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100 CASES in Dermatology This page intentionally left blank 100 CASES in Dermatology Rachael Morris-Jones PhD PCME FRCP Consultant Dermatologist & Honorary Senior Lecturer, King’s College Hospital, London, UK Ann-Marie Powell Consultant Dermatologist, Department of Dermatology, St Thomas’ Hospital, London, UK Emma Benton MB ChB MRCP Post-CCT Clinical Research Fellow, St John’s Institute of Dermatology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Trust, London, UK 100 Cases Series Editor: Professor P John Rees MD FRCP Dean of Medical Undergraduate Education, King’s College London School of Medicine at Guy’s, King’s and St Thomas’ Hospitals, London, UK First published in Great Britain in 2011 by Hodder Arnold, an imprint of Hodder Education, a division of Hachette UK 338 Euston Road, London NW1 3BH http://www.hodderarnold.com © 2011 Rachael Morris-Jones, Ann-Marie Powell and Emma Benton All rights reserved Apart from any use permitted under UK copyright law, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form, or by any means with prior permission in writing of the publishers or in the case of reprographic production in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency In the United Kingdom such licences are issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency: Saffron House, 6–10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS Hachette UK’s policy is to use papers that are natural, renewable and recyclable products and made from wood grown in sustainable forests The logging and manufacturing processes are expected to conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin Whilst the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of going to press, neither the author[s] nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made In particular, (but without limiting the generality of the preceding disclaimer) every effort has been made to check drug dosages; however it is still possible that errors have been missed Furthermore, dosage schedules are constantly being revised and new side-effects recognized For these reasons the reader is strongly urged to consult the drug companies’ printed instructions, and their websites, before administering any of the drugs recommended in this book British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN-13 978-1-444-11793-6 10 Commissioning Editor: Project Editor: Production Controller: Cover Design: Indexer: Joanna Koster Stephen Clausard Jonathan Williams Amina Dudhia Laurence Errington Typeset in 10/12 Rotis Serif by MPS Limited, a Macmillan Company, Chennai, India Printed and bound in India What you think about this book? Or any other Hodder Arnold title? Please visit our website at www.hoddereducation.com CONTENTS Preface Acknowledgements Glossary 1: An itchy, slow-growing infant 2: An agitated atopic child 3: An acute monomorphic eruption in a systemically unwell atopic child 4: A recurrent, unsightly facial eruption in a stressed but well young adult 5: Blistered hands and feet in an athletic man 6: Chronic erythematous pruritic eruption on the lower legs 7: An itchy localized eruption 8: An eczematous eruption complicating venous ulcers 9: A transient pruritic eruption exacerbated by heat 10: A toddler with brown patches which urticate 11: Acute soft tissue swelling associated with systemic symptoms 12: Chronic scaly plaques on the knees 13: Widespread scaly eruption appears after a sore throat 14: A patient presents acutely unwell with all his skin red and hot 15: An itchy eruption appearing on the chest and arms after sun exposure 16: Acute-onset linear blistering on the legs 17: Chronic blistering eruption on the dorsal hands 18: Sun-induced skin pain, redness and scarring in a child 19: Sudden-onset widespread rash 20: Recurrent annular erythematous lesions reactivating at identical skin sites 21: Painful lip lesion associated with a localized blistering rash and sore mouth 22: Painful eroded mucous membranes and skin lesions 23: Acute-onset extensive blistering and skin necrosis with mucous membrane involvement 24: Fever, epilepsy and a widespread skin eruption with marked facial oedema 25: Acute-onset multiple pustules on a background of erythematous skin 26: Acute non-blanching cutaneous eruption associated with a sore throat 27: An itchy papular eruption on the ankles 28: A generalized itchy blistering eruption in an elderly woman 29: Sudden onset of erosions, blisters and fragile skin following gradually worsening mouth ulcers 30: An itchy, vesicular extensor eruption associated with malabsorption 31: An itchy blistering eruption recurring in a second pregnancy 32: Extremely itchy stretch marks in the third trimester 33: Asymptomatic sclerotic white plaques on the trunk 34: Insidious onset of tightening of the skin over the limbs ix x xi 11 13 16 19 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 63 65 67 69 71 73 100 Cases in Dermatology 35: Acute facial rash, fever and joint pains in a young woman 36: Annular erythematous rash of sudden onset 37: Hair loss, scarring rash and photosensitivity 38: An erythematous rash and muscle weakness 39: Widespread maculopapular eruption on the trunk and face with flu-like symptoms 40: Slow asymptomatic depigmentation of the skin 41: A young adult with high blood pressure, irregular pigmentation and skin lumps 42: An overweight teenager with thickened skin around her neck 43: A dramatic and painful ulcer in a young patient with no evidence of infection 44: Slow-onset asymptomatic lesions on the shins of a diabetic patient 45: Slowly progressive swelling and discolouration over the shins 46: Asymptomatic annular lesions on the limbs 47: An asymptomatic papular and annular eruption 48: Ulcer over the gaiter area on a background of aching legs 49: