Forest hydrology and biogeochemistry synthesis of past research and future directions

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Ecological Studies, Vol 216 Analysis and Synthesis Edited by M.M Caldwell, Washington, USA G Heldmaier, Marburg, Germany R.B Jackson, Durham, USA O.L Lange, Wuărzburg, Germany H.A Mooney, Stanford, USA E.-D Schulze, Jena, Germany U Sommer, Kiel, Germany Ecological Studies Further volumes can be found at springer.com Volume 198 Gradients in a Tropical Mountain Ecosystem of Ecuador (2008) E Beck, J Bendix, I Kottke, F Makeschin, R Mosandl (Eds.) Volume 207 Old-Growth Forests: Function, Fate and Value (2009) C Wirth, G Gleixner, and M Heimann (Eds.) Volume 199 Hydrological and Biological Responses to Forest Practices: The Alsea Watershed Study (2008) J.D Stednick (Ed.) Volume 208 Functioning and Management of European Beech Ecosystems (2009) R Brumme and P.K Khanna (Eds.) Volume 200 Arid Dune Ecosystems: The NizzanaSands in the Negev Desert (2008) S.-W Breckle, A Yair, and M Veste (Eds.) Volume 201 The Everglades Experiments: Lessons for Ecosystem Restoration (2008) C Richardson (Ed.) Volume 202 Ecosystem Organization of a Complex Landscape: Long-Term Research in the Bornhoăved Lake District, Germany (2008) O Fraănzle, L Kappen, H.-P Blume, and K Dierssen (Eds.) Volume 203 The Continental-Scale Greenhouse Gas Balance of Europe (2008) H Dolman, R.Valentini, and A Freibauer (Eds.) Volume 204 Biological Invasions in Marine Ecosystems: Ecological, Management, and Geographic Perspectives (2009) G Rilov and J.A Crooks (Eds.) Volume 205 Coral Bleaching: Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences M.J.H van Oppen and J.M Lough (Eds.) Volume 206 Marine Hard Bottom Communities: Patterns, Dynamics, Diversity, and Change (2009) M Wahl (Ed.) Volume 209 Permafrost Ecosystems: Siberian Larch Forests (2010) A Osawa, O.A Zyryanova, Y Matsuura, T Kajimoto, R.W Wein (Eds.) Volume 210 Amazonian Floodplain Forests: Ecophysiology, Biodiversity and Sustainable Management (2010) W.J Junk, M.T.F Piedade, F Wittmann, J Schoăngart, P Parolin (Eds.) Volume 211 Mangrove Dynamics and Management in North Brazil (2010) U Saint-Paul and H Schneider (Eds.) Volume 212 Forest Management and the Water Cycle: An Ecosystem-Based Approach (2011) M Bredemeier, S Cohen, D.L Godbold, E Lode, V Pichler, P Schleppi (Eds.) Volume 213 The Landscape Ecology of Fire (2011) D McKenzie, C.S Miller, D.A Donald (Eds.) Volume 214 Human Population: Its Influences on Biological Diversity (2011) R.P Cincotta and L.J Gorenflo (Eds.) Volume 215 Plant Desiccation Tolerance (2011) U Luăttge, E Beck, D Bartels (Eds.) Volume 216 Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry: Synthesis of Past Research and Future Directions (2011) D.F Levia, D Carlyle-Moses, T Tanaka (Eds.) Delphis F Levia Editor Darryl Carlyle-Moses l Tadashi Tanaka Co-Editors Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry Synthesis of Past Research and Future Directions Editors Dr Delphis F Levia University of Delaware Departments of Geography & Plant and Soil Science Newark, DE 19716-2541, USA dlevia@udel.edu Dr Tadashi Tanaka Department of International Affairs University of Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-8577, Japan tadashi@geoenv.tsukuba.ac.jp Dr Darryl Carlyle-Moses Thompson Rivers University Department of Geography and Graduate Program in Environmental Science 900 McGill Road PO Box 3010 Kamloops, BC, V2C 5N3 Canada dcarlyle@tru.ca ISSN 0070-8356 ISBN 978-94-007-1362-8 e-ISBN 978-94-007-1363-5 DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-1363-5 Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York Library of Congress Control Number: 2011928916 # Springer Science+Business Media B.V 2011 No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher, with the exception of any material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com) Foreword Forest hydrology as a field has evolved greatly since the first paired watershed study was published by Bates (1921) in the Journal of Forestry Bates described his work as the “first serious effort to obtain, under experimental conditions, a quantitative expression of forest influences on snow modeling, streamflow (and thus, by implication, evaporation) and erosion.” Since then, many paired watershed studies have been published – with an explosion of such work in the late 1950s and through the 1960s during the First International Hydrological Decade Despite the appearance of several textbooks in the past decades, the last major benchmarking effort was Sopper and Lull’s (1967) edited conference proceedings from the International Symposium on Forest Hydrology, held at Penn State University, USA, in 1965 This was the first and last major synthesis and integration effort for the field in over four decades Since Sopper and Lull, much has changed in forest hydrology: new instruments, some new theory, new disciplinary additions to forest linkages; most notably biogeochemistry Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry: Synthesis of Past Research and Future Directions is a long anticipated, important addition to the field of forest hydrology It is, by far, the most comprehensive assemblage of the field to date and written by many of the top researchers in their field The book reveals for the first time since Sopper and Lull, the current state of the art and where the field is headed – with its many new techniques developed since then (isotopes, fluorescence spectroscopy, remote sensing, numerical models, digital elevation models, etc.) and added issues (fire, insect outbreaks, biogeochemistry, etc.) Levia, Carlyle-Moses, and Tanaka have done a spectacular job of assembling a strong array of authors and chapters As an associate professor of ecohydrology, Del Levia has a background in water transfers through the forest canopy and biogeochemical transformations in forest systems in American forested watersheds with extensive international experience as well Darryl Carlyle-Moses is an associate professor of geography with experience in Canadian and Mexican forest systems, focused mostly on water transfers through the forest canopy Tadashi Tanaka is professor of hydrology at University of Tsukuba in Japan with a long and distinguished career in forest hydrology, from v vi Foreword groundwater studies to tracer studies and water flux measurements in headwater catchments The geographical teaming of editors is an important element to the work, where the addition of the Japanese perspective (to the more dominant European and North American and Australian perspectives) with many chapters penned by Japanese