogen-doped nanocrystalline TiO2 films sensitized, 511 Nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, 326 Nuclear magnetic resonance, 295 Nuclear magnetism, 218 Nuclear membranes, 581 Nuclear pores, 579–580 Nuclear spin relaxation, 315 Nucleus, cell, 529 O Observatory mirror, 302 Odorant, 582 Olfactory system, 582 Oligonucleotides, 653 ‘Onion’ magnetization state, 377, 408 Opening and closing mechanisms, 573 Ophthalmology, 696–701 Opsonins, 556 Optical absorption, 140 Optical hard disks, 462–470 Optically active biosystems, 600 Optical sideband cooling, 322 Optical transparency, 300 Optical traps for manipulation of nanowires, 191 Optical tweezers, 532 Optofluidic transport, 344 Subject Index Orbital magnetic moment, 381, 386–388 Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), 243 Orthopedics, 705 Osteoblast function on Al2 O3 nanofibers, 720 Osteoblast-like cells, 706 Osteoblasts, 594, 706 Osteocytes, 595 Osteogenic differentiation, 708 Osteoid water, 595 Osteon, 595 Oxygen permeability, 605 Oxygen radicals, 698 Oxygen vacancies, 699 P Paclitaxel, 670, 674–675, 702 Pancreatic cell lines, 661 Parkinson disease, 692 Pauli exclusion principle, 359, 369, 392 PCR – polymerase chain reaction, 641 Peptides, 641 Peptides precipitating silica, 587 Perovskite, 414 Perpendicular recording, 458 Persistence length, 557 Pharmacokinetics, 557, 637, 679 Phase-change layer for optical hard disks, 464 Phase-change memory for data storage, 437–441 Phase I study of hyperthermia treatment, 680 Phase transitions, 13 Phase transitions induced by nanoconfinement of liquid water, 347 Phospholipid bilayer membrane, 531 Photoactivated localization microscopy, 68 Photobleaching of dyes, 537, 539 Photocatalysis of water, Photoconductivity spectrum of a single carbon nanotube, 220 Photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), 87 Photoluminescence quantum yields of SWNTs, 220 Photon antibunching, 326 Photonic bionanostructures, 597–601 Photonic crystals, 180, 416–417 Photon sources, 325–328 Photovoltaics, 300, 510–513 Physical principles, 1–43 Piezoelectricity, 316 Piezoelectric properties, 186 Piezoelectric–semiconductor process, 516 Pilatus x-ray detector, 89 Subject Index Pinning potential, 412 Pits on hard disks, 462 Pit-and-tissue sealants in dentistry, 722 Plasmon absorption, 637 Plasmon-controlled synthesis of metallic nanoparticles, 334–335 Plasmonic nanocavities, 337–338 Plasmonics, 331–345 Plasmon oscillations, 616 Plasmon resonance, 148, 180, 465, 684, 695 Plasmons, 174, 186 Plasticity, 267, 271–276 Plasticity and Hall–Petch behavior of nanocrystalline materials, 271–276 Plectonemes, 558–559 Point resolution in microscopy, 76 Polycarbonates for hard disks, 465 Polyethylene glycol (PEG), 646, 677 Poly (hexylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles, 701 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 650, 656 Polymer-based solar cells, 512 Polymeric nanoparticles, 691 Polymer nanocomposites, 293–294 Polymer nanotubes, 240 Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), 299, 429 Polyyne C10 H2 molecules, 233 Poly (ε-caprolactone) nanofibers, 710 Porosity, 301 Porous oranosilicas, periodic, 473 Porous silica nanoparticles for targeting cancer cells, 659–662 Porphyrin, 580–581 Positioning precision, 431 Positron annihilation (PA), 270 Positron emission tomography (PET), 618, 635–637 Positron lifetimes, 102, 301 Potassium channel, 571 Precipitates, 280 Precursor film, 349 Predisposition to, or onset of, disease, 640 Pre-messenger RNA, 83 Preproduction tool in lithography, 431 Probing superconductivity at the nanoscale, 39 Products, Progress in electron microscopy, 76–84 Projection optics, 432–433 Prolonged