Slow-onset, unilateral, painless leg swelling 50: An infirm elderly man with arterial disease and an ulcerated heel 51: Non-healing foot ulcer in a diabetic patient 52: A regressing vascular lesion in a pre-school child 53: A livid red birthmark on a newborn child 54: Slow development of a scaly plaque on a finger 55: A slow-growing ulcerated non-healing nodule on the face 56: Multiple basal cell carcinomas in a young patient 57: An ulcerating lesion on the scalp, enlarging over months 58: A rapidly growing lesion on the dorsum of the hand 59: A longstanding flesh-coloured nodule on the face 60: Multiple, slightly atypical looking naevi on the trunk 61: An enlarging pigmented macule on the face of an elderly man 62: A unilateral rash around the nipple 63: A changing pigmented lesion on the leg 64: A pigmented nodule on the back 65: Longstanding erythematous scaly patches 66: A slow-growing plum-coloured skin nodule 67: Papular and pustular eruption on the face with scarring 68: A red face with papules and pustules 69: Sudden-onset facial crusting and blistering in a child 70: An erythematous painful face 71: A hot, swollen leg 72: Painful areas of superficially eroded skin in the flexures of a child 73: Asymptomatic erythematous scaly patches on the palms and soles 74: Acute-onset blister on the lip with facial swelling and pain 75: A localized, painful, blistering eruption 76: Multiple flesh-coloured papules on the face 77: Multiple hyperkeratotic papules and nodules on the fingers 78: Sudden-onset maculopapular rash with conjunctivitis and malaise 79: Crops of blisters becoming widespread in a child with gastrointestinal upset 80: Multiple cutaneous boils appearing over 12 months 81: Chronic, sore, macerated skin in the finger webs vi 75 79 81 83 85 87 89 93 95 97 99 101 103 105 107 111 113 117 120 123 125 127 129 131 133 137 139 141 143 145 147 149 151 153 155 157 159 161 163 165 167 169 171 173 175 177 179 Contents 82: Asymptomatic purple skin lesions appearing on the limbs and trunk 83: Widespread itchy eruption preventing sleep 84: Painless erythematous lesion on the nose grows over four months 85: Scaling of the scalp with occipital lymphadenopathy in a child 86: A pruritic annular rash and family involvement 87: Progressive scaling of the palms and dystrophy of the fingernails 88: Patchy asymptomatic hair loss over the scalp 89: Frontal hair loss in a woman 90: Excessive facial hair in a young woman 91: Multiple skin lesions develop in a renal transplant recipient 92: Stiffness of the skin developing after bone marrow transplantation 93: Streaky skin changes in a toddler and a maternal history of miscarriage 94: A young adult with seizures and markedly photo-damaged skin 95: A young man seeking genetic counselling advice regarding his dry skin condition 96: Recurrent blisters on the extremities associated with minor pressure/friction 97: An increasing number of asymptomatic facial lesions in a young boy 98: Macroglossia, fatigue and back pain in an elderly woman 99: Subacute pruritic erythematous eruption in an elderly patient with weight loss 100: A young girl with unusual scars and unexplained injuries 181 183 185 187 189 193 195 197 199 201 203 219 223 Index 225 205 207 209 211 213 217 vii This page intentionally left blank PREFACE Dermatology is a broad and hugely enthralling specialty, where a clinician can actually visualize disease patterns up close – ‘in the flesh’ In many ways dermatology is the art of the ‘old-fashioned physician’ who relies on careful history-taking and a thorough examination to make the majority of diagnoses For the non-specialist, dermatological ‘spot’ diagnoses made through pattern-recognition alone can be challenging; therefore, this book strives to offer ‘classic’ presentations of common skin disorders through the fundamental tools of medicine – namely, a detailed history and observed clinical signs Part of the fascination with dermatological disorders is the ability of a physician to diagnose systemic disease through the observation of changes in the skin Consequently, the accurate recognition of skin disorders is pertinent to all physicians in whatever field of medicine/surgery they are practising Therefore, the cases selected in this book mainly reflect the interface between internal medicine and dermatology It is often said that a picture is worth a thousand words; therefore, we hope that the clinical photographs accompanying each case will speak for themselves in many more words than we would ever be permitted to write Rachael Morris-Jones Ann-Marie Powell Emma Benton ANSWER 98 The likely unifying diagnosis in an elderly patient presenting with back pain, anaemia, elevated ESR and an infiltrative process involving the tongue and proteinuria is multiple myeloma, a disease characterized by malignant proliferation of plasma cells and consequent abundance of a monoclonal paraprotein The presentation of myeloma can be highly variable The diagnosis can be confirmed by demonstration of a plasma cell clone within the bone marrow and a paraprotein within blood and/or urine Hypercalcaemia is a common complication The infiltration of her tongue and mucosal lip is due to the deposition of light-chain amyloid (AL) Amyloid is defined as in-vivo deposited material distinguished by fibrillar electron micrographic appearance All types of amyloid consist of a major fibrillar protein that defines the type of amyloid, which can be classified as systemic, hereditary, localized, or organ specific Cutaneous involvement can occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of systemic disease Mucocutaneous lesions are common in systemic AL and include waxy nodules and plaques, ecchymoses, pinch purpuras, sclerodermoid skin changes and haemorrhagic bullae Careful examination and investigation for other systemic amyloid involvement is required