Chemistry a guided inquiry 6th edition by moog farrell

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This page intentionally left blank CHEMISTRY A Guided Inquiry Richard S Moog Professor Franklin & Marshall College John J Farrell Professor Emeritus Franklin & Marshall College John Wiley & Sons, Inc New York Chichester Brisbane Toronto Singapore COVER PHOTO: © Aleksander Trankov/iStockphoto Copyright  2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc has been a valued source of knowledge and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations Our company is built on a foundation of principles that include responsibility to the communities we serve and where we live and work In 2008, we launched a Corporate Citizenship Initiative, a global effort to address the environmental, social, economic, and ethical challenges we face in our business Among the issues we are addressing are carbon impact, paper specifications and procurement, ethical conduct within our business and among our vendors, and community and charitable support For more information, please visit our website: www.wiley.com/go/citizenship No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978)7508400, fax (978)750-4470, or on the web at www.copyright.com Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774, (201)748-6011, fax (201)748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions Evaluation copies are provided to qualified academics and professionals for review purposes only, for use in their courses during the next academic year These copies are licensed and may not be sold or transferred to a third party Upon completion of the review period, please return the evaluation copy to Wiley Return instructions and a free of charge return shipping label are available at www.wiley.com/go/returnlabel If you have chosen to adopt this textbook for use in your course, please accept this book as your complimentary desk copy Outside of the United States, please contact your local representative ISBN-13 978-0-470-64790-5 Printed in the United States of America 10 Printed and bound by Bind-Rite/Robbinsville To the Instructor These activities are designed to be used by students working in groups There are many written materials available on-line to help instructors use these activities effectively Please contact your Wiley representative for information on how to obtain access to these materials, or visit the web site at: http://www.wiley.com/college/moog The Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) project supports the dissemination and implementation of these types of materials for a variety of chemistry courses (high school, organic, physical, etc.) and in other disciplines Information about the project and its activities (including additional materials, workshops, and other professional development opportunities) can be found at http://www.pogil.org The POGIL Project is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants DUE0231120, 0618746, 0618758, and 0618800 Acknowledgments This book is the result of the innumerable interactions that we have had with a large number of stimulating and thoughtful people • Special thanks to Dan Apple, Pacific Crest Software, for taking us to this previously untraveled path The Pacific Crest Teaching Institute we attended in 1994 provided us with the initial insights and inspiration to convert our classroom into a fully student-centered environment • Thanks to the National Science Foundation (Grants DUE-0231120, 0618746, 0618758, and 0618800) for its support of The POGIL Project, which fosters