hypoglycemic effect, 689 Promoters for the MoS2 -based HDS catalysis, 508 Promoting neuron adhesion and growth, 708–710 Prostate cancer, 189, 620, 625, 656, 680 767 Prostate specific antigen (PSA), 640, 645, 655 Proteasome, 531 Protein β-sheets, 560 Protein channels, 576–578 Protein hormones, 640 Protein–inorganic interfaces, 587 Protein mechanics, 560–563 Protein nanolithography, 162–163 Protein–protein interaction, 163 Proteins, 640, 653, 661 Proteins from dying cells, 640 Protein self-assembly, 587 Protein structures, 561 Protein unfolding, 563 Proteome, 640, 656 Proteomic analysis, 640 Proteomics, 537, 640, 652 Proton-beam writing, 157 Proton channel, 591 Ptychography, 89 PVBA (benzoic acid), 480 Q Quantization of conductance, 113 Quantum-classical transition, 319 Quantum computing, 181–183, 315, 326 Quantum confinement, 14 Quantum cryptography, 326, 327 Quantum dot data storage devices, 183 Quantum dot lasers, 329–331 Quantum dot lasers, transparency current, 330 Quantum dots, 104, 616 Quantum dots, infrared, 170 Quantum electrodynamics, 143, 248 Quantum gates, 181 Quantum Hall effect, 195, 250–251 Quantum information technology, 328 Quantum phenomena, 315 Quantum physics, 259 Quantum tunneling of the magnetization, 384 Quantum wires, 111 Quasi-crystalline alloy, 290 Qubits, 181–183 R Rabi oscillations, 181, 183 Race track memory (RM), 437 Radial breathing mode (RBM), 213 Radiation damage, 91 Radiation sources for EUV lithography, 431 Radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags, 446 Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of malignant tumors, 682 Radiofrequency STM, 56 768 Radius of gyration, 294 Raman scattering, 173 Raman spectroscopy, 140, 541, 618 Raman spectroscopy imaging, 637 Raman spectroscopy on the nanometric scale, 40 Random anisotropy model, 397 RCK (‘regulates conduction of K+ ’), 573 REACH program of the European Union, 607 Reaction of single molecules, 500–502 Reactive milling, 137 Read back head, 457 Read heads, 454 Real time contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging, 634 Receiver–transmitter nanoantenna pairs, 341 Recyclability, 299 Red abalone, 297 Red blood cells (RBCs), 534 Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), 471 Regenerated axons, 714 Regeneration of both the peripheral and the central nervous system, 708 Regenerative medicine, 615 Regrowth of axons, 711 Remanence, 396 ‘Remanence enhancement’, 399 Remote control of cellular behavior with magnetic nanoparticles, 592 Renewable energy, 477–524 Replicating the complex nanostructure of bone, 595 Repulsive long-range Casimir forces, 34 Resin–dentin interface, 719 Resist, 433 Resistance-area product RA, 442 Resistance RAM (ReRAM), 437 Resistance random access memories (ReRAMs), 447–448 Retina, 582, 696 Retinal pigment tissue, 592 Retinitis pigmentosa, 569 Reversible change of the GB radial distribution function, 270 Rewritable disks, 464 Reynolds numbers, 651 RHEED (reflection high-energy electron diffraction), 128, 471 Rhinovirus, 161 Rhodamine, 539, 701 Ribonucleic acid (RNA), Ribosome-based self-reproducing system, 592 Subject Index Ribosomes, 84, 529, 579 Ring oscillator, 429 Risk assessment and biohazard detection of nanomaterials, 724–725 Risk assessment strategies, 723–728 Risks, RKKY-type (Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya– Yosida) magnetic coupling, 21, 26, 370, 384, 459 RNA (ribo nucleic acid), 152, 529, 639 Roadmap, 432 Rose petal, 602 Rotational actuator, 316 Rotaxanes, 488–489, 584 Roughness, 127 Row-by-row growth, 111 Rutherford back scattering (RBS), 127, 304 S Saliva, 651 Saquinavir, 701 Saturation magnetization, 395 Sausages, 604 Scales of organization, 594 Scaling down, 435 Scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (spin SEM), 379, 411 Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM), 61–67 Scanning TEM (STEM), 76 Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), 49–56 Scanning tunneling microscopy, constant current imaging, 51–53 Scanning tunneling microscopy, constant height imaging, 53–54 Scanning tunneling microscopy, operated at radiofrequencies, 56 Scanning tunneling microsocpy with spin polarization (SP-STM), 75–76, 370–376 Scanning tunneling microscopy, synchrotron radiation assisted, 54 Scratch/mar resistance, 299 Seagate Technology, 460 Sealing ability of an adhesive, 719 Sea urchin, 83 Secondary ion-mass spectrometry (SIMS), 304 Second-phase particles, 282 Secreted proteins, 640 Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), 30–31 Self-assembled nanostructures, 708 Self-assembly, 27–33, 123, 596 Self-assembly of Fe nanoparticles, 29 Self-assembly of Ni nanoclusters, 28 Subject Index Self-assembly via DNA or proteins, 33 Self-cleaning, 601–604 Self-organization, 489–493 Self-replicating nanoscale assemblers, Self-reproducing system, 592 Sensing, 174, 582–583 Sensing range (106 ), 643, 645 Sensing of weak magnetic fields, 36–37 Sensors, 245, 300–301, 305 Sensors for biomolecules, 645 Sensors, nanowire-based, 657 Sensory transduction, 571 Sentinel lymph node (SLN), 623, 632 Sentinel lymph node surgery making use of quantum dots, 713 Separation of oil and water, 523 Severe plastic deformation, 287 SF3b splicing factor complex, 83 Shape anisotropy, 392 Shape control of nanoparticles, 132–134 Sharp Corporation, 447 β-Sheets, 560 Shift register, 450 Side effects, minimization, 658 Signaling, 580, 583 Signal peptide, 577 Silicon p-n junction, 81 Silk, 585 Single atom contacts, 193–194 Single-cell genetic profiling, 654 Single-electron transistors (SET), 321, 428 Single living cells, 534–536 Single molecule magnets, 365, 412, 452 Single molecule structure, 92 Single nanopores – potentials for DNA sequencing, 152–154 Single-photon source, 325–329 Single-photon detection, 328 Single-photon transistor, 343 Single-stranded (ss) DNA, 557 Singlet oxygen, 672 Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), 139–142, 638, 682 Sintering, 300 Size dependence of magnetic properties, 386 Slip length of fluids, 348 Slot waveguide, 342 Softening of nanomaterials, 284 Soft-magnetic materials, 397–399 Solar batteries, 588 Solar cells, polymer based, 512 Solar energy – photovoltaics, 510–513 Solar energy – thermal conversion, 514–515 769 Sol–gel process, 103, 300 Solid immersion lens, 464 Sony Company, 446, 519 Sorting single-walled carbon nanotubes, 211 Spatulae on gecko toes, 323 Spiderman suit, 324–325 Spinal cord in vitro surrogate, 710–712 Spin canting, 405 Spinel, 414 Spin-flip scattering length, 218 Spin Hall effect, 26–27 Spin magnetic moment, 381, 386 Spin moment of Fe atoms, 387 Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM), 75–76, 370–376 Spin torque effect, 375 Spin transistor, 23 Spintronic devices, 370 Spintronics, 20, 23–26 Spin valve, 21 Spin wave, 408 Spleen, 632, 648 Split-ring resonators, 185 Spontaneous polarization, 81 Spreading of liquids, 315, 346–351 Spreading velocity, 350 Sputtering, 99, 124 SRAM (static random access memory), 23 Stacking-fault energy, 272 Staging, 624–625 Standard quantum limit, 320 Static random access memory (SRAM), 425, 436 Stem cell biology, 722 Step assist, 298 Stimulated emission depletion (STED) optical microscopy, 68–70, 529–531 Stimuli-sensitivity functions, 667 Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, 68–70 Stomach cancer cell line, 661 Stone–Wales defect, 222 Storage densities, 461 Stranski–Krastanov growth, 