Typical extracutaneous sites include heart, kidney, peripheral nerve, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract Although patients with both myeloma and systemic amyloidosis associated with other diseases can benefit in terms of symptom control from treatment, there is currently no cure for either condition KEY POINTS • Multiple myeloma can have a highly variable presentation and potential complications include deposition of light-chain systemic amyloid • AL amyloidosis can have a variable presentation, but should prompt investigation particularly for an underlying plasma cell dyscrasia • There is no curative treatment for AL amyloidosis 218 CASE 99: SUBACUTE PRURITIC ERYTHEMATOUS ERUPTION IN AN ELDERLY PATIENT WITH WEIGHT LOSS History A 59-year-old woman presents with a gradually worsening eruption over weeks The eruption is pruritic and has not responded to the application of emollients and moderately potent topical glucocorticoids She has no previous history of skin lesions and reports that she is otherwise well, although she has a poor appetite and has lost kg body weight over the past three months She does not take medication She works as a shop assistant and consumes 10 units of alcohol per week She stopped smoking four years ago Examination The patient’s pulse is 76/min and blood pressure 128/76 mmHg Her striking skin eruption involves the trunk, limbs and neck There are widespread macular erythematous bands with a wood-grain–like and whorled concentric configuration and fine scaling along the borders (Fig 99.1) There are no abnormalities on examination of her cardiovascular and respiratory systems Her abdomen is soft and non-tender with no masses palpable She has no breast masses She has a firm 1.5 ϫ 2.0-cm left supraclavicular lymph node Figure 99.1 219 INVESTIGATIONS Normal 13.3–17.7 g/dL 80–99 fL 3.9–10.6 ϫ 109/L 150–440 ϫ 109/L Haemoglobin Mean corpuscular volume White cell count Platelets 10.3 g/dL 75 fL 3.7 ϫ 109/L 253 ϫ 109/L Blood film: Sodium Potassium Urea Creatinine Albumin Glucose Bilirubin Alanine transaminase Alkaline phosphatase Hypochromic microcytic anaemia 136 mmol/L 135–145 mmol/L 4.6 mmol/L 3.5–5.0 mmol/L 7.3 mmol/L 2.5–6.7 mmol/L 123 ␮mol/L 70–120 ␮mol/L 30 g/L 35–50 g/L 4.6 mmol/L 4.0–6.0 mmol/L 12 ␮mol/L 3–17 ␮mol/L 63 IU/L 5–35 IU/L 865 IU/L 30–300 IU/L CEA (cancer embryonic antigen) CA 125 23 ng/mL Ͻ 2.5 ng/mL 26 U/mL Ͻ 35 U/mL (post-menopause) Tests for ENA, ANA and ANCA (antibodies) Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of palpable lymph node All negative Smear demonstrates lymph node infiltration by cells of adenocarcinoma morphology Questions • What is this eruption? • Is there a differential diagnosis? • What further investigations would you perform? • What is the management of this patient? 220 This page intentionally left blank ANSWER 99 The very striking appearance of this eruption is pathognomonic of erythema gyratum repens (EGR) and potentially a paraneoplastic process Approximately 80 per cent of patients with EGR have an underlying malignancy It can also be associated with connective tissue disease (CREST, systemic lupus erythematosus) or infection (such as tuberculosis) The characteristic concentric erythematous bands forming a wood-grain appearance help distinguish EGR from other figurate erythemas, such as erythema annulare centrifugum (may also be paraneoplastic or associated with drugs or other systemic illnesses), erythema migrans (associated with Lyme disease), and erythema marginatum rheumaticum (occurring in association with rheumatic fever) EGR does not respond to skin targeted therapy but rather to treatments aimed at underlying disease This clinical picture is highly suggestive of an underlying malignancy The palpable left supraclavicular lymph node (Virchow’s node) with FNA findings of adenocarcinoma points towards gastric pathology The next investigations for this patient are an oesophago-gastro-doudenoscopy (OGD) and CT scans of the chest and abdomen These investigations demonstrated a polypoid gastric adenocarcinoma with lymph node involvement Resection of the malignancy and lymph node dissection resulted in rapid resolution of the skin eruption ! The differential diagnosis of figurate erythemas • Dermatophyte infections – usually associated with superficial scale, which contains spores or hyphae, visible on direct microscopy and will culture on appropriate medium • Annular urticaria – often occurs with more characteristic lesions of urticaria elsewhere, symptoms of pruritus, transient lesions • Annular psoriasis – unstable psoriasis (e.g pustular psoriasis) may have an annular configuration • Subacute lupus erythematosus – often over photo-exposed sites but may be generalized, check Ro/La as well as other lupus-associated autoantibodies • Bullous pemphigoid – early (prebullous) lesions are intensely pruritic and urticated, may be annular • Erythema multiforme – typically targetoid lesions, usually acral ± mucosal Early lesions may be annular before dusky necrosis of central lesion develops • Necrolytic migratory erythema – rare annular eruption affecting peri-oral, genital and acral skin, erosive or bullous annular lesions, associated with underlying glucagonoma (closely resembles acrodermatitis enteropathica of infancy) • Erythema gyratum repens • Erythema annulare centrifugum • Erythema migrans KEY POINTS • The striking configuration of the erythema is pathognomonic of erythema gyratum repens (EGR) • EGR is frequently a paraneoplastic process • Patients presenting with this eruption should be investigated for underlying systemic disease and in particular malignancy 222 CASE 100: A YOUNG GIRL WITH UNUSUAL SCARS AND UNEXPLAINED INJURIES History The teachers of an 11-year-old girl, who has just started a new school, ask her parents to bring her to your attention