the dissemination of guided-inquiry materials and encourages faculty to develop and use student-centered approaches in their classrooms • Many thanks to Jim Spencer, Professor Emeritus, Franklin & Marshall College, for his helpful and insightful discussions, comments, and corrections • We greatly appreciate the support and encouragement of the many members of the Middle Atlantic Discovery Chemistry Project and The POGIL Project, who have provided us with an opportunity to discuss our ideas with interested, stimulating, and dedicated colleagues • Thanks to the numerous colleagues who used our previous editions in their classrooms Many provided us with insightful comments and suggestions for which we are grateful • We thank Carol Strausser, Academic Department Coordinator, Franklin & Marshall College, for her excellent work on this manuscript, constructing the figures and typing and re-typing our corrections and re-corrections • A great debt of thanks is due our students in General Chemistry at Franklin & Marshall College Their enthusiasm for this approach, patience with our errors, and helpful and insightful comments have inspired us to continue to develop as instructors, and have helped us to improve these materials immeasurably Contents Chem Topic Activity To the Student Page 1 10 11 12 Atomic Structure The Nuclear Atom Atomic Number and Atomic Mass Coulombic Potential Energy The Shell Model (I) The Shell Model (II) Atomic Size Electromagnetic Radiation Photoelectron Spectroscopy The Shell Model (III) Electron Configurations Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table Electron Spin 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Molecular Structure Lewis Structures (I) Bond Order and Bond Strength Lewis Structures (II) Lewis Structures (III) Lewis Structures (IV) Molecular Shapes Hybrid Orbitals Average Valence Electron Energies Partial Charge Polar, Nonpolar, and Ionic Bonds Dipole Moment 74 82 90 96 102 108 118 122 126 132 136 24 25 26 27 Solids and Liquids The Ionic Bond Metals The Bond-Type Triangle Intermolecular Forces 142 148 152 157 28 29 30 31 32 Stoichiometry The Mole Concept Chemical Equations Limiting Reagent Empirical Formula Molarity 164 168 174 178 182 33 Gases The Ideal Gas Law 190 34 35 Thermochemistry Enthalpy of Atom Combination Enthalpy Changes in Chemical Reactions 194 200 16 22 30 40 44 48 56 60 64 68 ii 36 37 38 39 40 41 Equilibrium Rates of Chemical Reactions (I) Equilibrium (I) Equilibrium (II) The Equilibrium Constant(I) The Reaction Quotient The Solubility Product 206 211 217 224 232 242 42 43 44 45 46 47 Acids and Bases Acids and Bases Acid Strength Weak Acid/Base Dissociation pH Relative Acid Strength Acid/Base Strength of Conjugate Pairs 252 256 264 272 277 284 48 49 50 51 Oxidation-Reduction Redox Reactions Oxidation Numbers The Electrochemical Cell The Cell Voltage 291 294 298 304 52 53 54 55 56 Thermodynamics Entropy (I) Entropy (II) Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions The Equilibrium Constant (II) The Equilibrium Constant (III) 308 314 318 326 331 57 58 59 60 61 62 Kinetics Rates of Chemical Reactions (II) Integrated Rate Laws Reaction Mechanisms (I) Reaction Mechanisms (II) Reaction Mechanisms (III) Activation Energy 336 346 354 359 371 376 Additional Exercises for Students Using Chemistry: Structure & Bonding (Fifth Edition) By J.N Spencer, G.M Bodner and L.H Rickard Appendix TABLE A.1 TABLE A.2 TABLE A.3 Index Values of Selected Fundamental Constants Selected Conversion Factors Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and Entropies of Atom