111 Strength, 186, 267, 585, 589 Strength and ductility by second phase particles, 282 Strong plastic deformation, 136 Structural materials, 300 Structure of carbon nanotubes, 212–214 Sub-femtometer displacement sensing, 315 Sub-single-charge electrometry, 315 Substrate, 391 770 Sugars, 581 Sum rules for spin and orbital magnetic moments, 381 Sun screen agents, 608 Supercapacitors, 5, 519–522 Supercoiled DNA, 558 Superconducting interference device (SQUID), 322 Superconductivity, 17–19, 201, 218 Superconductivity at the nanoscale, 39 Superexchange, 369 Superfluid helium nanodroplets, 356–358 Superfluidity of pH2 clusters, 358 Superhard materials, 292 Superheating and supercooling, 255–257 Superhydrophobicity, 601 Superhydrophobic surfaces, 348–349 Superlattices, 107–111 Superlattices of nanocrystals, 124 Superparamagnetic behavior of nanoparticles, 656, 670 Superparamagnetic blocking temperatures, 386 Superparamagnetic limit, 386, 456–457 Superplasticity, 267, 285–288, 300 Superposition of states, 259, 319 Supersonic expansion, 99 Supporting substrate, 384 Supramolecular chemistry, 477–524 Supramolecular DNA polyhedra, 493 Supramolecular materials, 480–484 Supramolecular polymers, 482 Supramolecular receptor–substrate interaction, 489 Surface atomic structures, 172 Surface atoms, chemical identification by AFM, 60–61 Surface-controlled actuation, 306–310 Surface energy, 8–9 Surface-enhanced fluorescence, 341 Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), 180, 341, 637, 706 Surface faceting, liquid state, 354 Surface functionalization of nanoparticles, 540 Surface-induced manipulation, 267 Surface nanobubbles, 358 Surfaces, Surimi, 604 Survival, 676 Survival rates, 676 Switching, 438 Synaptic vesicle movement, far-field nanooptical observation, video-rate, 73 Synchrotron radiation assisted STM, 54 Subject Index Synovium, 625 Synthesis, 99–165, 473 Synthesis by chemical routes, 101–104 Synthesis gas, 509 Synthesis of nanocrystals, 169–171 Synthesis of nanoparticles, plasmon controlled, 334–335 Synthetic membrane channels, 590 T Tagging of biomedical targets by nanoparticles, 537 Talbot–Lau interferometry, 259 Tamoxifen, 702 Target-directed magnetic field gradient, 689 Targeted death of luminal cells, 665 Targeted drug delivery, 500–502, 637 Targeted drug delivery by nanoparticles, 658–672 Targeted multifunctional polyacrylamide (PAA) nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 676–678 Targeted nanoparticles, 678–686 Targeted therapy, 667 Targeting, 615, 637, 646 Targeting vectors, 667 Tau protein, 692, 695 Teeth, 593–597 Teleportation, 327 TEM nanotomography and holography, 81 Temperature-dependent structural change of interfaces, 270 Templating, 117 Tendon, 297, 585 Tensile strength, 296 Terahertz near-field nanoscopy, 66–67 TERT gene, 667 Tetrahedral amorphous carbon, 461 Tetraphenylporphyrin, 259 Therapy making use of nanoparticles, 537, 650 Therapy, photodynamic, 672 Thermal conductance, 9–11 Thermal conductivity, 514 Thermal evaporation, 99 Thermal expansion, 301–303 Thermal occupation factor of a quantum mechanical resonator, 320 Thermal properties of nanostructures, 7–13 Thermodynamics, violation of the second law, 7–8 Thermoelectric devices, 183 Thermoelectric power, 11 Subject Index Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 140 Thermomagnetic recording, 466 Thermoplastics, 299 Thiophene, 508 Three-dimensional far-field optical nanoimaging of cells, 70–72 Three-dimensional superlattices of binary nanoparticles, 109 Tissue engineering, 585, 717 Tissue engineering of skin, 708 Titin protein, 585 TMA (trimesic acid (1, 3, 5benzenetricarboxylic acid)), 480 Toggle MRAM, 446 “Toggle” switching, 441 Tomography, photoacoustic, 