They are concerned that the scarring on her legs might be non-accidental Her mother doesn’t hesitate to attend for a medical opinion and presents the next day The child is the youngest of four siblings She was born at 36 weeks’ gestation following premature rupture of membranes She required an inguinal hernia repair at the age of 18 months Of note, she has had two injuries that were difficult to explain When 26 months old she dislocated her shoulder during ‘boisterous’ play with her father and older sisters, and at the age of years she required plastic surgical intervention to a laceration at her left elbow following a relatively minor fall, and despite sutures the wound dehisced and healed poorly At the age of years she was also investigated at her mother’s request for easy bruising, but all blood tests were normal She has required podiatric attention because of pain in her ankles and feet, which has been attributed to ‘flat feet’, and she uses orthotic supports in her footwear Her mother also comments that the child is noticeably more easily fatigued than her siblings and, tellingly, also mentions that she is ‘double-jointed’ Examination There are multiple loose, atrophic scars over her knees and shins (Fig 100.1) Her surgical scars have a similar ‘cigarette paper’, distended appearance Her skin in general feels very soft, smooth and ‘doughy’ It recoils promptly after stretching She has a Beighton score of (maximum score) The remainder of her physical examination, including eyes, teeth and cardiovascular system, is normal Her mother’s physical examination is unremarkable Questions • What differential diagnoses should be considered? • What is the relevance of the Beighton score? • What is the management of this patient? Figure 100.1 223 ANSWER 100 The important features are skin fragility (explaining the easy bruising, multiplicity of scars and need for plastic surgery intervention), abnormal scarring (wound dehiscence and atrophic scars) and hypermobile joints (explaining fatiguability, joint dislocations and high Beighton score) Non-accidental injury is frequently considered before the correct diagnosis is reached Epidermolysis bullosa, although characterized by skin fragility and abnormal scarring, is also associated with blistering and not with hypermobile joints The main differential diagnoses are inherited connective tissue disorders such as Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, cutis laxa, Marfan’s syndrome, and pseudoxanthoma elasticum ! Beighton score chart Manoeuvre Bend at the waist and place hands flat on the floor without bending knees Score point for each knee that will bend backwards Score point for each elbow that will bend backwards Score point for each thumb that will bend backwards to touch the forearm Score point for each hand if the little finger can bend backwards beyond 90o Maximum score Score 2 2 The Beighton criteria are used in the assessment of hypermobile joints The Beighton criteria combine phenotype, clinical history and symptoms as well as the above score A high Beighton score is highly suggestive of joint hypermobility At least six different phenotypes of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome are classified; however, there is a great deal of overlap between them and absolute clinical distinction is difficult The complications of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome are varied and include vascular complications (fortunately rare) The vascular form may be complicated by catastrophic arterial rupture and phenotypically shares some marfanoid (facies and habitus) and osteogenesis imperfecta (osteoporosis) features The history (including premature delivery) for this child is most suggestive of classical (type I or II) Ehlers–Danlos disease The presence of cardiovascular disease (e.g mitral valve disease and/or aneurysms) and dental disease should be formally assessed Most forms of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome are associated with a normal life-expectancy, although lifestyle may be restricted Hypermobility can be the major cause of disability and requires support, physical and occupational therapy as well as appropriate pain management Other family members should be assessed for features of this autosomal dominant syndrome complex KEY POINTS • Ehlers–Danlos syndrome is characterized by varying degrees of skin laxity and fragility, with easy bruising and abnormal atrophic scars, as well as joint hypermobility • It is frequently unrecognized and the diagnosis may only come to light after non-accidental injury has been considered • The cutaneous features may be disfiguring, however the joint disease can be disabling 224 INDEX References are by case number with relevant page number(s) following in brackets References with a page range e.g 25(68–70) indicate that although the subject may be mentioned only on one page, it concerns the whole case ABCDE rule, melanoma 63(144) acanthosis nigricans 42(93–4) aciclovir chickenpox 79(176) eczema herpeticum 3(6) herpes labialis 21(46), 74(166) herpes zoster 75(168) acne vulgaris 67(151–2) acral lentiginous melanoma 63(144) acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis 25(53–4) adenoma sebaceum 97(214) AL amyloid 98(218) allergic contact dermatitis 7(13–15), 8(18) allergy, food, child 1(1–2), 2(4) alopecia (hair loss/baldness) androgenetic 89(197–8) frontal, woman 89(197–8) patchy asymptomatic 88(195–6) and scarring and photosensitivity 37(81–2) alopecia areata 88(195–6) amyloidosis 98(218) androgenetic alopecia 89(197–8) angioedema 11(25–6) angiofibromas, facial 97(214) ankles, itchy papular eruption 27(57–8) annular lesions asymptomatic, limbs 46(101–2) and papules 47(103–4) erythematous recurrent 20(43–4) sudden-onset 36(79–80) pruritic, with family involvement 86(189–91) psoriasis 99(221) urticaria 