Combination 379 381 381 382 391 To the Student Science and engineering have dominated world events and world culture for at least 150 years The blind and near blind have been made to see The deaf and near deaf have been made to hear The ill have been made well The weak have been made strong Radio, television and the internet have made the world seem smaller And some of us have left the planet Computers have played an essential role in all of these developments; they are now ubiquitous These miraculous events happened by design— not by accident Individuals and teams set out to accomplish goals They systematically studied and analyzed the natural world around us They designed and tested new tools Human beings have embarked on a journey that cannot be reversed We hope that you can participate in and contribute to these exciting times There is simply too much chemistry—not to mention physics, mathematics, biology, geology, and engineering—for any one person to assimilate As a result, groups have become essential to identifying, defining, and solving problems in our society This book was designed to be used by you as a working member of a group, actively engaged with the important basic concepts of chemistry Our goals are to have you learn how to examine and process information, to ask good questions, to construct your own understanding, and to build your problem-solving skills If ever a book was written for students—this is it This is not a textbook This is not a study guide This book is "a guided inquiry," in which you will examine data, written descriptions, and figures to develop chemical concepts Each concept is explored in a ChemActivity comprising several sections—one or more Model and Information sections, Critical Thinking Questions, and Exercises and Problems You and your group study the Models and Information and systematically work through the Critical Thinking Questions In doing so, you will discover important chemical principles and relationships If you understand the answer to a question, but other members of your group not, it is your responsibility to explain the answer Explaining concepts to other members of your group not only helps in their understanding, it broadens your understanding If you not understand the answer to a question, you should ask one or more good questions (to the other members of your group) Learning to ask questions that clearly and concisely describe what you not understand is an important skill This book has many Critical Thinking Questions that serve as examples To reinforce the ideas that are developed, and to practice applying them to new situations, numerous Exercises and Problems are provided; these are important for you to apply your new knowledge to new situations and solidify your understanding We have found the combination of these methods to be a more effective learning strategy than the traditional lecture, and the vast majority of our students have agreed We hope that you will take ownership of your learning and that you will develop skills for lifelong learning Nobody else can it for you We wish you well in this undertaking If you have any suggestions on how to improve this book, please write to us John J Farrell Richard S Moog Chemistry Department Franklin & Marshall College Lancaster, PA 17604 Rick.Moog@FandM.edu ChemActivity The Nuclear Atom (What Is an Atom?) Model: Schematic Diagrams for Various Atoms 1H and 2H are isotopes of hydrogen 12C and 13C are isotopes of carbon 381 Appendix TABLE A.1 Values of Selected Fundamental Constants Speed of light in a vacuum (c) c = 2.99792458 x 