forest hydrologists adding greatly to the breadth of approaches and examples Attention to editorial detail is clear; from careful assembly of all the key component areas to an awareness of the benchmark papers in the field and need to include them (even when they fall outside the non-English speaking literature) Distillation of a large and varied disparate discipline like forest hydrology and biogeochemistry is challenging The book’s organization effectively parses out the many aspects of the field in six useful parts The first part outlines the historical roots of forest hydrology and biogeochemistry, with special reference to the Hubbard Brook watershed – arguably “Mecca” for the field and the foundation we all now follow in watershed-based coupled hydrobiogeochemical studies The authors of that chapter are emblematic of the authorship of much of the book, pairing one of the founding fathers of field with one of the most promising young professors in the field Sampling and novel approaches follow this background setup, with definitive chapters covering the latest in terms of spatial and temporal monitoring Forest hydrology and biogeochemistry by ecoregion is a part that follows The ecoregion component is a clever move in the assembly of the material for the book, providing a view into real-world landscapes and how uniqueness of place drives coupled hydrobiogeochemical processes The editors have gathered authors from Canada, USA, Australia, China, Japan, and over a dozen countries in Europe to produce this range of ecoregion breadth The three last parts of the book are “hydrologic and biogeochemical fluxes from the canopy to the phreatic surface,” “the effects of time, stressors and humans,” and finally, “knowledge gaps and research opportunities.” Many of the hottest topics in relation to fire, insects, climate change, landuse change are addressed in a thoughtful and stimulating way Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry: Synthesis of Past Research and Future Directions is a celebration of a field Like Bates’ work, it is a serious effort to synthesize quantitative expressions of forest influences on water quantity (and now also water quality) The research pioneers who contributed to Sopper and Lull’s major synthesis would be mesmerized by what now is possible and what is defined in this volume in terms of new research directions and opportunities Reading it will give graduate students and researchers alike, a sense of direction and optimism for this field for many years to come Richardson Chair in Watershed Science and Distinguished Professor of Hydrology College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA Jeffrey J McDonnell Preface A tremendous amount of work has been conducted in forest hydrology and biogeochemistry since the 1980s, yet there has been no cogent, critical, and compelling synthesis of this work on the whole, although a number of seminal journal review articles have been published on specific aspects of forest hydrology and biogeochemistry, ranging from precipitation partitioning to catchment hydrology and elemental cycling to isotope biogeochemistry (e.g., Bosch and Hewlett 1982; Parker 1983; Buttle 1994; Levia and Frost 2003; Muzylo et al 2009) The forest hydrology and biogeochemistry volumes published to date have served a different (albeit equally valid) purpose to the current volume, serving as either a reference tool for a particular study site or as a textbook Over the past 30 years, the Ecological Studies Series has published a number of such volumes, including Forest Hydrology and Ecology at Coweeta (1988), Biogeochemistry of a Subalpine Ecosystem (1992), and Functioning and Management of European Beech Ecosystems (2009) Lee (1980) is one of the last comprehensive forest hydrology texts Recent published works have focused on climate change and stressors These books reflect the growing body of research in forest hydrology and biogeochemistry However, none of these texts were specifically aimed at synthesizing and evaluating research in the field to date As such, Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry: Synthesis of Past Research and Future Directions is especially timely, relevant, and arguably necessary as periodic review and self-reflection of a discipline are integral to its progression Thus, the aim of this international rigorously peerreviewed volume is to critically synthesize research in forest hydrology and biogeochemistry to date, to identify areas where knowledge is weak or nonexistent, and to chart future research directions Such a task is critical to the advancement of our discipline and a valuable community building activity This volume is intended to be a one-stop comprehensive reference tool for researchers looking for the “latest and greatest” in forest hydrology and biogeochemistry The book also is meant to serve as a graduate level text vii viii Preface Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry: Synthesis of Past Research and Future Directions is divided into four primary parts following an introductory chapter (constituting Part I) that traces the historical roots of forest hydrology and biogeochemistry The introductory chapter employs the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest as a model to elucidate the merits of watershed scale hydrological and biogeochemical research The four primary parts of the book are: sampling and methodologies utilized in forest hydrology and biogeochemistry research, forest hydrology and biogeochemistry by ecoregion, hydrological and biogeochemical processes of forests, and the effects of time, stressors, and people on forest hydrology and biogeochemistry It is important to note that each part examines forest hydrology and biogeochemistry from different perspectives and scales While overlap among chapters has been kept to a minimum, some overlap is inevitable One also could argue that some overlap is beneficial given the nature of the book and the fact that most researchers will likely read select chapters of relevance to their research rather than the book in its entirety The part on sampling and novel approaches is intended to provide researchers and students with a broad cross-section of methodological approaches used by some forest hydrologists and biogeochemists and to foster their wider use by the larger community As such, these chapters may be used as a primer for one wishing to learn how to utilize various methods to answer questions of importance to forest hydrologists and biogeochemists The next part adopts a holistic focus on the forest hydrology and biogeochemistry by ecoregion Specific forest types