99(221) antifungal drugs Candida intertrigo 81(180) seborrhoeic dermatitis 4(8) tinea nails (tinea unguium) and palms 87(194) scalp (tinea capitis) 85(188) steroid-modified (tinea incognito) 86(189–91) antihistamines, urticaria 9(19) antiretroviral drug therapy, highly-active (HAART) 39(86) arms, itchy eruption after sun exposure on chest and 15(33–4) see also hands arterial disease 50(111–12) arthritis psoriatic 12(28) in SLE 35(76) athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) 5(10) atopic dermatitis 1–3(1–6) atypical naevus syndrome 60(137–8) autoimmune disorders associated with dermatitis herpetiformis and coeliac disease 30(66) autoimmune urticaria 9(22) autosensitization dermatitis (id reaction) 5(10), 85(188) B-cell lymphoma, cutaneous 66(149–50) back, nodule pigmented 64(145–6) plum-coloured 66(149–50) see also trunk back pain and macroglossia and fatigue 98(217–18) baldness see alopecia basal cell carcinoma (rodent ulcer) 55(125–6) multiple, young patient 56(127–18) bedsores (decubitus ulcers) 50(111–12) Beighton score chart 100(224) birthmarks 52–3(117–22) Blaschko lines 93(206) blisters child see children fragile skin and see fragility hands chronic blistering eruption on dorsum 17(37–8) and feet 5(9–10) itchy see pruritus legs/extremities linear 16(35–6) recurrent, associated with minor pressure/friction 96(211–12) 225 Index blisters (continued ) mouth/lips 21(45–6), 74(165–6) painful localized blistering eruption 75(167–8) with skin necrosis and mucous membrane involvement, acute-onset extensive 23(49–50) blood pressure, high see hypertension boils 80(177–8) bone marrow transplantation, stiffness of skin following 92(203–4) Bowen’s disease 54(123–4) breast, Paget’s disease 62(141–2) Breslow thickness 64(146) brown patches, urticating, toddler 10(23–4) bullae see blisters and entries below bullous impetigo 69(155–6) bullous pemphigoid 28(59–62), 99(221) C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency 11(26) café-au-lait spots/macules 41(89, 90) cancer see malignant tumours Candida intertrigo 81(179–80) nail region 87(194) capillary haemangioma, pre-school child 52(117–19) capillary malformation 53(121–3) carbamazepine-induced Stevens–Johnson syndrome 22(47–8) carcinoma see basal cell carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma carcinoma in situ, squamous cell 54(123–4) cavernous haemangioma, pre-school child 52(117–19) cellulitis, leg 71(159–60) chancre 73(164) chest, itchy eruption after sun exposure on arms and 15(33–4) see also trunk children atopic dermatitis 1–3(1–6) blistering and crusting of sudden onset, face 69(155–6) becoming widespread with gastrointestinal upset 79(175–6) increasing asymptomatic lesions on face 97(213–14) obesity 42(93–4) painful areas of eroded flexural skin 71(161–2) scaling of scalp with occipital lymphadenopathy 85(187–8) scarring (unexplained) and unexplained injuries 100(223–4) sun-induced skin pain/redness/ scarring 18(39–40) 226 see also adolescent; infants chronic lymphocytic leukaemia 77(171, 172) coeliac disease 30(66) cold sore see lips comedones 67(151, 152) compound naevus 59(134) congenital melanocytic naevi 59(135) conjunctivitis and malaise, maculopapular rash with 78(173–4) contact dermatitis, allergic 7(13–15), 8(18) contact urticaria 9(22) corticosteroid-modified tinea (tinea incognito) 86(1189–91) crusting and blistering facial eruption of sudden onset, child 69(155–6) Darier’s sign 10(23, 24) decubitus ulcers 50(111–12) depigmentation, slow asymptomatic 40(87–8) dermatitis, eczematous see eczema dermatitis herpetiformis 30(65–6) dermatomyositis 38(83–4) dermatophytic fungi see tinea diabetes foot ulcers 51(113–15) shin lesions, slow-onset asymptomatic 44(97–8) dimethylglyoxime test 7(14, 15) diphencyprone, viral warts 77(172) discoid lupus erythematosus 37(81–2) discolouration see pigmentation disorders dorsum of hand chronic blistering eruption 17(37–8) rapidly growing lesion 58(131–2) DRESS (drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) 24(51–2) drug-induced disorders (incl eruptions) 19–20(41–4) with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms 24(51–2) exanthematous pustulosis 25(53–4) Stevens–Johnson syndrome 22(47–8) urticaria 9(22) dry skin condition, genetic counselling advice 95(209–10) dyshidrotic eczema 5(9–10) dysplastic naevus syndrome 60(137–8) ectoparasites 83(183–4) eczema (dermatitis) allergic contact 7(13–15), 8(18) atopic 1–3(1–6) dyshidrotic 5(9–10) seborrhoeic 4(7–8) stasis 8(16–18) sun exposure-related see photodermatoses and photodermatitis varicose 6(11–12) Index eczema herpeticum 3(5–6) egg allergy 1(1–2) Ehlers–Danlos syndrome 100(223–4) eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, drug rash with 24(51–2) epidermolysis bullosa simplex 96(211–2) epilepsy (and epileptic seizures) fever/widespread eruption/facial oedema and 24(51–2) photodamaged skin and, young adult 94(207–8) erysipelas 70(158) erythema (erythematous eruption; red rash) acute-onset multiple pustules on background of 25(53–4) annular see annular lesions figurate 99(219–21) muscle weakness and 38(83–4) nose, slowly growing 84(185–6) painful, face 70(157–8) papules and pustules with, face 68(153–4) pruritic see pruritus scaly see scaling toxic 19(41–2) erythema gyratum repens 99(219–21) erythema multiforme 21(45–6), 99(221) erythrodermic psoriasis 14(31–2) erythropoietic protoporphyria 18(39–40) exanthematous pustulosis, acute generalized 25(53–4) extremities see limbs face asymptomatic lesions increasing on, young boy 97 eruptions/rashes crusting and blistering of sudden onset, child 69(155–6) fever and joint pains with 35(75–7) localized painful blistering eruption 75(167–8) multiple flesh-coloured papules 76(169–70) papulopustular, with scarring 67(151–2) recurrent 4(7–8) and trunk, maculopapular, with flu-like symptoms 