108 m/s Charge on an electron (qe) qe = 1.6021892 x 10–19 C Rest mass of an electron (me) me = 9.109534 x 10–28 g me = 5.4858026 x 10–4 amu Rest mass of a proton (mp) mp = 1.6726485 x 10–24 g mp = 1.00727647 amu Rest mass of a neutron (mn) mn = 1.6749543 x 10–24 g mn = 1.008665012 amu Faraday's constant (F) F = 96,484.56 C/mol Planck's constant (h) h = 6.626176 x 10–34 J s Ideal gas constant (R) R = 0.0820568 L-atm/mol-K R = 8.31441 J/mol-K Atomic mass unit (amu) amu = 1.6605655 x 10–24 g Boltzmann's constant (k) k = 1.380662 x 10–23 J/K Avogadro's constant (N) N = 6.022045 x 1023 mol–1 Rydberg constant (RH) RH = 1.09737318 x 107 m–1 = 1.09737318 x 10–2 nm–1 Heat capacity of water C = 75.376 J/mol-K TABLE A.2 Energy Selected Conversion Factors J = 0.2390 cal = 107 erg = volt•coulomb cal = 4.184 J (by definition) ev/atom = 1.6021892 x 10–19 J/atom = 96.484 kJ/mol Temperature K = °C + 273.15 °C = (5/9)(°F – 32) °F = (9/5)(°C) + 32 Pressure atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 101.325 kPa Mass kg = 2.2046 lb lb = 453.59 g = 0.45359 kg oz = 0.06250 lb = 28.350 g ton = 2000 lb = 907.185 kg tonne (metric) = 1000 kg = 2204.62 lb Volume mL = 0.001 L = cm3 (by definition) oz (fluid) = 0.031250 qt = 0.029573 L qt = 0.946326 L L = 1.05672 qt m = 39.370 in mi = 1.60934 km in = 2.54 cm (by definition) Length 382 TABLE A.3 Substance Al(s) Al(g) Al+3(aq) Al2O3(s) AlCl3(s) AlF3(s) Al2(SO4)3(s) Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and Entropies of Atom Combination ∆Hac ° ∆G° ∆Sac ° ac (kJ/mol) (kJ/mol) (J/mol-K) Aluminum –326.4 –285.7 –136.21 0 –857 –77.1 –486.2 –3076.0 –2848.9 –761.33 –1395.6 –1231.5 –549.46 –2067.5 –1896.4 –574.36 –7920.1 –7166.9 –2525.9 Ba(s) Ba(g) Ba+2(aq) BaO(s) Ba(OH)2.8H2O(s) BaCl2(s) BaCl2(aq) BaSO4(s) Ba(NO3)2(s) Ba(NO3)2(aq) Barium –180 –146 0 –718 –707 –983 –903 –9931.6 –8915 –1282 –1168 –1295 –1181 –2929 –2673 –3612 –3217 –3573 –3231 Be(s) Be(g) Be+2(aq) BeO(s) BeCl2(s) Beryllium –324.3 –286.6 0 –707.1 –666.3 –1183.1 –1026.6 –1058.1 –943.6 –126.77 –266.0 –283.18 –383.99 Bi(s) Bi(g) Bi2O3(s) BiCl3(s) BiCl3(g) Bi2S3(s) Bismuth –207.1 –168.2 0 –1735.6 –1525.3 –951.2 –800.2 –837.8 –741.2 –1393.7 –1191.8 –130.31 –705.8 –505.6 –323.79 –677.2 B(s) B(g) B2O3(s) B2H6(g) B5H9() B10H14(s) Boron –562.7 –518.8 0 –3145.7 –2926.4 –2395.7 –2170.4 –4729.7 –4251.4 –8719.3 –7841.2 (continued) –107.4 –160.6 –260.88 –3419 –376.96 –378.04 –850.1 –1229.4 –1140.7 –147.59 –736.10 –763.07 –1615.45 –2963.92 383 TABLE A.3 Substance H3BO3(s) BF3(g) BCl3() B3N3H6() B3N3H6(g) Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and Entropies of Atom Combination (continued) ∆Hac ° ∆G° ∆Sac ° ac (kJ/mol) (kJ/mol) (J/mol-K) –3057.5 –2792.7 –891.92 –1936.7 –1824.9 –375.59 –1354.9 –1223.2 –442.7 –4953.1 –4535.4 –1408.9 –4923.9 –4532.8 –1319.84 Br2() Br2(g) Br(g) HBr(g) HBr(aq) BrF(g) BrF3(g) BrF5(g) Bromine –223.768 –164.792 –192.86 –161.68 0 –365.93 –339.09 –451.08 –389.60 –284.72 –253.49 –604.45 –497.56 –935.73 –742.6 Ca(s) Ca(g) Ca+2(aq) CaO(s) Ca(OH)2(s) CaCl2(s) CaSO4(s) CaSO4.2H2O(s) Ca(NO3)2(s) CaCO3(s) Ca3(PO4)2(s) Calcium –178.2 –144.3 0 –721.0 –697.9 –1062.5 –980.1 –2097.9 –1912.7 –1217.4 –1103.8 –2887.8 –2631.3 –4256.7 –4383.2 –3557.0 –3189.0 –2849.3 –2639.5 –7278.0 –6727.9 C(graphite) C(diamond) C(g) CO(g) CO2(g) COCl2(g) CH4(g) HCHO(g) H2CO3(aq) HCO3–(aq) CO3–2(aq) CH3OH() CH3OH(g) CCl4() CCl4(g) CHCl3() Carbon –716.682 –671.257 –714.787 –668.357 0 –1076.377 –1040.156 –1608.531 –1529.078 –1428.0 –1318.9 –1662.09 –1535.00 –1509.72 –1412.01 –2599.14 –2396.02 –2373.83 –2156.47 –2141.33 –1894.26 –2075.11 –1882.25 –2037.11 –1877.94 –1338.84 –1159.19 –1306.3 –1154.57 –1433.84 –1265.20 –197.813 –104.58 –91.040 –207.3 –104.81 –358.75 –648.60 –113.46 –208.0 –276.19 –623.03 –380.7 –860.3 –1553.8 –1234.5 –703.2 –1843.5 –152.36 –155.719 –121.477 –266.47 –366.02 –430.68 –329.81 –683.3 –664.8 –698.16 –651.2 –538.19 –602.49 –509.04 –567.3 384 TABLE A.3 Substance CHCl3(g) CH2Cl2() CH2Cl2(g) CH3Cl(g) CS2() CS2(g) HCN(g) CH3NO2() C2H2(g) C2H4(g) C2H6(g) CH3CHO() CH3CO2H() CH3CO2H(g) CH3CO2H(aq) CH3CO2–(aq) CH3CH2OH() CH3CH2OH(g) CH3CH2OH(aq) C6H6() C6H6(g) Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and Entropies of Atom Combination (continued) ∆Hac ° ∆G° ∆Sac ° ac (kJ/mol) (kJ/mol) (J/mol-K) –1402.51 –1261.88 –472.69 –1516.80 –1356.37 –540.1 –1487.81 –1354.98 –447.69 –1572.15 –1444.08 –432.9 –1184.59 –1082.49 –342.40 –1156.93 –1080.64 –255.90 –1271.9 –1205.43 –224.33 –2453.77 –2214.51 –805.89 –1641.93 –1539.81 –344.68 –2251.70 –2087.35 –555.48 –2823.94 –2594.82 –774.87 –2745.43 –2515.35 –775.9 –3286.8 –3008.86 –937.4 –3234.55 –2992.96 –814.7 –3288.06 –3015.42 –918.5 –3070.66 –2785.03 –895.8 –3266.12 –2968.51 –1004.8 –3223.53 –2962.22 –882.82 –3276.7 –2975.37 –1017.0 –5556.96 –5122.52 –1464.1 –5523.07 –5117.36 –1367.7 Cl2(g) Cl(g) Cl–(aq) ClO2(g) Cl2O(g) Cl2O7() HCl(g) HCl(aq) ClF(g) Chlorine –243.358 –211.360 0 –288.838 –236.908 –517.5 –448.6 –412.2 –345.2 –1750 –431.64 –404.226 –506.49 –440.155 –255.15 –223.53 Cr(s) Cr(g) CrO3(s) CrO4–2(aq) Cr2O3(s) Cr2O7-2(aq) (NH4)2Cr2O7(s) PbCrO4(s) Chromium –396.6 –351.8 0 –1733.6 –2274.4 –2006.47 –2680.4 –2456.89 –4027.7 –3626.8 –7030.7 –2519.2 - Co(s) Co(g) Cobalt –424.7 –380.3 0 (continued) –107.330 –108.7 –230.47 –225.24 –93.003 –223.4 –106.06 –150.73 –768.51 –751.0 –1214.5 - –149.475 385 TABLE A.3 Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and Entropies of Atom Combination (continued) ∆Hac ° ∆G° ∆Sac ° ac Substance (kJ/mol) (kJ/mol) (J/mol-K) Co+2(aq) –482.9 –434.7 –293 Co+3(aq) –333 –246.3 –485 CoO(s) –911.8 –826.2 –287.60 Co3O4(s) –3162 –2842 –1080.3 Co(NH3)6+3(aq) –7763.5 –6929.5 –3018 Cu(s) Cu(g) Cu+(aq) Cu+2(aq) CuO(s) Cu2O(s) CuCl2(s) CuS(s) Cu2S(s) CuSO4(s) Cu(NH3)4+2(aq) Copper –338.32 –298.58 0 –266.65 –248.60 –273.55 –233.09 –744.8 –660.0 –1094.4 –974.9 –807.8 –685.6 –670.2 –590.4 –1304.9 –921.6 –2385.17 –1530.44 –5189.4 –4671.13 –133.23 –125.8 –266.0 –284.81 –400.68 –388.71 –267.7 –379.7 –869 –1882.5 Fluorine –157.98 –123.82 0 –411.62 –340.70 –567.7 –538.4 –616.72 –561.98 –114.73 –172.6 –99.688 –184.8 H2(g) H(g) H+(aq) OH–(aq) H2O() H2O(g) H2O2() H2O2(aq) Hydrogen –435.30 –406.494 0 –217.65 –203.247 –696.81 –592.222 –970.30 –875.354 –926.29 –866.797 –1121.42 –990.31 –1124.81 –1003.99 –98.742 –114.713 –286.52 –320.57 –202.23 –441.9 –407.6 I2(s) I2(g) I(g) HI(g) IF(g) IF5(g) IF7(g) ICl(g) IBr(g) Iodine –213.676 –141.00 –151.238 –121.67 0 –298.01 –272.05 –281.48 –250.92 –1324.28 –1131.78 –1603.7 –1322.17 –210.74 –181.64 –177.88 –149.21 –245.447 –100.89 –88.910 –103.38 –646.9 –945.6 –98.438 –97.040 F2(g) F(g) F–(aq) HF(g) HF(aq) 386 TABLE A.3 Substance Fe(s) Fe(g) Fe+2(aq) Fe+3(aq) Fe2O3(s) Fe3O4(s) Fe(OH)2(s) Fe(OH)3(s) FeCl3(s) FeS2(s) Fe(CO)5() Fe(CO)5(g) Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and Entropies of Atom Combination (continued) ∆Hac ° ∆G° ∆Sac ° ac (kJ/mol) (kJ/mol) (J/mol-K) Iron –416.3 –370.7 –153.21 0 –505.4 –449.6 –318.2 –464.8 –375.4 –496.4 –2404.3 –2178.8 –756.75 –3364.0 –3054.4 –1039.3 –1918.9 –1727.2 –644 –2639.8 –2372.1 –901.1 –1180.8 –1021.7 –533.8 –1152.1 –1014.1 –463.2 –6019.6 –5590.9 –1438.1 –5979.5 –5582.9 –1330.9 