covered include lowland tropical, montane cloud, temperate, boreal, and urban These chapters are intended to provide researchers with a concise synthesis of past research in a given forest type and provide future research directions, emphasizing a particular forest type as a whole (i.e., from an ecosystem perspective) rather than hydrological and biogeochemical processes The following part emphasizes processes regardless of ecoregion and forest type These chapters begin at the interface of the atmosphere–biosphere with atmospheric deposition and follow the transport of water and elements to the subsurface via routing along roots to surface water–groundwater interactions Thus, these chapters focus on the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the critical zone The next part of the book examines the effects of time, people, and stressors on forest hydrology and biogeochemistry, capturing some of the newest thinking on the effects of external stressors, such as ice storms and climate change, on the functional ecology of forests The final chapter (constituting Part VI) summarizes some of the major findings of the book and is intended to galvanize future research on topics that merit further work by identifying possible research questions and methodologies to move the disciplines of forest hydrology and biogeochemistry forward The editors wish to thank all authors for their tremendous work ethic in association with this book It is clear that chapter authors rose to the occasion and prepared well thought syntheses that will help chart future research directions The editors also would like to express their gratitude to all of the authors who served as peer reviewers We were duly impressed with the thorough and thoughtful nature of reviewer comments that undoubtedly improved the quality of the book The editors also acknowledge the review efforts of those scientists whom were external Preface ix to the book itself who provided excellent suggestions for chapter improvement; listed alphabetically, we acknowledge W Michael Aust, Doug Burns, Sheila Christopher-Gokkaya, Helja-Sisko Helimsaari, April James, Koichiro Kuraji, Daniel Leathers, Myron Mitchell, Aleksandra Muzylo, and Wolfgang Wanek David Legates is recognized for editorial advice during the project We also acknowledge Jeff McDonnell for writing the Foreword of the book and the efforts of the Series Editor, E.-D Schulze The editors also wish to recognize Dr Andrea Schlitzberger of Springer’s Ecological Studies Series and Project Manager Elumalai Balamurugan for their hard and efficient work on this book The editors wish to give special thanks and recognition to Springer Geosciences Editor, Robert Doe, and his assistant, Nina Bennink, for their professionalism, timely responses, clear feedback, and generous support as this book evolved through various stages of succession (with a few disturbances along the way) to its climactic completion in the course of 22 months It is the sincere hope, belief, and expectation of the editors that this volume will serve as an invaluable resource to many in the forest hydrology and biogeochemistry communities for years to come We are confident that this volume, composed of the thoughts of some of the very best and talented researchers worldwide, will be a highly cited and impactful book that will catalyze fruitful research that propels our knowledge of forest hydrology and biogeochemistry forward Newark, Delaware Kamloops, British Columbia Tsukuba, Japan March 2011 Delphis F Levia Darryl E Carlyle-Moses Tadashi Tanaka References Baron J (1992) Biogeochemistry of a subalpine ecosystem Ecological Studies Series, No 90, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany Bosch JM, Hewlett JD (1982) A review of catchment experiments to determine the effect of vegetation changes on water yield and evapotranspiration J Hydrol 55:3–23 Brumme R, Khanna PK (2009) Functioning and management of European beech ecosystems Ecological studies series, No 208, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany Buttle JM (1994) Isotope hydrograph separations and rapid delivery of pre-event water from drainage basins Prog Phys Geog 18:16–41 Lee R (1980) Forest hydrology Columbia University Press, New York Levia DF, Frost EE (2003) A review and evaluation of stemflow literature in the hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles of forested and agricultural ecosystems J Hydrol 274:1–29 Muzylo A, Llorens P, Valente F et al (2009) A review of rainfall interception modelling J Hydrol 370:191–206 Parker GG (1983) Throughfall and stemflow in the forest nutrient cycle Adv Ecol Res 13:57–133 Swank WT, Crossley Jr DA (1988) Forest hydrology and ecology at Coweeta Ecological studies series, No 66, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany Part VI Knowledge Gaps and Research Opportunities Chapter 36 Reflections on the State of Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry Delphis F Levia, Darryl E Carlyle-Moses, and Tadashi Tanaka 36.1 Introduction There is no question that research conducted by the forest hydrology and biogeochemistry communities over the past several decades has vastly improved our knowledge of the natural world As reflected in this book, the research output has been both prolific and of high quality, leading to an improved understanding of water and chemical transport within and through forests The cutting-edge research from Hubbard Brook and other long-term sites has been key in formulating elemental budgets and understanding the effects of stressors, such as acid rain, on forest biogeochemistry The myriad of more specific process-based studies of forest hydrology and biogeochemistry, in conjunction with these longer term studies, has permitted a wiser management and use of forests Advances in remote sensing, geographical information science, eddy covariance, fluorescence spectroscopy, isotopes, and solute mixing models have been essential in understanding the transport, modification, and fate of water, carbon, and inorganic solutes through forested ecosystems While much has been learned to date about the hydrological and biogeochemical processes that cycle water, solutes, particulates, and gases within and through forests that has led to an increased understanding among different ecoregions and forest types, as reviewed and synthesized in this volume, there is still a great deal to learn about the functional ecology, hydrology, and biogeochemistry of forests It is beyond the scope of this chapter to highlight all of the theoretical, methodological, and process-based advances that have been made that enhance and amplify our understanding