39(85–6) hair, excess in young woman 90(199–200) nodule see nodule oedema, fever/epilepsy/widespread eruption with 24(51–2) pigmented macule, enlarging 61(138–9) see also lips; mouth; nose feet see foot Ferguson–Smith syndrome 58(132) ferrochelatase deficiency 18(40) fever (pyrexia) epilepsy/widespread eruption/facial oedema and 24(51–2) facial rash and joint pains with 35(75–7) figurate erythema 99(219–21) fingers hyperkeratotic papules and nodules 77(171–2) slowly-developing scaly plaque 54(123–4) webs, chronic sore macerated skin 81(179–80) fixed drug eruption 20(43–4) flexures, painful areas eroded skin, child 71(161–2) flu-like symptoms, maculopapular eruption on trunk and face with 39(85–6) follicle centre cell lymphoma 66(149–50) food (and food additives) allergy, child 1(1–2), 2(4) urticaria exacerbated by 9(22) foot (feet) blisters on hands and 5(9–10) plantar erythematous scaly patches (and palms), asymptomatic 73(163–4) ulcers see ulcers fragility, skin blistering associated with 96(212) sudden onset of erosions and, following mouth ulcers 29(63–4) unusual scars and unexplained injuries with 100(224) friction-related blistering on extremities 96(211–12) fungal infections see antifungal drugs; Candida; tinea furuncles 80(177–8) gastrointestinal upset, blistering becoming widespread with, child 79(175–6) genodermatoses 93–7(205–15) gluten enteropathy (coeliac disease) 30(66) Gorlin’s syndrome 56(117–18) graft-versus-host disease 92(203–4) granuloma annulare 46(101–2) Graves’ disease 45(100) guttate psoriasis 13(29–30) haemangioma, infantile 52(117–19) hair facial, excess in young woman 90(199–200) loss see alopecia hands blisters see blisters palmar erythematous scaly patches on, and soles, asymptomatic 73(163–4) rapidly growing dorsal lesion 58(131–2) see also fingers; palms heat-exacerbated pruritic eruption 9(19–21) 227 Index hereditary angioedema 11(26) herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection atopic eczema complicated by 3(5–6) lips see lips herpes zoster 75(167–8) HHV-8 82(182) highly-active antiretroviral drug therapy (HAART) 39(86) hirsutism 90(199–200) HIV infection 39(85–6) molluscum contagiosum 76(170) hives 9(19–21) hot red skin 14(31–2) hot swollen leg 71(159–60) HPV infection, warts 77(171–2) HSV see herpes simplex virus human herpes virus type (HHV-8) 82(182) human immunodeficiency virus see HIV human papilloma virus, warts 77(171–2) hyperkeratotic papules and nodules on fingers 77(171–2) hypertension systemic/arterial, and irregular pigmentation and skin lumps in young person 41(89–91) venous 48(106) ichthyosis, X-linked 95(209–10) id reaction 5(10), 85(188) immunobullous disease in pregnancy, subepidermal 31(68) immunosuppressants bullous pemphigoid 28(61, 62) dermatomyositis 38(84) pemphigus vulgaris 29(64) pyoderma gangrenosum 43(96) renal transplant patients see renal transplant patients SLE 35(77) Stevens–Johnson syndrome 22(48) impetigo, bullous 69(155–6) incontinentia pigmenti (IP) 93(205–6) infants/toddlers/pre-school children newborn, red birthmark 53(120–2) slow-growing, with itchy rash 1(1–2) streaky skin changes, and maternal history of miscarriage 93(205–6) urticating brown patches 10(23–4) vascular lesion 52(117–19) infections cutaneous 69–81(155–180), 83–7(183–94) lymphoedema 49(107–9) influenza-like symptoms, maculopapular eruption on trunk and face with 39(85–6) inherited dermatoses 93–7(205–15) injuries, unusual scarring and unexplained, young girl 100(223–4) intertrigo, Candida 81(179–80) 228 intradermal naevus 59(133–5) isotretinoin, acne vulgaris 67(152) itching see pruritus joint pain, facial rash and fever and 35(75–7) junctional naevus 59(134) Kaposi’s sarcoma, disseminated epidemic 82(181–2) Kaposi’s varicelliform eruption 3(5–6) keratoacanthoma 58(131–2) ketoconazole, Malassezia 4(8) Klippel–Trenaunay syndrome 53(122) knee, plaque psoriasis 12(27–8) labial HSV infection see lips legs linear blistering 16(35–6) lower erythematous pruritic reaction 6(11–12) hot swollen 71(159–60) progressive swelling and discolouration 45(99–100) painless unilateral swelling of slow onset 49(107–9) pigmented lesion, changing 63(141–2) ulcers see ulcers see also ankle; foot; shins leishmaniasis, cutaneous 84(185–6) lentigo maligna 61(138–9) lentigo maligna melanoma 61(140), 63(144) leucocytoclastic vasculitis 26(55–6) leucoderma 40(87–8) leukaemia, chronic lymphocytic 77(171, 172) lichen planus 27(58–9) limbs/extremities annular lesions see annular lesions insidious onset skin tightening 34(73–4) purple skin lesions of trunk and, asymptomatic 82 recurrent blisters, associated with minor pressure/friction 96(211–12) see also arms; legs linear blistering on legs 16(35–6) lips, HSV infection (cold sores) 74(165–6) erythema multiforme subsequent to 21(45–6) lumps (skin), hypertension and irregular pigmentation and, young person 41(89–91) lupus erythematosus discoid 37(81–2) subacute cutaneous 36(79–80) systemic (SLE) 35(75–7), 36(80), 37(82) Lyell’s (staphylococcal scalded skin) syndrome 72(161–2) lymph node involvement, melanoma 64(146) Index lymphadenopathy, occipital, scaling of scalp with 85(187–8) lymphocytic leukaemia, chronic 77(171, 172) lymphoedema, unilateral 49(107–9) lymphoma, cutaneous 65–6(147–50) macroglossia, fatigue and back pain 98(217–18) macules café-au-lait 41(89, 90) face, enlarging pigmented 61(138–9) maculopapular rash with conjunctivitis and malaise 78(173–4) trunk and face, with flu-like symptoms 39(85–6) malabsorption, vesicular pruritus associated with 30(65–6) Malassezia 4(8) malignant tumours breast 62(142) skin immunosuppressed renal transplant recipient 91(201–2) in xeroderma pigmentosum 94(208) see also basal cell carcinoma; Kaposi’s sarcoma; lymphoma; melanoma; squamous cell carcinoma underlying, erythema due to 99(222) see also premalignant lesion mastocytosis 10(24) measles 