Pb(s) Pb(g) Pb+2(aq) PbO(s) PbO2(s) PbCl2(s) PbCl4() PbS(s) PbSO4(s) Pb(NO3)2(s) PbCO3(s) Lead –195.0 –161.9 0 –196.7 –186.3 –661.5 –581.5 –970.7 –842.7 –797.8 –687.4 –1011.0 –574.2 –498.9 –2390.4 –2140.2 –3087.3 –2358.3 –2153.8 –110.56 –164.9 –267.7 –428.9 –369.8 –252.0 –838.84 –685.6 Li(s) Li(g) Li+(aq) LiH(s) LiOH(s) LiF(s) LiCl(s) LiBr(s) LiI(s) LiAlH4(s) LiBH4(s) Lithium –159.37 –126.66 0 –437.86 –419.97 –467.56 –398.26 –1111.12 –1000.59 –854.33 –784.28 –689.66 –616.71 –622.48 –551.06 –536.62 –467.45 –1472.7 –1270.0 –1401.9 –1333.4 –109.65 –125.4 –233.40 –371.74 –261.87 –244.64 –239.52 –232.78 –683.42 –675.21 Mg(s) Mg(g) Mg+2(aq) MgO(s) MgH2(s) Magnesium –147.70 –113.10 0 –614.55 –567.9 –998.57 –914.26 –658.3 –555.5 (continued) –115.97 –286.8 –282.76 –346.99 387 TABLE A.3 Substance Mg(OH)2(s) MgCl2(s) MgCO3(s) MgSO4(s) Mn(s) Mn(g) Mn+2(aq) MnO(s) MnO2(s) Mn2O3(s) Mn3O4(s) KMnO4(s) MnS(s) Hg() Hg(g) Hg+2(aq) HgO(s) HgCl2(s) Hg2Cl2(s) HgS(s) N2(g) N(g) NO(g) NO2(g) N2O(g) N2O3(g) N2O4(g) N2O5(g) NO3–(aq) NOCl(g) NO2Cl(g) HNO2(aq) HNO3(g) HNO3(aq) NH3(g) NH3(aq) NH4+(aq) NH4NO3(s) NH4NO3(aq) Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and Entropies of Atom Combination (continued) ∆Hac ° ∆G° ∆Sac ° ac (kJ/mol) (kJ/mol) (J/mol-K) –2005.88 –1816.64 –637.01 –1032.38 –916.25 –389.43 –2707.7 –2491.7 –724.2 –2708.1 –2448.9 –869.1 Manganese –280.7 –238.5 0 –501.5 –466.6 –915.1 –833.1 –1299.1 –1167.1 –2267.9 –2053.3 –3226.6 –2925.6 –2203.8 –1963.6 –773.7 –695.2 Mercury –61.317 –31.820 0 +109.8 +132.58 –401.32 –322.090 –529.0 –421.8 –631.21 –485.745 –398.3 –320.67 Nitrogen –945.408 –911.26 0 –631.62 –600.81 –937.86 –867.78 –1112.53 –1038.79 –1609.20 –1466.99 –1932.93 –1740.29 –2179.91 –1954.8 –1425.2 –1259.56 –791.84 –726.96 –1080.12 –970.4 –1307.9 –1172.9 –1572.92 –1428.79 –1645.22 –1465.32 –1171.76 –1081.82 –1205.94 –1091.87 –1475.81 –1347.93 –2929.08 –2603.31 –2903.39 –2610.00 –141.69 –247.3 –275.05 –442.76 –720.1 –1009.7 –806.50 –263.3 –98.94 –207.2 –265.73 –359.4 –487.8 –260.4 –114.99 –103.592 –235.35 –247.80 –477.48 –646.53 –756.2 –490.1 –217.86 –368.46 –454.5 –484.80 –604.8 –304.99 –386.1 –498.8 –1097.53 –988.8 388 TABLE A.3 Substance NH4Cl(s) N2H4() N2H4(g) HN3(g) O2(g) O(g) O3(g) Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and Entropies of Atom Combination (continued) ∆Hac ° ∆G° ∆Sac ° ac (kJ/mol) (kJ/mol) (J/mol-K) –1779.41 –1578.17 –682.7 –1765.38 –1574.91 –644.24 –1720.61 –1564.90 –526.98 –1341.7 –1242.0 –335.37 Oxygen –498.340 –463.462 0 –604.8 –532.0 –116.972 –244.24 P(white) P4(g) P2(g) P(g) PH3(g) P4O6(s) P4O10(s) PO43-(aq) PF3(g) PF5(g) PCl3() PCl3(g) PCl5(g) H3PO4(s) H3PO4(aq) Phosphorus –314.64 –278.25 –1199.65 –1088.6 –485.0 –452.8 0 –962.2 –874.6 –4393.7 –6734.3 –6128.0 –2588.7 –2223.9 –1470.4 –1361.5 –2305.4 –999.4 –867.6 –966.7 –863.1 –1297.9 –1111.6 –3243.3 –2934.0 –3241.7 –2833.6 –122.10 –372.79 –108.257 –297.10 –2034.46 –1029 –366.22 –441.7 –347.01 –624.60 –1041.05 –1374 K(s) K(g) K+(aq) KOH(s) KCl(s) KNO3(s) K2Cr2O7(s) KMnO4(s) Potassium –89.24 –60.59 0 –341.62 –343.86 –980.82 –874.65 –647.67 –575.41 –1804.08 –1606.27 –4777.4 –4328.7 –2203.8 –1963.6 –96.16 –57.8 –357.2 –242.94 –663.75 –1505.9 –806.50 Si(s) Si(g) SiO2(s) SiH4(g) SiF4(g) SiCl4() SiCl4(g) Silicon –455.6 –411.3 0 –1864.9 –1731.4 –1291.9 –1167.4 –2386.5 –2231.6 –1629.3 –1453.9 –1599.3 –1451.0 (continued) –149.14 –448.24 –422.20 –520.50 –589 –498.03 389 TABLE A.3 Substance Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and Entropies of Atom Combination (continued) ∆Hac ° ∆G° ∆Sac ° ac (kJ/mol) (kJ/mol) (J/mol-K) Ag(s) Ag(g) Ag+(aq) Ag(NH3)2+(aq) Ag2O(s) AgCl(s) AgBr(s) AgI(s) Silver –284.55 –178.97 –2647.15 –849.32 –533.30 –496.80 –453.23 Na(s) Na(g) Na+(aq) NaH(s) NaOH(s) NaOH(aq) NaCl(s) NaCl(g) NaCl(aq) NaNO3(s) Na3PO4(s) Na2SO3(s) Na2SO4(s) Na2CO3(s) NaHCO3(s) NaCH3CO2(s) Na2CrO4(s) Na2Cr2O7(s) Sodium –107.32 –76.761 –102.50 0 –374.45 –338.666 –94.7 –3811.25 –313.47 –228.409 –999.75 –891.233 –365.025 –1044.25 –930.889 –381.4 –640.15 –566.579 –246.78 –405.65 –379.10 –89.10 –636.27 –575.574 –203.4 –1795.38 –1594.58 –673.66 –3550.68 –3224.26 –1094.75 –2363.96 –2115.0 –803 –2877.20 –2588.86 –969.89 –2809.51 –2564.41 –813.70 –2739.97 –2497.5 –808.0 –3400.78 –3099.66 –1013.2 –2950.1 –2667.18 –949.53 –4730.6 - S8(s) S8(g) S(g) S2-(aq) SO2(g) SO3(s) SO3() SO3(g) SO42-(aq) SOCl2(g) SO2Cl2(g) H2S(g) Sulfur –2230.440 –2128.14 –245.7 –1073.975 –1480.82 –1467.36 –1422.04 –2184.76 –983.8 –1384.5 –734.74 –245.65 –168.54 –2393.51 –734.23 –461.12 –424.95 –382.34 –130.42 –100.29 –922.6 –385.7 –242.0 –240.9 –238.3 –1906.000 –1310.77 –1856.37 –911.59 0 –152.4 –182.4 –1001.906 –241.71 –1307.65 –580.3 –1307.19 –537.2 –1304.50 –394.23 –1909.70 –791.9 –879.6 –349.50 –1233.1 –508.39 –678.30 –191.46 390 TABLE A.3 Substance H2SO3(aq) H2SO4(aq) SF4(g) SF6(g) SCN–(aq) Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and Entropies of Atom Combination (continued) ∆Hac ° ∆G° ∆Sac ° ac (kJ/mol) (kJ/mol) (J/mol-K) –2070.43 –1877.75 –648.2 –2620.06 –2316.20 –1021.4 –1369.66 –1217.2 –510.81 –1962 –1715.0 –828.53 –1391.75 –1272.43 –334.9 Sn(s) Sn(g) SnO(s) SnO2(s) SnCl2(s) SnCl4() SnCl4(g) Tin –302.1 –837.1 –1381.1 –870.6 –1300.1 –1260.3 Ti(s) Ti(g) TiO(s) TiO2(s) TiCl4() TiCl4(g) Titanium –469.9 –425.1 0 –1238.8 –1151.8 –1913.0 –1778.1 –1760.8 –1585.0 –1719.8 –1574.6 –149.6 –306.5 –452.0 –588.7 –486.2 W(s) W(g) WO3(s) Tungsten –849.4 –807.1 0 –2439.8 –2266.4 –141.31 –581.22 Zn(s) Zn(g) Zn2+(aq) ZnO(s) ZnCl2(s) ZnS(s) ZnSO4(s) Zinc –130.729 –95.145 0 –284.62 –242.21 –728.18 –645.18 –789.14 –675.90 –615.51 –534.69 –2389.0 –2131.8 –119.35 –273.1 –278.40 –379.92 –271.1 –862.5 –267.3 –755.9 –1250.5 –249.8 –1122.2 –124.35 –273.0 –438.3 –570.7 –463.5 391 Index acid, 252 Arrhenius, 252 Bronsted-Lowry, 252 relative strength, 277 strong, 256 weak, 256 activated complex, 355 activation energy, 355, 376 anion, 142 anode, 298 atom balance, 169 atomic number, atomic radius, 40 AVEE, 122 average valence electron energy, 122 balancing chemical equations, 168 base, 252 weak, 266 benzene, 90, 92 bimolecular event, 359 Bohr model, 25 bond angle, 108 bond energy, 84 bond length, 84, 103, 203 bond order, 84 bond triangles, 152 bonding pair, 76 catalyst, 371 cathode, 298 cation, 142 charge balance, 170 collision frequency, 355 conjugate pair, 254, 284 core charge, 30 Coulombic Potential Energy, 16 Coulomb's Law, 16, 194 covalent bonding, 152 diamagnetic, 69 dipole moment, 136 domains, 111 effective nuclear charge, 33 electrochemical cell, 298 electrolyte non, 182 strong, 182 392 weak, 182 electromagnetic radiation, 44 electron configuration, 60, 64 inner-shell, 30 spin, 68 valence, 30 electronegativity, 132 empirical formula, 178, 179 endothermic, 196 energy level, 48, 49 enthalpy atom combination, 194 change, 196, 200 entropy, 308, 310 atom combination, 318 changes, 318 chemical reaction, 321 enzyme, 372 equilibrium, 211, 217 constant, 226 constant (acid), 256 constant expression, 226 equilibrium constant, 224, 326, 331 exothermic, 196 first-order rate law (integrated), 346 formal charge, 98, 126 free energy (G), 328 frequency, 45 Gibbs free energy (G), 328 half-reaction, 300 hybrid orbitals, 118 ideal gas law, 190 insoluble, 244 intermediate