of forest ecosystems Rather, the intent of this summary chapter is to identify some specific areas where our present knowledge remains particularly weak and to examine and discuss opportunities to address these shortcomings in the near future Readers seeking detailed synthesis of past research and recommended future directions for a particular method, forest type, process, or stressor are directed to specific chapter(s) of interest D.F Levia et al (eds.), Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry: Synthesis of Past Research and Future Directions, Ecological Studies 216, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-1363-5_36, # Springer Science+Business Media B.V 2011 729 730 36.2 D.F Levia et al Some Weaknesses in Our Current State of Knowledge As demonstrated in this book, there are a number of research methods that could be and are employed by forest hydrologists and biogeochemists to advance our knowledge of hydrological and biogeochemical cycling in forested ecosystems A review of the literature shows exemplary examples of the use and application of remote sensing, geographical information science, eddy covariance, fluorescence spectroscopy, isotopes, and solute mixing analyses in forest hydrology and biogeochemistry work The editors of this volume have specifically included the methods section in the hope that a greater number of forest hydrologists and biogeochemists might integrate these methods into their research as appropriate in the near future Fluorescence spectroscopy and solute mixing models and analyses, for example, would likely yield new insights into the alteration of stemflow through the canopy and its fate in or through the subsurface It is likely that a more widespread adoption of cutting edge sensors and the methodological tools covered in this volume (Chaps 2–8) would generate a more comprehensive and detailed understanding on the cycling of water and solutes within and through forests Of all the forest types covered in the volume (Chaps 9–16), it appears that the lowland tropical rainforest (both terra firme [covered in this volume] and seasonally flooded) is the least well understood This is not to say that high quality work has not been conducted in these forests Quite the contrary, a number of studies have been conducted that have greatly increased our understanding of these forests, some of which are described in Chap Our lesser understanding of these forests is partly attributable to their complexity in terms of both species diversity and evolutionary adaptations, such as adventitious and apogeotropic roots, that affect water and biogeochemical cycling but are absent from other forest types as well as the remoteness of many lowland tropical forests The remoteness of these forests necessitates considerable logistical planning that is very expensive, thereby limiting the length and scope of most field experiments However, given the vast areal extent and importance of tropical lowland forests on local, regional, and global scales, it is paramount that forest hydrologists and biogeochemists build upon the high quality work to date in an effort to expand our knowledge base of these critically important forest ecosystems Table 36.1 lists several topical areas where the editors opine that further research effort be directed Chapter 18 focuses on the influence of canopy structure on hydrological and biogeochemical fluxes Canopy structure is complicated Until very recently, simply characterizing and quantifying canopy structure has been a major challenge We are now in the position to make significant advances in our understanding on the effects of canopy structure on water and solute flux with the use of high-resolution airborne LiDAR and other instrumental developments (Table 36.1, Chap 18) Stemflow has been and remains understudied in comparison to other hydrological processes in forests As described in Chap 21, many researchers are increasingly acknowledging the importance of stemflow and documenting its notable influence on hillslope hydrology The use of fluorescence spectroscopy can yield new insights into the importance of stemflow on biogeochemical cycling (Table 36.1) Despite advances in our understanding of the ecohydrology and 36 Reflections on the State of Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry 731 Table 36.1 Summary of some key weaknesses in our current state of knowledge posed as possible research questions with some methodological tools to address knowledge gapsa Topic of weakness Possible research questions and avenues of future research Canopy structure How does canopy structure affect biogeochemical flux and cycling? Do total canopy surface area and orthogonally projected canopy area have similar or differential impacts on water and solute flux to the forest floor? To what extent are any effects of these canopy areas overshadowed by canopy texture, bark microrelief, or season? Advances in LiDAR now permit researchers to have unprecedented resolution of forest canopies Metrics, such as total and projected canopy area, can be calculated for individual trees over large areas Other laser technologies (Chap 18) can also be applied to investigate the influence of canopy structure on forest hydrology and biogeochemistry (Chap 18) Stemflow Is stemflow a significant contributor to soil solution or streamflow? At what spatial or temporal scale is stemflow important? How does stemflow chemistry change in response to stressors? What is the quality of stemflow dissolved organic matter? Use of solute mixing models (Chap 8) and fluorescence spectroscopy (Chap 6) can permit answers to these questions Combined with isotopic analyses (Chap 7), the two above methodologies will yield a clearer picture of the importance of stemflow in forest hydrology and biogeochemistry (Chap 21) Rhizosphere hydrology How can we separate the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the and biogeochemistry rhizosphere from that of the bulk soil? To what extent are roots coupled with the canopy? How will global change affect the rhizosphere? Advances in miniature infiltrometers, microbial biosensors, and computed tomography can shed light on these important questions on hydrologic redistribution by roots and carbon dioxide dynamics in the rhizosphere (Chap 24) Such instruments will permit better coupling of above- and belowground hydrological and biogeochemical processes and cycling in forested ecosystems (Chap 24) Insect stressors What are the effects of canopy herbivory over the longer term? To what extent is the aboveground flux of particulates and solutes from insect herbivory coupled with belowground