78(173–4) mechanobullous skin disorder 96(211–12) melanocytic naevi 59(134–5) melanoma 64(143–6) lentigo maligna 61(140), 63(144) risk of development in atypical naevus syndrome 60(138) in lentigo maligna 61(140) migratory erythema, necrolytic 99(221) minocycline, rosacea 68(153–4) miscarriage, streaky skin changes in toddler and maternal history of 93(205–6) mole (intradermal naevus) 59(133–5) molluscum contagiosum 76(169–70) Mongolian blue spot 53(121, 122) morphoea 33(71–2) mouth sore, and blistering rash 21(45–6) ulcer, sudden-onset fragile skin/erosions/ blisters following 29(63–4) see also lips mucous membranes acute-onset extensive blistering and skin necrosis with involvement of 23(49–50) painful 22(47–8) multiple myeloma 98(217–18) muscle weakness and erythema 38(83–4) mycosis fungoides 65(147–8) myeloma, multiple 98(217–18) myxoedema, pretibial 45(99–100) naevus compound 59(134) intradermal 59(133–5) junctional 59(134) strawberry, pre-school child 52(117–19) on trunk, multiple atypical-looking 60(137–8) nails dystrophy, progressive scaling of palms and 87(193–4) psoriasis involving 12(28) see also subungual melanoma nasal lesion, slowly growing painless erythematous 84(185–6) neck, overweight teenager with thickened skin around 42(93–4) necrobiosis lipoidica 44(97–8) necrolytic migratory erythema 99(221) necrosis (cutaneous), acute-onset extensive blistering and, with mucous membrane involvement 23(49–50) neomycin allergy 8(18) neonatal infant, red birthmark 53(120–2) neoplasms see tumours neurofibromatosis type 41(89–91) nevoid basal cell carcinoma (Gorlin’s) syndrome 56(117–18) newborn infant, red birthmark 53(120–2) nickel allergy 7(13–15) Nikolsky’s sign 22(47), 23(49, 50), 29(63, 64), 72(162) nipple, unilateral rash around disease 62(141–2) nodular melanoma 63(144) nodule (single) back see back face long-standing flesh-coloured 59(133–5) slowly-growing ulcerated non-healing 55(125–6) nodules (multiple), fingers, hyperkeratotic, and papules 77(171–2) nose, slowly growing painless erythematous lesion 84(185–6) obese teenager with thickened skin around neck 42(93–4) occipital lymphadenopathy, scaling of scalp with 85(187–8) oedema facial, fever/epilepsy/widespread eruption with 24(51–2) lymphatic 49(107–9) 229 Index onychomycosis 87(194) oral cavity see lips; mouth Paget’s disease extramammary 62(142) nipple 62(141–2) pain back, and macroglossia and fatigue 98(217–18) blistering eruption with, localized 75(167–8) facial erythema giving 70(157–8) flexural skin in eroded areas, child 71(161–2) joint, facial rash and fever and 35(75–7) leg ulcer venous 48(105–6) young patient 43(95–6) lip lesion 21(45–6) mucous membrane, and skin lesions 22(47–8) skin (in general), sun-induced, child 18(39–40) palms erythematous scaly patches of sole and, asymptomatic 73(163–4) progressive scaling, and nail dystrophy 87(193–4) Panton Valentine leukocidin-positive S aureus 80(178) papules annular lesions and, limbs 47(103–4) macules and see maculopapular rash multiple flesh-coloured, face 76(169–70) pruritic, ankles 27(57–8) pruritic urticarial, and plaques in pregnancy 32(69–70) pustules and, face with redness 68(153–4) with scarring 67(151–2) patch-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma 65(148) patch testing in allergic contact dermatitis 7(14, 15), 8(18) pemphigoid, bullous 28(59–62), 99(21) pemphigoid gestationis 31(67–8) pemphigus vulgaris 29(63–4) penicillin-induced exanthematous pustulosis 25(53–4) peripheral arterial disease 50(111–12) petechiae 26(56) photodamaged skin and seizures, young adult 94(207–8) photoprotection, immunosuppressed transplant patients 91(202) photosensitive dermatoses (photodermatoses and photodermatitis) 17–18(37–40), 94(208) 230 hair loss and scarring and 37(81–2) plant-related 16(35–6) unknown aetiology 15(33–4) phototoxic skin eruption 16(35–6) physical urticaria 9(22) phytophodermatatis 16(35–6) pigmentation disorders 40(87–8) hypertension and skin lumps and, young person 41(89–91) progressive swelling and, shins 45(99–100) pigmented lesions back, nodule 64(145–6) face, enlarging macular 61(138–9) leg, changing 63(141–2) pigmented urticaria 10(23–4) plant-related photodermatitis 16(35–6) plantar and palmar erythematous scaly patches, asymptomatic 73(163–4) plaque(s) pruritic urticarial papules and, in pregnancy 32(69–70) scaly (slowly-developing), finger 54(123–4) sclerotic white, trunk 33(71–2) plaque psoriasis 12(27–8) guttate psoriasis evolving into 13(30) polymorphic light eruption 15(33–4) pompholyx 5(9–10) porphyrin metabolism disorders erythropoietic protoporphyria 18(39–40) porphyria cutanea tarda 17(37–8), 94(208) port wine stain 53(121–3) precancerous lesion, finger 54(123–4) pregnancy-related conditions 31–2(67–70) premalignant lesion, finger 54(123–4) pressure ulcers 50(111–12) pressure-related blistering on extremities 96(211–12) pretibial myxoedema 45(99–100) prick tests, skin, food allergens 1(1, 2) prickly heat 15(33–4) protoporphyria, erythropoietic 18(39–40) protozoal infections 84(185–6) pruritus (itching) annular rash with, family involvement 86(189–91) blistering and 28(59–62) in pregnancy 31(67–8) erythematous lower legs 6(11–12) subacute, with weight loss 99(219–21) heat-exacerbated pruritic eruption 9(19–21) infants 1(1–2) localized eruption with 7(13–15) papular see papules sleep disturbances due to widespread itchy eruption 83(183–4) sun exposure-related 15(33–4) Index with urticarial papules and plaques in pregnancy 32(69–70) vesicles with, associated with malabsorption 30(65–6) psoriasis 12–14(27–32) annular 99(222) erythrodermic 14(31–2) guttate 13(29–30) plaque see plaque psoriasis pustular 25(54) PTCH mutation 56(128) purple skin lesions of limbs and trunk, asymptomatic 82 pustules erythematous skin with acute-onset multiple 25(53–4) papules and see papules PVL-positive S