species, 362 intermolecular forces, 157 ionic bond, 142, 152 ionization energy, 17, 22, 27 isotope, kinetic control, 365 law of mass action, 226 Lewis structures, 74, 84, 90, 96, 102 limiting reagent, 174 lone pair, 76, 111 magnetic moment, 69 Mass Number, mechanism, 359, 371 mechanisms, 354 metals, 148, 152 molarity, 182, 184 393 mole, 164 molecular shapes, 113 octet, 103 orbital, 71 oxidation numbers, 294 oxidation-reduction, 291 oxidized, 292 oxidizing agent, 292 paramagnetic, 69 partial charge, 126 Pauli Exclusion Principle, 71 percent composition, 178 periodic table column (group), 40 row (period), 40 pH, 272 photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), 49 photons, 45 Potential Energy, 16 precipitate, 246 quantized, 48 quantum mechanical model, 71 rate constant, 340 law, 340 law, integrated, 346 reaction, 206, 208 reaction coordinate diagram, 356 reaction quotient, 232, 233 redox, 291 reduced, 292 reducing agent, 292 resonance, 92 hybrid, 92 structures, 92 saturated, 244 second-order rate law (integrated), 346 semiconductors, 154 semimetals, 155 shell, 25, 26, 56 shell model, 26 solubility, 244 solubility product, 242, 245 soluble, 244 standard half-cell, 298 standard state conditions, 320 Stern-Gerlach experiment, 68 stoichiometric coefficient, 226 thermodynamic control, 365 transition state, 355 394 unimolecular event, 359 universal gas constant, 190 voltaic cell, 298 wavelength, 44 Main = Group I Periodic Table II III IV V VI VII VIII 1 H H He 1.00794 Li Be B C 6.941 11 9.01218 12 10.811 13 12.011 14 Al Si N O 1.00794 4.002602 10 F Ne 14.0067 15.9994 18.998403 20.179 17 18 15 16 Na Mg 22.98977 19 24.305 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 55.847 44 58.9332 45 58.69 46 63.546 47 65.39 48 69.723 49 72.59 50 74.9216 51 78.96 52 79.904 53 83.80 54 Rh Pd Ag Cd I Xe 39.0983 37 — Transition Elements — 40.078 44.95591 38 39 47.88 40 50.9415 51.9961 54.9380 41 42 43 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru 85.4678 55 87.62 56 88.9059 57 91.224 72 92.9064 73 95.94 74 (98) 75 101.07 76 Ba La Cs 132.9045 87 Fr (223) 137.33 138.9055 88 89 Ra Ac 226.0254 227.0278 102.9055 106.42 77 78 107.8682 112.41 79 80 P 26.98154 28.0855 30.97376 31 32 33 S Cl Ar 32.066 34 35.453 35 39.948 36 In Sn Sb Te 114.82 81 118.710 82 121.75 83 127.60 84 126.9045 131.29 85 86 Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 178.49 104 180.9479 105 183.85 106 186.207 107 190.2 108 192.22 109 195.08 196.9665 200.59 204.383 207.2 208.9804 (209) (210) (222) Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt (261) (262) (266) (264) (269) (268) Lanthanides 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu 140.12 140.9077 144.24 (145) 150.36 151.96 157.25 158.9254 162.50 164.9304 167.26 168.9342 173.04 174.967 103 Actinides 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr (244) (243) (247) (247) (251) (252) (257) (258) (259) (260) 232.0381 231.0359 238.0289 237.0482 ... example On Earth, however, the abundance shows little variation from place to place Table Natural abundance and atomic masses for various isotopes Natural Abundance Atomic Mass Isotope on Earth... of (randomly selected) magnesium atoms: a) What is the average atomic mass of magnesium, Mg, in amu? b) What is the average mass of a Mg atom in grams? 12 Based on your answer to CTQ 11b, what... average mass of a marble can be determined by dividing the total mass of the marbles by the total number of marbles: average mass of a marble = 1" 5.00 g + " 7.00 g = 6.50 g (1) Or, the average
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