cycling? Advances in fluorescence spectroscopy will shed further light on the quality of dissolved organic matter from insect infested forests Long-term studies should be started that examine the effects of canopy herbivory on forest hydrology and biogeochemistry over years and decades Ideally, such research would be integrated into LTER and CZO sites (Chap 28) Ice storms How important are ice storms as a forest stressor in deciduous forests? Over the long term across forest types? Ho ice storms affect N cycling? Do ice storms lead to N limitation? Ice storm studies conducted within LTERs with lengthy and reliable baseline records (and eventually the CZOs as they continue) are a prerequisite to examine the impacts of ice (continued) 732 D.F Levia et al Table 36.1 (continued) Topic of weakness Possible research questions and avenues of future research storms on the forest hydrology and biogeochemistry of forests The use of geospatial technologies that can map the extent and degree of damage (Chaps and 4) should be coupled with watershed scale experiments and other methods as appropriate to quantify any relationships between the extent of ice storm damage and the hydrological and biogeochemical response over time and space Research on ice storms is timely as their frequency may very well increase with climate change (Chap 31) a Some questions and/or methodological recommendations to address them in this table are repeated or derived from respective chapters Chapter authors are acknowledged for their intellectual contributions and readers are referred to respective chapters for further details and explanation biogeochemistry of the rhizosphere (Chap 24), much more work needs to be done to fully comprehend the importance of the rhizosphere on water and biogeochemical cycling Here again, recent advances in instrumentation and methods (Table 36.1) will yield fruitful insights as to how the rhizosphere modulates the movement of water and solutes in the subsurface Such work will undoubtedly contribute to our understanding of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water and biogeochemical flux in forests Insects are a major stressor of forests Chapter 28 details the impacts of insects on forest biogeochemistry The linkages and possible coupling of canopy herbivory with subsurface water and biogeochemical cycling are largely unknown (Table 36.1, Chap 28) Future work also is needed to examine the long-term effects of insect stressors Ice storms are relatively frequent in many forested areas yet relatively little is known about the effects of ice storms on forest biogeochemistry (Table 36.1) Chapter 31 discusses some effects of ice storms on N cycling It is unclear whether ice storms trigger N limitation in forests and their long-term effects 36.3 Future Opportunities The above paragraph and Table 36.1 allude to the importance of linking aboveground and belowground processes in order to achieve a fuller understanding of forest hydrology and biogeochemistry Historically, a number of studies (many reviewed throughout this book) have examined the effects of the forest canopy on the transfer of water and solutes to the forest floor An increasing number of studies have directly linked the transfer of moisture from the canopy to the subsurface Chapter 24 specifically discusses a double funneling effect whereby water is preferentially funneled along branches in the canopy and roots in the subsurface Today, there is a growing interest in hydropedology and linkages between the canopy and subsurface There is a golden opportunity to capitalize on the emerging interest in hydropedology (as espoused by Lin 2003) and to couple the canopy with the subsurface in a holistic 36 Reflections on the State of Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry 733 manner (e.g., Li et al 2009) Such work may very well adopt the conceptual framework of McClain et al (2003) and emphasize hot moments and hot spots of water and biogeochemical cycling Conceptualization of water and biogeochemical cycling in terms of hot moments and hot spots will likely yield invaluable insights into the marked temporal and spatial variability of hydrological and biogeochemical processes Such thinking will permit innovative experimental designs that should generate significant advances in our knowledge base As described in Chap 2, wireless sensor technology and the rapid development of new sensors will very likely affect future sampling strategies and experimental designs The number of sensors deployed in future research and the amount of data they collect is likely to increase dramatically in the very near future Forest hydrologists and biogeochemists should take advantage of these opportunities to answer research questions that may have been unanswerable hitherto Experiments that seek to better understand hot spots and their effects on biogeochemical cycling will require a large number of sensors that relay data to computers using cellular technologies The voluminous amounts of data will require standardized QA/QC protocols and a cyberinfrastructure capable of handling multiple data streams The US National Science Foundation funded Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs) in the United States and Europe are currently involved in standardizing the cyberinfrastructure across all six US CZOs and developing data sharing protocols to ensure widespread dissemination and use of collected data Forest hydrologists and biogeochemists should get involved in the CZOs and Long Term Ecological Research sites (LTERs) to the greatest extent possible These community-based resources can and should be leveraged to further our understanding on the hydrology and biogeochemistry of forests Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, a LTER, clearly demonstrates the scientific value of such sites Involvement in LTERs and CZOs will move the frontiers of knowledge in forest hydrology and biogeochemistry forward The use of wireless and new sensor technologies will deepen our knowledge and permit better stewardship of forest resources, especially in a changing world where multiple stressors act synergistically at multiple temporal and spatial scales to alter hydrological and biogeochemical cycling in forests The editors believe that the knowledge base of forest hydrology and biogeochemistry will be expanded and deepened significantly over the next decade if we avail ourselves to the opportunities described earlier The synthesis of past research in this volume, together with the future research directions charted in the chapters, should position us well to make the most of these opportunities