aureus 80(178) pyoderma gangrenosum 43(95–6) pyrexia see fever Raynaud’s phenomenon 34(78) red birthmarks 52–3(117–22) red rashes see erythema and entries under erythrorenal transplant patients, immunosuppressed multiple skin lesions 91(201–2) rosacea 68(154) retinoid therapy, acne vulgaris 67(152) ringworm see tinea Ritter’s (staphylococcal scalded skin) syndrome 72(161–2) rodent ulcer see basal cell carcinoma rosacea 68(153–4) rubeola (measles) 78(173–4) sarcoidosis 47(103–4), 81(179, 180) sarcoma, Kaposi, disseminated epidemic 82(181–2) Sarcoptes scabiei 83(183–4) scabies 83(183–4) scaling/scaly patches erythematous long-standing 65(147–8) palmoplantar, asymptomatic 73(163–4) progressive palmar, and nail dystrophy 87(193–4) scalp, with occipital lymphadenopathy 85(187–8) scalp hair loss see alopecia ringworm (tinea) 85(187–8), 86(190) scaling, with occipital lymphadenopathy 85(187–8) slowly-growing ulcerating lesion 57(129–30) scaly plaque on finger, slowly-developing 54(123–4) scarring hair loss and photosensitivity and 37(81–2) papulopustular eruption with, face 67(151–2) sun-induced skin pain and redness and, child 18(39–40) unusual, and unexplained injuries, young girl 100(223–4) scleroderma diffuse form (systemic sclerosis) 34(73–4) localized 33(71–2) sclerotic white plaques, trunk 33(71–2) seborrhoeic dermatitis 4(7–8) seizures see epilepsy sex-linked ichthyosis 95(209–10) shingles 75(167–8) shins diabetic patient, slow-onset asymptomatic lesions 44(97–8) progressive swelling and discolouration 45(99–100) soft-tissue swelling with syndrome systemic symptoms 11(25–6) soles, asymptomatic erythematous scaly patches on palms and 73(163–4) sore throat acute non-blanching eruption after 26(55–6) widespread scaly reaction after 13(29–30) squamous cell carcinoma 57(129–30) keratoacanthoma resembling 58(132) renal transplant patient 91(201–2) squamous cell carcinoma in situ 54(123–4) staging classification, melanoma 64(146) staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome 72(161–2) Staphylococcus aureus 80(178) boils 80(178) eczema 2(4) impetigo 69(156) Panton Valentine leukocidin-positive 80(178) stasis dermatitis 8(16–18) steroid-modified tinea (tinea incognito) 86(1189–91) Stevens–Johnson syndrome 21(46), 22(47–8) stiffness of skin following bone marrow transplantation 92(203–4) strawberry naevus, pre-school child 52(117–19) streaky skin changes in toddler and maternal history of miscarriage 93(205–6) streptococcal sore throat 13(30) Streptococcus pyogenes group A 70(158) Sturge–Weber syndrome 53(122) subepidermal immunobullous disease in pregnancy 31(68) subungual melanoma 63(144) 231 Index sun and UV exposure non-neoplastic disorders, see entries under photosquamous cell carcinoma 91(200, 201) squamous cell carcinoma in situ 54(123) superficial spreading melanoma 63(144) syphilis, secondary 73(163–4) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) 35(75–7), 36(80), 37(82) systemic sclerosis 34(73–4) T-cell lymphoma, cutaneous 65(147–8) thickened skin around neck, obese teenager with 42(93–4) throat, sore see sore throat thyroid dermatopathy 45(99–100) thyrotoxicosis, urticaria 9(19) tinea (ringworm; dermatophyte infection) 85–7(187–94), 99(221) body (tinea corporis) 86(190) foot (tinea pedis) 5(10) nails (tinea unguium) and palms 87(193–4) obscure (tinea incognito) 86 (189–91) scalp (tinea capitis) 85(187–8), 86(190) tongue enlargement/fatigue/back pain 98(217–18) toxic epidermal necrolysis 23(49–50) toxic erythema 19(41–2) transplantation bone marrow, stiffness of skin following 92(203–4) renal see renal transplant patients Trichophyton 5(10), 87(194) T rubrum 87(194) T tonsurans 85(188), 87(194) trigeminal nerve, herpes zoster 75(167–8) trunk maculopapular eruptions on face and, with flu-like symptoms 39(85–6) naevi, multiple atypical-looking 60(137–8) purple skin lesions of limbs and, asymptomatic 82 sclerotic white plaques 33(71–2) see also back; chest tuberous sclerosis complex 97(213–15) tumours (neoplasms) benign 58(131–2) vascular, pre-school child 52(117–19) malignant see malignant tumours 232 ulcer(s) foot diabetic patient 51(113–14) pressure ulcers 50(111–12) leg diabetic patient 44(97–8) painful, young patient 43(95–6) venous 8(16–18), 48(105–6) mouth, fragile skin/erosions/blisters following, sudden-onset 29(63–4) rodent see basal cell carcinoma ulcerated lesion, slowly-growing face 55(125–6) scalp 57(129–30) ultraviolet light exposure see sun and UV exposure uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase deficiency 17(38) urticaria 9(19–21) annular 99(221) urticaria pigmentosa 10(23–4) urticarial papules and plaques in pregnancy, pruritic 32(69–70) UV exposure see sun and UV exposure varicella zoster virus chickenpox 79(175–6) herpes zoster 75(167–8) varicose eczema 6(11–12) vascular lesion, pre-school child 52(117–19) vasculitis leucocytoclastic 26(55–6) urticarial 9(19) venous leg ulcers 8(16–18), 48(105–6) vesicular pruritus associated with malabsorption 30(65–6) vitiligo 40(87–8) von Recklinghausen’s disease (neurofibromatosis type 1) 41(89–91) warts, viral 77(171–2) Weber–Cockayne syndrome 96(211–2) weight loss, subacute pruritic erythematous eruption with 99(219–21) X-linked ichthyosis 95(209–10) xeroderma pigmentosum 94(208) zoster 75(167–8) .. .100 CASES in Dermatology This page intentionally left blank 100 CASES in Dermatology Rachael Morris-Jones PhD PCME FRCP Consultant... positive eczematous reactions at day of patch testing Day Detailed history: Questions focus on exposures at home and work Understand work environment Better or worse on holidays? List of all personal... or by any means with prior permission in writing of the publishers or in the case of reprographic production in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency In
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