618, 637 Tooth, 596–597 Tooth formation, 722 Tooth replacement, bio, 722–723 Top-down synthesis, 2–3, 159 TOPO (tri-n-octylphosphine oxide), 646 Topoisomerase, 660 Topoisomerase II, 558 Toughness, 278, 290, 589, 593 Toxicity, 546, 632, 680, 702 Toxicity considerations, 723–728 Toxicology tests, 725 Transductance, 215 Transferrin, 669 Transistors, 187, 209, 239–240, 250, 321, 426–431 Translocase, 577 Translocation of a secretory protein, 577 Translucency, 719 Transmembrane ion transport, 583 Transmembrane protein receptors, 531 Transverse nuclear magnetic relaxation times (T2), 539 Triple helix, 492 Triple-junction migration, 285 Triplet state, 182 Tubular graphite cones, 229 Tumor cell necrosis, 680 Tumors, 636–637, 663, 678–686 Tumors, identification, 620 Tumor-targeting ligands (peptides or antibodies), 647 TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase biotin-deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling) staining, 665 Tungsten plugs, 87 Tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR), 21–23 771 Tunneling matrix element, 441 Tweezers, 532 Twin boundaries, 283 Twin deformation, 272 Twinning of crystals, 174 Twins, crystal, 273 Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG) at oxide interfaces, 199–201 Two-slit interference experiment, 259 U Ultrahigh data storage densities, 466 Ultrasound imaging, 358, 618 Ultrasound imaging techniques, 632–634 Ultrastrength nanomaterials, 279–282 Umklapp processes, 11 Unfolding a protein domain, 563 Unifying nanophotonics and nanomechanics, 342 Universal computer memory, 437 Unzipping of DNA, 559 UV optical lithography, 154–155 V Vaccine delivery, 662 Vaccines, 587, 649 Valence, 193 Valinomycin, 583 Van der Waals forces, 323 Vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) growth of nanowires, 113–116 Vascular diseases, peripheral, 688 Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), 708 Vascular targeting, 676 Vascular targeting ligand, 676 Vasculature, 631, 704 Venereal tumor, 685 Vertebral body, 631 Vesicle-like structures, 495 Vesicular membrane carriers, 530 Vias, 240 Viral and bacterial diseases, 701–704 Viral vectors, 663 Viruses, 189, 259 Vitamin A, 607 Vitronectin, 706 Vortex line in superfluidic He, 360 ‘Vortex’ state of ferromagnetic rings, 408 Vortex structure in a permalloy film, 382 Vortices, magnetic and interaction with electrons in the fractional quantum Hall effect, 198 772 W Water purification, Water repellency, 601 Water strider, 602 Water transport in CNTs, 351–352 Water window, 87, 203 Waveguide, 342 Waveguide, slot, 342 Wave-particle duality, 209–262 Wear, 292–293 Wettability, 651 Wetting, 315, 346–351, 601 Wetting angle, 651 Whey, 605 Wood, 585 Work of fracture, 587 Worm-like chain (WLC) model, 557 X X-ray beam, nanofocused, 89 X-ray diffraction microscopy (ptychography), scanning, 90 Subject Index X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL), 89–91 X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), 85, 87, 366, 381–383 X-ray microscopy, 84–91 X-ray microscopy, lens based, 85–87 X-ray microscopy, scanning transmission, 85 X-ray mirrors, 203 X-ray nanotomography, 87–88 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), 295, 502 Y Yeast cell, 88 Yoghurts, 605 Young’s modulus, 186, 276 Z Zeolites, 145–149 Zeptogram-scale mass sensing, 315 Zeptoliter liquid alloy droplets, 354–356 Zeptonewtonscale force sensing, 315 Zernike phase contrast, 85 .. .Nanoscience Hans-Eckhardt Schaefer Nanoscience The Science of the Small in Physics, Engineering, Chemistry, Biology and Medicine 123 Prof Dr Hans-Eckhardt Schaefer... information for students and teachers in academia and for scientists and engineers in industry who are involved in the many different fields of nanoscience In the present book, the state of the. .. biotechnology, and information and cognitive science [1.42] In the following, some physical principles of nanoscience will be discussed within this chapter, including thermal and electronic properties of