References Li XY, Yan ZP, Li YT, Lin H (2009) Connecting ecohydrology and hydropedology in desert shrubs: stemflow as a source of preferential flow in soils Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 13:1133–1144 Lin H (2003) Hydropedology: bridging disciplines, scales, and data Vadose Zone J 2:1–11 McClain ME, Boyer EW, Dent CL et al (2003) Biogeochemical hot spots and hot moments at the interface of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems Ecosystems 6:301–312 Index A Absorbance, 19, 119, 122–128, 180 Acid deposition, 16, 17, 669, 685, 696–698 Acid neutralization, 379, 685 Acid soils, 688, 696 Advection, 126, 142, 229, 404, 410, 414, 419 Albedo, 29, 40, 57, 396, 433, 546, 547, 614, 660, 712, 713, 716, 718–721 Alpine, 126, 459, 462, 610, 612, 690 Altitudinal change, 237–239 Aluminum, 16 Amazon, 56, 187–189, 191–197, 245, 293, 485, 486, 489, 522, 526, 599 Anion, 40, 118, 164, 438, 647, 671 Antecedent dry period, 432 Apogeotropic roots, 197, 730 Aquifer, 9, 142, 149, 150, 169, 508, 576 Arid, 89, 180, 285–297, 305, 321, 329, 330, 360, 485, 506, 684, 699 Autumn, 568, 573, 575, 630, 631, 639, 689 B Base cation cycling, 557, 638, 639 deposition, 344, 345 soil, 16, 344, 349, 647, 696 Base flow, 150, 510, 512 Biogeophysics, 711 Bowen ratio, 138 Bulk soil, 146, 147, 483–486, 490, 493, 494, 532, 583, 731 C 13 C, 123, 131, 139, 140, 150–155, 582, 584, 588 Calcium, 15–17, 91, 358, 360, 366, 532, 534, 584, 638 Canopy gaps, 376, 409, 435, 547–549 Canopy interaction, 239–244, 432 Canopy phenology, 376, 530, 534 Canopy storage capacity, 409, 427, 429, 430, 435, 448 Canopy structure, 42, 53, 103, 187, 241, 371–383, 399, 429, 432–435, 545, 546, 559, 568, 730, 731 Capillary, 145, 372, 511, 606 Carbon, 18, 29, 87, 103, 117–131, 137, 168, 194–196, 204, 210–212, 236, 272, 289, 305, 321, 343, 367, 391, 399, 484, 528, 541, 557, 581, 599, 630, 668, 687, 711, 729 Carbon cycle/Carbon cycling, 117–119, 137, 139, 150–152, 154–156, 194, 214, 329, 484, 486, 550, 651, 711–716, 719, 721, 722 Catchment See Watershed Catchment hydrology, 84, 163, 179, 262 Catchment-scale effect, 279, 297 Cation exchange, 625, 647, 688 CH4, 88, 89, 194, 195, 329, 332, 334–336, 488, 533, 581, 586, 588, 589, 613, 614, 650, 651, 655, 697, 698, 711 CI model, 504–506 Climate change, 4, 17, 19, 31, 58, 61, 180, 217, 221, 233, 252, 293, 306, 310–313, 332, 342, 368, 404, 420, 484, 495, 499, 513, 534, 543, 550, 581, 591, 592, 613–614, 638, 654, 655, 660, 673, 696, 698–700, 702, 703, 711–722, 731, 732 D.F Levia et al (eds.), Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry: Synthesis of Past Research and Future Directions, Ecological Studies 216, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-1363-5, # Springer Science+Business Media B.V 2011 735 736 Climate model, 494, 581, 711–713, 715, 716, 718, 720, 721 Cloud deposition, 244, 246, 252, 363, 364, 366, 368 Cloud water interception, 222–223, 225, 227, 228, 241, 244–248, 252 CO2, 88, 89, 103, 106, 117, 122, 141, 148, 150–156, 194, 195, 208, 211–213, 232, 233, 293, 329–333, 335, 391, 392, 398, 403, 484– 488, 495, 531, 533, 534, 562, 584, 586, 588, 589, 605, 613, 614, 637, 650, 651, 655, 697, 699, 711, 713–716, 719, 722 Conductance aerodynamic conductance, 322, 326, 400, 401, 404, 410, 411 boundary-layer conductance, 390 canopy conductance, 326, 400, 402, 404, 410 Contaminants, 31, 60, 118, 204, 205, 608, 612, 647, 669–672, 696, 702 Convection, 404, 614, 660 Critical Zone Observatory, 31, 32, 39, 40, 42, 731, 733 D Darcy’s law, 346 Data assimilation, 46, 48, 58, 64 Data fusion, 46, 48, 56, 58, 64, 722 Decomposition, 14, 117, 210–213, 217, 233, 234, 236, 237, 252, 309, 310, 331, 333, 334, 347–350, 449, 559, 568, 574, 576, 585–588, 590, 592, 605, 609, 634, 635, 639, 648, 649, 671, 689, 690, 692, 696, 697, 699, 700, 715, 716 Deuterium, 140, 163 d-excess, 142, 144–147, 149 Digital elevation model (DEM), 49, 69, 70, 72, 73, 77, 79, 82, 83, 85, 86, 90, 93 Digital terrain analysis, 45, 69–95 Dissolved organic carbon, 90, 117–131, 168, 175, 207, 332, 557, 630, 668, 699 Dissolved organic matter (DOM), 117–131, 569, 570, 731 Disturbance, 7, 16, 17, 91, 154, 204, 213, 333, 334, 342, 371, 375, 558, 581, 623, 624, 626, 628–630, 633–635, 637–639, 648–655, 663, 666, 671, 672, 700 Diurnal signal, 508, 512 Double-funneling, 425, 460, 469, 484–486, 495 Index Drought, 18, 274, 301, 305, 309, 311, 312, 326–328, 336, 347, 506, 521, 525–529, 533, 541, 558, 569, 581–592, 599, 613, 699, 718 Dry canopy, 325 Dry deposition, 239, 241, 244, 249, 250, 287, 343–345, 357, 361–363, 366, 367, 379, 380, 382, 438, 530–531, 669, 682–684 E Eco-hydrology, 107, 312 Ecophysiology, 248, 399, 404, 582 Ecosystem model, 18, 716 Eddy covariance, 32, 63, 101–112, 195, 217, 222, 225–226, 228, 321, 397, 400, 420, 544, 714, 718, 729, 730 Embedded sensors, 29, 31–35 Emissions, 16, 88, 119, 124, 125, 127, 128, 196, 208, 209, 211, 213, 239, 245, 272, 309, 330, 334–336, 358–360, 362, 366, 367, 431, 530, 533, 546–548, 590, 613, 614, 679–682, 684, 692, 696–698, 702, 703, 711, 714, 715, 719, 721 End-member mixing analysis (EMMA), 164–170, 173–180, 601 Energy balance, 9, 29, 57, 103, 118, 151, 248, 396–398, 404, 412, 433, 453, 541, 542, 545, 547, 549 Enrichment ratio, 245, 344, 436–438, 651 Environmental control, 88, 401, 403 Epiphytes, 225, 230–232, 240, 244–248, 252, 365, 372–373, 381–383, 410, 414, 415, 419, 433 Epiphytic lichens, 372, 373, 381, 382, 410, 531, 684 Evaporation, 3, 57, 101–112, 143, 145–147, 192, 205, 222, 224, 263, 286, 302, 322, 326–329, 343, 372, 389, 407, 410–412, 427, 445, 461, 522, 661, 684, 713 Evapotranspiration, 6, 31, 48, 70, 117, 148, 187, 221, 262, 290, 305, 459, 499, 523, 541, 586, 600, 626, 646, 660, 711 Excitation–emission matrices (EEMs), 119, 124–128, 130 Experimental watershed, 5–8, 31, 274, 624, 648, 651, 654 F Fire, 155, 170, 239, 241, 292, 293, 312, 329, 331, 333, 334, 336, 521, 541, 542, 548, 550, 558, 599–614, 623, 624, 637, 673, 716 Index Floodplain, 522, 526, 589 Floods, 3–5, 7–8, 12, 13, 31, 61, 85, 455, 549, 604, 666 Flowpath, 17, 60, 72–74, 78–80, 83–87, 95, 117, 123, 164, 178, 381, 425, 434, 456, 458, 464, 485, 542, 602, 606 Fluorescence, 119, 120, 122–130, 494, 729–731 Flux partitioning, 88, 89, 101, 148, 155, 223, 225, 287, 288, 396, 403, 453, 460, 461, 472, 473, 522, 541, 543, 663, 711 Fog, 221–252, 357, 361, 363, 365, 367, 522, 661, 684 Fog gauge, 222, 223, 229 Forest canopies, 9, 53, 56, 109, 110, 144, 193, 361, 363, 365, 371, 373–375, 378, 381, 382, 401–420, 461, 488, 527, 530–532, 546, 568, 584, 623, 702, 731 Forest decline, 272, 309 Forest floor, 55, 87, 144, 177, 188, 204, 308, 334, 342, 371, 425, 445–453, 485, 500, 528, 557, 602, 625, 648, 660, 687, 731 Forest harvesting, 5, 513, 623, 624, 637–639, 646, 659–674 Forest management, 4, 7, 10, 12, 15, 19, 59–61, 76, 92, 93, 95, 374–375, 659, 672, 673, 696, 698–700 Forest operations, 46, 61, 83, 92, 663, 665 Funneling ratio, 377, 433, 434 G Geographical information systems (GIS), 45, 46, 51, 55, 58, 62–64, 69 Groundwater level fluctuation, 508, 510–513 Groundwater recharge (process of), 506–508, 513 H Heavy metals, 348, 679, 682, 684–690, 692, 696, 698, 703 Hillslope hydrology, 9, 193, 262, 270, 290, 291, 455–474, 730 Hubbard Brook, 3, 7, 10–13, 15, 16, 18, 196, 198, 264, 266, 272, 273, 276, 349, 358, 362, 575, 624, 627, 628, 631, 637, 639, 729, 733 Humidity, 32, 35, 43, 143–145, 148, 149, 391, 398, 414, 453, 530, 534, 668 Hurricane, 203, 438, 558, 638, 643–655 Hydrogen, 14, 84, 140, 148, 226, 359, 528, 529, 692 737 Hydrograph, 85, 86, 119, 120, 150, 151, 170, 173, 458, 460, 463, 510, 512, 541, 542, 652 Hydrograph separation, 149, 150, 163, 178 Hydrological connectivity, 80, 84, 90, 119, 296 Hydrologically sensitive areas, 93 Hydrologic connectivity, 179, 469, 663, 667 Hydrologic cycle, 7, 11, 30, 31, 141–150, 326, 407, 599, 711–713, 722 I Ice storm, 438, 521, 623–639, 731, 732 Infiltration, 9, 13, 17, 145–147, 164, 425, 445, 456, 457, 461, 462, 464, 466–469, 472, 485, 489, 490, 500, 502–508, 513, 523, 529, 530, 541, 543, 549, 600–603, 605, 606, 662, 663, 666, 667, 673, 711, 713, 714 Insect infestations, 309, 521, 576, 673 In-stream processes, 179, 278, 636, 673 Interception, 8, 9, 192, 286, 287, 302–304, 311, 312, 343, 374, 375, 378, 382, 383, 407–420, 522, 524, 646, 660, 683 forest floor interception, 188, 445–453 snow interception, 328, 329, 542–546, 548, 661 Isotopes, 84, 137–156, 163, 164, 180, 207, 222, 226, 271, 429, 437, 448, 453, 528, 529, 729 K Keeling plots, 148, 149, 152–155 L Land cover, 19, 51, 54, 58, 63, 88, 90, 126, 251, 291, 361, 363, 659, 665 Land cover change, 229, 368, 673, 711, 716–719, 722 Land use, 19, 58, 60, 63, 88, 118, 138, 156, 180, 292, 293, 296, 347, 365, 404, 472, 544, 624, 636, 639, 659, 665, 668, 671, 673, 712, 714, 716, 719–722 Latent heat, 108, 109, 396, 397, 403, 410, 543–546, 711, 714, 718 Leaf area index (LAI), 53, 58, 63, 108–111, 286, 305, 323–324, 328, 365, 372, 376, 400, 414, 415, 419, 430, 450, 524, 527, 568, 651, 699, 718, 719 Litterfall, 215, 239, 247, 250, 346, 374, 585–587, 680, 681, 689 738 Litter inputs, 239, 240, 247, 251, 648–649, 689, 690, 699 Longwave radiation, 544, 546–549, 711 Lowland tropical forest, 73, 187–198, 501 Luquillo Mountains, 645, 646, 648–651, 653, 654 Lysimeter, 40, 110, 147, 177, 249, 346, 451, 453, 461, 635 Index Nutrient limitation, 10, 217, 587 Nutrient output, 14, 252, 309, 346 Nutrients, 10, 31, 57, 69, 147, 196, 203, 221, 262, 285, 308, 321, 357, 394, 455, 483, 532, 557–576, 581, 599, 623, 645, 668, 679 O O, 142, 144 Organic matter, 11, 117–127, 129, 130, 155, 206, 211, 213, 233, 234, 237, 246–249, 289, 290, 294, 296, 308, 310, 330, 332, 347, 349, 358, 373–375, 383, 557–559, 569, 570, 573, 575, 576, 586, 587, 605, 607, 612, 650, 651, 655, 687, 688, 692, 696, 697, 703, 715, 716, 731 Overland flow, 9, 70, 164, 170–172, 180, 456, 457, 460, 491–493, 502, 602, 603, 662, 663, 665–667 18 M Macropore, 71, 85, 95, 146, 147, 458, 460, 464–466, 490, 492, 506–508, 513 Magnesium, 91, 168, 358, 360, 366, 530, 532, 534, 638 Mangrove, 203–217 Marine salts, 646–648 Maritime climate, 262, 271, 274, 276, 279 Measuring techniques, 450, 510 Mediterranean area, 301–302, 306, 348 Mediterranean forest, 301–313, 348, 527 Mercury, 367, 612, 671, 672, 679, 682, 696 Meteorology, 10, 143, 363, 471, 530, 703 Mineralization, 208, 211, 233–237, 278, 279, 311, 348–350, 358, 533, 534, 566, 575, 590, 610, 634, 652, 671, 690–693, 716 Mineral soil, 34, 458, 529, 530, 587–588, 626, 635, 638, 686, 688, 692, 699 Monsoon climate, 277, 278 N Network performance, 35, 37, 39 Nitrate, 14, 15, 18, 90, 123, 358, 359, 366, 513, 532, 534, 575, 590, 610, 623, 626, 628–634, 636, 637, 647, 650–654, 671, 693, 696, 697, 700 Nitrification, 14, 126, 366, 533, 568, 586, 590, 591, 609, 634, 647, 652, 671, 690 Nitrogen, 14, 42, 87, 108, 117, 137, 196, 203, 233, 272, 287, 335, 342, 357, 381, 485, 557, 584, 623, 649, 679, 714 Nitrogen export, 275–278, 310, 655 Nitrous oxide (N2O), 88, 89, 209, 329, 334, 335, 359, 533, 567, 581, 586, 590, 591, 650, 651, 655, 697, 698, 711 Nutrient balances, 309, 681, 696 Nutrient cycling, 10, 11, 13–16, 147, 197, 233, 234, 246, 247, 250, 252, 272, 308–310, 312, 342, 346–350, 367, 381, 383, 558, 559, 568, 574–576, 605, 608–609 Nutrient fluxes, 557–576 Nutrient input, 197, 233, 239, 240, 246–248, 250–252, 289, 296, 342, 345, 379–381, 437, 570, 573–575 P Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), 119, 125, 126 Particulate organic matter (POM), 129, 130, 559, 569, 570 Patchy vegetation, 289–291, 294 Penman-Monteith equation, 322 Phosphorus, 89–91, 197, 203, 207, 217, 236, 237, 289, 293, 310, 313, 358, 381, 587, 672, 722 Photosynthesis, 393 Plant water relations, 293 Pollutant cycling, 679, 682–695, 698–703 Pollutant fluxes, 679, 683 Pollution, 17, 18, 239, 341, 342, 348, 365–367, 431, 612, 682, 684, 685, 689, 692, 693, 699, 702, 703 Population ecology, 559, 560, 562, 576 Potassium, 358, 381, 532, 534, 638, 651, 653 Preferential flow, 33, 34, 146, 174, 288, 291, 294, 309, 311, 373, 374, 381, 457–459, 462, 464–466, 469, 472, 484, 485, 489, 490, 494, 506, 507, 513, 576, 602, 606, 607, 732 R Rainfall intensity, 51, 178, 241, 286, 288, 290, 304, 378, 381, 383, 409, 427, 429, 431, 434, 456, 460, 461, 469, 507, 522, 645 Rainfall partitioning, 285–288, 301–304, 468, 472 Index Remote sensing, 72, 89, 93–95, 104, 106, 112, 198, 404, 420, 453, 550, 551, 638, 718, 729, 730 Respiration, 18, 151–155, 194, 195, 206, 208, 211–213, 215, 216, 293, 330–333, 393, 484, 486–488, 495, 531, 533, 566, 581, 585, 586, 588, 697, 715 Rhizosphere, 147, 483–495, 692, 693, 731, 732 Rhizospheric soil, 484 Riparian zone, 76, 84, 169, 172–174, 249, 278, 294, 499, 509–511, 513, 653, 654 Root-channelization flow, 507, 508 Runoff generation processes, 308 Runoff sources, 163–180 S Sampling design, 30–35, 39, 42–43 Sap flow, 31, 33, 42, 321, 399, 400, 526 Seasonality of biogeochemical flux, 530–534 Seasonality of precipitation, 188 Sediments, 7, 31, 60, 61, 69, 75, 76, 92, 93, 121, 204, 206, 207, 210–212, 289, 290, 334, 455, 542, 602, 604–606, 610, 612–614, 652, 668, 672, 673 Sediment transport, 210, 542, 604, 612, 614, 672 Semiarid, 89, 107, 111, 285–297, 344, 360, 377, 425, 466, 549 Sensible heat, 396, 397,410, 412, 414, 547, 714 Shortwave radiation, 54, 546, 547, 661 Shrubs, 225, 286–289, 292, 293, 295, 301, 302, 305, 