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Xem thêm: Nanoscience the science of the small in physics engineering chemistry biology and medicine , Nanoscience the science of the small in physics engineering chemistry biology and medicine , 2 Thermal Properties of Nanostructures, 4 Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) and Spintronics, 1 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), 2 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), 3 Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy (SNOM), 4 Far-Field Optical Microscopy Beyond the Diffraction Limit, 5 Magnetic Scanning Probe Techniques, 6 Progress in Electron Microscopy, 8 Three-Dimensional Atom Probes (3DAPs), 2 Superlattices of Nanocrystals in Two (2D) and Three (3D) Dimensions, 4 Nanolayers and Multilayered Systems, 7 Nanostructures by Ball Milling or Strong Plastic Deformation, 2 Nanowires and Metamaterials metamaterials, 3 Fullerenes Fullerenes, Large Carbon Molecules, and Hollow Cages of Other Materials, 4 Fullerenes and the Wave-Particle Duality, 1 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Structure of Grain Boundaries and of the Plastic Deformation of Nanocrystalline Materials, 3 Plasticity and HallPetch Behavior of Nanocrystalline Materials, 4 Plasticity Studies by Nanoindentation, 6 Enhancement of Both Strength and Ductility, 11 Atomic Diffusion in Nanocrystalline Materials, 12 Surface-Controlled Actuation and Manipulation of the Properties of Nanostructures, 2 Putting Mechanics into Quantum Mechanics -- Cooling by Laser Irradiation, 4 Single-Photon and Entangled-Photon Sources and Photon Detectors, Based on Quantum Dots, 7 2D-Confinement of Fluids 2D-confinement of fluids, Wetting, and Spreading, 8 Fast Transport of Liquids and Gases Through Carbon Nanotubes, 2 Size and Dimensionality Effects in Nanomagnetism -- Single Atoms, Clusters (0D), Wires (1D), Films (2D), 5 Antiferromagnetic and Complex Magnetic Nanostructures, 7 Current-Induced Domain Wall Motion in Magnetic Nanostructures, 10 Magnetically Tunable Photonic Crystals of Superparamagnetic Colloids, 1 Transistors and Integrated Circuits, 2 Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography -- The Future Technology of Chip Fabrication, 4 Emerging Solid State Memory Technologies, 5 Magnetic Hard Disks and Write/Read Heads, 8 Low-k Materials as Interlayer Dielectrics (ILD), 2 Large Inorganic Hollow Clusters, 3 Chemistry on the Nanoscale, 10 Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cells, 11 Lithium Ion Batteries and Supercapacitors, 1 The Cell Nanosized Components, Mechanics, and Diseases, 3 Nanomechanics of DNA, Proteins, and Cells, 4 Molecular Motors and Machines, 8 Photonic Bionanostructures -- Colors of Butterflies and Beetles, 9 Lotus Leaf Effect -- Hydrophobicity and Self-Cleaning, 2 Diagnostic Imaging and Molecular Detection Techniques, 3 Nanoarrays and Nanofluidics for Diagnosis and Therapy, 4 Targeted Drug Delivery by Nanoparticles, 5 Brain Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy with Nanoplatforms, 6 Hyperthermia Treatment of Tumors by Using Targeted Nanoparticles, 7 Nanoplatforms in Other Diseases and Medical Fields, 8 Nanobiomaterials for Artificial Tissues, 9 Nanosurgery -- Present Efforts and Future Prospects, 11 Risk Assessment Strategies and Toxicity Considerations

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