311, 425, 501, 506, 546, 547 Sierra Nevada, 30, 31, 33, 269 Snow, 7, 13, 29–38, 40–43, 48, 50, 52–54, 64, 105, 119, 120, 150, 264, 275, 322, 328, 329, 336, 357, 360, 361, 363, 366, 367, 383, 433, 434, 436–438, 449, 455, 456, 458, 459, 461, 466, 488, 521, 528, 530, 541–551, 610, 624, 626, 631, 632, 661, 711, 713, 718, 719 Snowmelt, 8, 14, 17, 33, 41, 119, 120, 150, 275, 383, 433, 434, 438, 455, 458, 459, 461, 464, 466, 488, 541–544, 546–551, 610, 631, 632, 661 Snow-vegetation interactions, 541–543, 550 Soil hydrophobicity, 488, 602, 605, 607 Soil microbial ecology, 484, 487, 559, 575, 588, 592, 671 Soil moisture, 29, 31–33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 42, 48, 52, 55, 56, 59, 62, 64, 73, 89, 103, 105, 107, 109, 110, 117, 154, 178, 192, 276, 288, 290, 306–307, 325, 739 326, 328, 342, 347, 447, 452, 459, 461, 466, 468, 472, 485–488, 490–494, 500, 510–512, 529, 533, 534, 541–543, 549, 551, 568, 581, 585, 589–591, 602, 605, 634, 690, 714 Soil moisture dynamics, 486, 487, 490–493, 510, 512 Soil respiration, 18, 152, 155, 194, 195, 215, 216, 293, 332, 484, 486–488, 533, 566, 586, 588, 697 Soil water repellency, 488–490 Solute tracers, 164–167, 175, 177 Spatial patterns of throughfall, 430 Spatial variability, 32, 76, 290, 307, 312, 375, 430–432, 451, 458, 499, 500, 503, 557, 586, 602, 733 Species effects, 462, 491 Spring, 4, 104, 170, 171, 466, 527, 528, 530, 541, 545, 551, 568, 573, 612, 628, 630–632, 661 Stable-isotope hydrology, 137–156 Stable isotopes, 84, 137–156, 163, 207, 222, 226, 429, 453 Stemflow, 9, 191, 192, 194, 195, 197, 206, 224, 228, 241, 249, 250, 286–288, 295, 296, 301–302, 311, 342, 343, 374–378, 380–383, 408, 416–418, 420, 425–438, 460, 468, 469, 472, 484, 485, 488, 499–508, 512, 513, 523–525, 529, 530, 534, 568, 576, 682–685, 711, 713, 730, 731 Stomata, 105, 232, 306, 344, 391, 410, 448, 484, 525, 531, 582, 584, 713 Stomatal conductance, 9, 17, 57, 192, 193, 232, 305, 306, 391, 394, 400, 525, 584, 713, 718 Storage capacity, 39, 231, 232, 289, 295, 328, 343, 374, 378, 383, 409, 427, 429, 430, 433–435, 437, 446, 448–451, 453, 456, 490, 524, 529, 604, 702 Streamflow, 4, 5, 7–9, 13–15, 17, 31, 40, 117, 120, 163, 165, 169, 171, 178, 193, 222, 229, 249, 264, 291, 292, 295, 306–308, 375, 438, 460, 508–510, 521, 610, 626, 627, 659, 663–671, 673, 731 Streamflow biogeochemistry, 117, 291, 292, 626, 664–668, 731 Stressor, 19, 438, 672, 729, 731–733 Subsurface stormflow, 9, 456, 663 Sulfate, 14–16, 358, 359, 646, 683, 692, 693 Sulfur, 14, 140, 237, 244, 251, 313, 343, 344, 357–359, 362, 365, 653, 679–684, 688, 689, 692, 697, 698 740 Index Summer, 7, 14, 15, 42, 54, 56, 104, 105, 119, 120, 150, 168, 448, 450, 466, 521, 522, 525, 527, 530, 531, 569, 628, 632, 634–636, 668, 699, 718 V Vapor pressure deficit, 109, 111, 372, 391, 394, 396, 401, 402, 404, 410, 411, 414, 419 Vegetation change, 291–295, 543, 548 T Temperate forest, 18, 118, 196, 261–279, 286, 372, 373, 379, 500, 521, 527, 533, 534, 557, 559, 561, 564, 571, 589, 624, 633, 636, 638, 639, 645, 651, 689, 693, 697, 719 Temporal dynamics, 126, 306, 307, 573 Temporal variability, 93, 175–177, 288, 294, 363, 425, 432, 433, 436, 473, 507, 543, 549, 629 Throughfall, 9, 164, 206, 286, 301, 328, 374, 409, 425–438, 445, 485, 500, 522–524, 557, 590, 604, 680, 711 Tides, 203–205, 207, 208, 210, 211, 213, 214, 216 Topography, 5, 29, 40, 42, 48, 51, 55, 56, 58, 60, 63, 69–73, 78–83, 85–95, 124, 125, 208, 211, 225, 229, 230, 241, 251, 290, 296, 307, 335, 363–365, 367, 431, 458, 459, 463–469, 472, 541, 544–546, 550, 625, 664, 666, 673 Trace gas flux, 649–651 Trace metals, 431, 612, 613, 670, 673, 686, 702 Transpiration, 8, 53, 101, 142, 192–193, 232, 292, 304–307, 322, 343, 389–404, 410, 448, 459, 484, 509, 541, 661, 683, 713 Tropical Montane cloud forest, 221–252 W Water balance, 10, 18, 29–32, 38, 42, 46, 51–61, 64, 80, 101, 103, 111, 143, 148–149, 156, 206, 222–225, 227, 233, 248, 263, 270, 292, 304, 305, 311, 407, 410, 416–420, 432, 433, 452, 468, 472, 500, 503, 504, 512, 513, 523, 529, 545, 549 Water circulation, 203, 208, 216 Water cycle See Hydrologic cycle Water quality, 7, 12, 31, 61, 89, 117, 118, 179, 513, 542, 613, 614, 668, 669, 671, 672 Watershed, 4, 29, 31, 46, 51, 69, 70, 101, 111, 117–131, 138, 149, 163, 188, 206, 248–251, 262, 285, 292, 305, 343, 346, 357, 365, 420, 451, 455, 499, 511, 522, 542, 575, 599–615, 624, 625, 646, 659, 714 Watershed hydrology, 164 Watershed models, 179, 461 Water storage, 39, 48, 52–57, 59, 70, 71, 81–83, 180, 224, 231, 232, 289, 295, 328, 372–375, 378, 383, 427, 433, 435, 437, 446, 490–493, 523, 524, 529, 604, 662, 666 Water temperature, 43, 668 Wet-canopy evaporation, 232, 251, 401, 522 Wet-canopy water balance, 222–225, 228 Wet deposition, 344, 357, 361–363, 366, 380, 530, 684 White–method, 508–512 Winter, 14, 30, 42, 56, 104, 105, 150, 436, 448, 450, 466, 521, 530, 531, 544, 546–550, 560, 561, 565, 628, 699 U Understory, 110–111, 147–149, 419, 430, 431, 460, 524, 525, 528, 612, 697 Urban forest, 341–351, 685 ... Co-Editors Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry Synthesis of Past Research and Future Directions Editors Dr Delphis F Levia University of Delaware Departments of Geography & Plant and Soil Science... to forest linkages; most notably biogeochemistry Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry: Synthesis of Past Research and Future Directions is a long anticipated, important addition to the field of. .. biogeochemical processes of forests, and the effects of time, stressors, and people on forest hydrology and biogeochemistry It is important to note that each part examines forest hydrology and biogeochemistry
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Xem thêm: Forest hydrology and biogeochemistry synthesis of past research and future directions , Forest hydrology and biogeochemistry synthesis of past research and future directions , 4 Case Study: The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study as a Lens into the Development of Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry, 3 Evaporation from Forests, Magnitudes, and Variations, 2 Equations, Assumptions, and Procedures for Geochemical Mixing Models and EMMA, 2 Boundary Layer (ga) and Stomatal (gS) Conductance, 4 Process-Based Examples of Ecohydrology, Biogeochemistry, and the Rhizosphere, 2 Snow Interception, Sublimation, and Latent Heat Flux, 2 Drought, the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum, and Canopy Processes, 4 Ice Storms and N Cycling in Forests: Contextualizing the Broader Literature, 2 Hydrology, Biogeochemistry, and Ecosystems in Climate Models

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